Theophylact of Ohrid

Archbishop of Ochrid and Bulgaria

Preterist Commentaries By Historicist / Continuists

(On the Significance of A.D. 70)
“For, since the Lord had spoken much concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, His disciples wondered, that such numerous and beautiful buildings were to be destroyed; and this is the reason why they point out the beauty of the temple, and He answers not only that they were to be destroyed, but also that one stone should not be left upon another. (Mark 13:2, cited by 
Aquinas in Golden Chain, Mark 13)

(On Matthew 21:33-44)
“The kingdom, therefore, was taken from the Jews, that is, the privileges which constituted them the peculiar people of God—and given to them who believed. Those who fall upon the stone, and offend against Jesus Christ, shall be broken indeed at his second coming; yea, even ground to powder by him ; that is, shall be scattered abroad through the earth : such we now see to be the situation of the miserable Jews.” (Annot. in loc.)

(On Mark 13:6)
“But before answering their question, He strengthens their minds that they may not be deceived.  Wherefore there follows: “And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you?”  And this He says, because when the sufferings of the Jews began, some arose professing to be teachers.  Wherefore there follows: “For many shall come in My name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.”  (Mark 13:6Ibid.)

(On Mark 13:7-8)
“That is, the Romans against the Jews, which Josephus relates happened before the destruction of Jerusalem. For when the Jews refused to pay tribute, the Romans arose, in anger; but because at that time they were merciful, they took indeed their spoils, but did not destroy Jerusalem. What follows shews that God fought against the Jews, for it is said, “And there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines.” (Mark 13:7-8, Ibid.)

(On Mark 13:9)
“Fitly also did He premise a recital of those things which concerned the Apostles, that in their own tribulations they might find some consolation in the community of troubles and sufferings. (Mark 13:9, Ibid.)

(On Mark 13:14Matthew 24:15)
“Or He means by “the abomination of desolation” the entrance of enemies into the city by violence.” 

” And well does He say, “Who are in Judaea,” for the Apostles were no longer in Judaea, but before the battle had been driven from Jerusalem.” (Mark 13:14Ibid.)

(On Mark 13:17)
“But it seems to me, that in these words He foretells the eating of children, for when afflicted by famine and pestilence, they laid hands on their children.” (Mark 13:14, Ibid.)

(On Mark 13:20)
“That is, if the Roman war had not been soon finished, “no flesh should be saved;” that is, no Jew should have escaped; “but for the elect’s sake, whom He hath chosen,” that is, for the sake of the believing Jews, or who were hereafter to believe, “He hath shortened the days,” that is, the war was soon finished, for God foresaw that many Jews would believe after the destruction of the city; for which reason He would not suffer the whole race to be utterly destroyed.”  (Mark 13:20, Ibid.)

(On Luke 16:19-31)
“But this parable can also be explained in the way of allegory ; so that we may say, that by the rich man is signified the Jewish people ; for they were formerly rich, abounding in all divine knowledge, wisdom, and instruction, which are more excellent than gold and precious stones. And they were arrayed in purple and fine linen, as they possessed a kingdom and a priesthood, and were themselves a royal priesthood to God. The purple denoted their kingdom, and the fine linen, their priesthood ; for the Levites were clothed in sacerdotal vestments of fine linen, and they fed sumptuously, and lived splendidly, every day. Daily did they offer the morning and the evening sacrifice, which they also called the continual sacrifice. But Lazarus was the Gentile people, poor in divine grace and wisdom, and lying before the gates ; for it was not permitted to the Gentiles to enter the house itself, because they were considered a pollution. Thus, in the Acts of the Apostles, we read that it was alleged against Paul, that he had introduced Gentiles into the temple, and made that holy place common or unclean.

Moreover, those people were full of fetid sores of sin, on which the impudent dogs, or devils, fed, who delight themselves in our sores. The Gentiles likewise desired even the crumbs which fell from the tables of the rich; for they were wholly destitute of that bread which strengthens the heart of man, and wanted even the smallest morsel of food; so that the Canaanite woman, (Matt. xv. 27,) when she was a heathen, desired to be fed with the crumbs. In short, the Hebrew people were dead unto God, and their bones, which could not be moved to do good, were perished. Lazarus also (I mean the Gentile people) was dead in sin, and the envious Jews, who were dead in sins, did actually burn in a flame of jealousy, as saith the Apostle, on account of the Gentiles being received into the faith, and because that those who had before been a poor and despised Gentile race, were now in the bosom of Abraham, the father of nations, and justly, indeed, were they thus received. For it was while Abraham was yet a Gentile, that he believed God, and turned from the worship of idols to the knowledge of God. Therefore, it was proper that they who were partakers of his conversion and faith, should rest in his bosom, sharing the same final lot, the same habitation, and the same blessedness. And the Jewish people longed for one drop of the former legal sprinklings and purifications, to refresh their tongue, that they might confidently say to us, that the law was still efficacious and availing. But it was not; for the law was only until John. And the Psalmist says, sacrifice and oblations thou wouldst not. &c.” (Annot. in loc. )


William Hurte (1884)
“That John saw these visions in the reign of Nero, and that they were written by him during his banishment by that emperor, is confirmed by TheophylactAndreasArethas, and others.  We judge, therefore, that this book was written about A.D. 68, and this agrees with other facts of history.. There are also several statements in this book which can only be understood on the ground that the judgment upon Jerusalem was then future.” (Catechetical Commentary: Edinburgh, Scotland, 1884)

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