APPENDIX TO PART I.
NOTE A. Page 56.
On the Double-sense Theory of Interpretation.
THE following extracts, from theologians of different ages, countries, and churches, exhibit a powerful consensus of authorities in opposition to the loose and arbitrary method of interpretation adopted by many German and English commentators:
‘ Unam quandam ac certam et simplicem sententiam ubique quaerendam esse.’– Melanethon.
(‘One definite and simple meaning of [Scripture] is in every case to be sought.’)
‘Absit a nobis ut Deum faciamus o,.i,glwtton, aut multiplices sensus affingamus ipsius verbo, in quo potius tanquarn in speculo limpidissimo sui autoris simplicitatem contemplari debemus. (Ps. xii. 6; xix. B.) Unicus ergo sensus scripturae, nempe grammaticus, est admittendus, quibuscunque demum terminis, vel propriis vel tropicis et figuratis exprimatur.’ -Maresius.
(Far be it from us to make God speak with two tongues, or to attach a variety of senses to His Word, in which we ought rather to behold the simplicity of its divine author reflected as in a clear mirror (Ps. xii. 6 ; xix. 8.) Only one meaning of Scripture, therefore, is admissible: that is, the grammatical, in whatever terms, whether proper or tropical and figurative, it may be expressed.)
‘Dr. Owen’s remark is full of good sense-” If the Scripture has more than one meaning, it has no meaning at all: ” and it is just as applicable to the prophecies as to any other portion of Scripture.’– Dr. John Brown, Sufferings and Glories of the Messiah, p. 5, note.
The consequences of admitting such a principle should be well weighed.
What book on earth has a double sense, unless it is a book of designed enigmas ? And even this has but one real meaning. The heathen oracles indeed could say, “Aio te, Pyrrhe, Romanos vincere posse; ” but can such an equivoque be admissible into the oracles of the living God ? And if a literal sense, and an occult sense, can at one and the same time, and by the same words, be conveyed, who that is uninspired shall tell us what the occult sense is? By what laws of interpretation is it. to be judged ? By none that belong to human language; for other books than the Bible have not a double sense -attached to them.
‘For these and such-like reasons, the scheme of attaching a double sense to the Scriptures is inadmissible. It sets afloat all the fundamental principles of interpretation by which we arrive at established conviction and certainty and casts us on the boundless ocean of imagination and conjecture without rudder or compass.’- Stuart on the Hebrews, Excurs. xx.
‘First, it may be laid down that Scripture has one meaning, -the meaning which it had to the mind of the prophet or evangelist who first uttered or wrote to the hearers or readers who first received it.’
‘ Scripture, like other books, has one meaning, which is to be gathered from itself, without reference to the adaptations of fathers or divines, and without regard to a priori notions about its nature and origin.’
‘ The office of the interpreter is not to add another [interpretation], but to recover the original one : the meaning, that is, of the words as they struck on the ears or flashed before the eyes of those who first heard and read them.’ – Professor Jowett, Essay on the Interpretation of Scripture, § i. 3, 4.
‘I hold that the words of Scripture were intended to have one definite sense, and that our first object should be to discover that sense, and adhere rigidly to it. I believe that, as a general rule, the words of Scripture are intended to have, like all other language, one plain definite meaning, and that to say that words do mean a thing merely because they can be tortured into meaning it, is a most dishonourable and dangerous way of handling Scripture.’– -Canon Ryle, Expository Thoughts on St. Luke, vol. i. P. 383.
On the Prophetic Element in the Gospels.
Let us proceed to the predictions of the destruction of Jerusalem. These predictions, as is well known, in all the gospel narratives (which, by the way, are singularly consentaneous, implying that all the Evangelists drew from one consolidated tradition) are inextricably mixed up with prophecies of the second coming of Christ and the end of the world -a confusion which Mr. Hutton fully admits. The portion relating to the destruction of the city is singularly definite, and corresponds very closely with the actual event. The other portion, on the contrary, is vague and grandiloquent, and refers, chiefly to natural phenomena and catastrophes. From the precision of the one portion, most critics infer that the gospels were compiled after or during the siege and conquest of Jerusalem. From the confusion of the two portions Mr. Hutton draws the opposite inference — namely, that the prediction existed in the present recorded form before that event. It is in the greatest degree improbable, he argues, that if Jerusalem had fallen, and the other signs of Christ’s coming showed no indication of following, the writers should not have recognised and disentangled the confusion, and corrected their records to bring them into harmony with what it was then beginning to be seen might be the real meaning of Christ or the actual truth of history.
‘But the real perplexity lies here. The prediction, as we have it, makes Christ distinctly affirm that His second coming shall follow “immediately,” –“in those days,” after the destruction of Jerusalem, and that “this generation” (the generation he addressed) should not pass away till all “these things are fulfilled.” Mr. Hutton believes that these last words were intended by Christ to apply only to the destruction of the Holy City. He is entitled to his opinion; and in itself it is not an improbable solution. But it is, under the circumstances, a somewhat forced construction, For it must be remembered, first, that it is rendered necessary only by the assumption which Mr. Hutton is maintaining –namely, that the prophetic powers of Jesus could not be at fault; secondly, it assumes or implies that the gospel narratives of the utterances of Jesus are to be relied upon, even though in these especial predictions he admits them to be essentially confused and, thirdly (what at we think he ought not to have overlooked), the sentence he quotes is by no means the only one indicating that Jesus Himself held the conviction, which He undoubtedly communicated to His followers, that His Second coming to judge the world would take place at a very early date. Not only was it to take place “immediately” after the destruction of the city (Matt. xxiv. 29), but it would be witnessed by many of those who heard Him. And these predictions are in no way mixed up with those of the destruction of Jerusalem : ” There be some standing here that shall not taste of death till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom ” (Matt. xvi. 28); ” Verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel till the Son of man be come (Matt. x. 23) ; ” If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee 2 (John xxi. 23): and the corresponding passages in the other Synoptics.
‘If, therefore, Jesus did not say these things, the gospels must be strangely inaccurate. If He did, His prophetic faculty cannot have been what Mr. Hutton conceives it to have been. That His disciples all confidently entertained this erroneous expectation, and entertained it on the supposed authority of their Master, there can he no doubt whatever. (See 1 Cor. x. 11, xv. 51 ; Phil. iv. 5 ; I Thess. iv. 15 ; James v. 8 ; I Peter iv. 7; 1 John ii. 18 ; Rev. i. 13, xxii. 7, 10, 12.) Indeed, Mr. Hutton recognises this at least as frankly and fully as we have stated it.’- W. R. Greg, in Contemporary Review, Nov. 1876.
To those who maintain that our Lord predicted the end of the world before the passing away of that generation, the objections of the sceptic present a formidable difficulty –insurmountable, indeed, without resorting to forced and unnatural evasions, or admissions fatal to the authority and inspiration of the evangelical narratives. We, on the contrary, fully recognise the common-sense construction put by Mr. Greg upon the Language of Jesus, and the no less obvious acceptance of that meaning by the apostles. But we draw a conclusion directly contrary to that of the critic, and appeal to the prophecy on the Mount of Olives as a signal example and demonstration of our Lord’s supernatural foresight.
A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord’s Second Coming
THE LAST WORDS OF OLD TESTAMENT PROPHECY.
THE PAROUSIA IN THE GOSPELS.
The Teaching of our Lord Concerning the Parousia in the Synoptical Gospels:-
Prediction of Coming Wrath upon that Generation
Further allusions to the Coming Wrath
Impending fate of the Jewish nation (Parable of the Barren Fig-tree)
The End of the Age, or close of the Jewish dispensation (Parables of Tares and Drag-net)
The Coming of the Son of Man (the Parousia) in the Lifetime of the Apostles
The Parousia to take place within the Lifetime of some of the Disciples
The Coming of the Son of man certain and speedy (Parable of the Importunate Widow)
The Reward of the Disciples in the Coming AEon, i.e. at the Parousia
Prophetic Intimations of the approaching Consummation of the Kingdom of God:-
i. Parable of the Pounds
ii. Lamentation of Jesus over Jerusalem
iii. Parable of the Wicked Husbandman
iv. Parable of the Marriage of the King’s Son
v. Woes denounced on the Scribes and Pharisees
vi. Lamentation (second) of Jesus over Jerusalem
vii. The Prophecy on the Mount of Olives
The Prophecy on the Mount examined:-
(a) Events which more remotely were to precede the Consummation
(b) Further indications of the approaching doom of Jerusalem
(c) The Disciples warned against False Prophets
(d) Arrival of the ‘End,’ or the catastrophe of Jerusalem
(e) The Parousia to take place before the passing away of the Existing Generation
(f) Certainty of the Consummation, yet uncertainty of its precise date
(g) Suddenness of the Parousia, and calls to watchfulness
(h) The Disciples warned of the suddenness of the Parousia (Parable of the Master of the House)
(i) The Parousia a time of Judgment alike to the friends and the enemies of Christ (Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins)
(k) The Parousia a time of Judgment (Parable of the Talents)
(l) The Parousia a time of Judgment (Parable of the Sheep and Goats)
THE PAROUSIA IN THE GOSPEL OF ST. JOHN.
The Parousia and the Resurrection of the Dead
The Resurrection, the Judgment, and the Last Day
The Judgment of this World, and of the Prince of this World
Christ’s Return (the Parousia) speedy
St. John to live till the Parousia
Summary of the Teaching of the Gospels respecting the Parousia
THE PAROUSIA IN THE ACTS AND THE EPISTLES.
IN THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.
THE PAROUSIA IN THE APOSTOLIC EPISTLES.
IN THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS:-
Expectation of the Speedy Coming of Christ
The Wrath coming upon the Jewish people
Bearing of the parousia upon the disciples of Christ
Christ to come with all His holy ones
Events accompanying the Parousia
Exhortations to watchfulness in prospect of the Parousia
Prayer that the Thessalonians might survive until the coming of Christ
IN THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS:-
Attitude of the Christians of Corinth in relation to the Parousia
Judicial character of the ‘Day of the Lord’ (I Cor. iii. 13)
Judicial character of the ‘Day of the Lord’ (I Cor. iv. 5)
Nearness of the approaching Consummation
The End of the Ages already arrived
Events accompanying the Parousia
The Living (saints) changed at the Parousia
The Parousia and the ‘Last Trump’
The Apostolic Watchword, ‘Maran-atha’
IN THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS:-
IN THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS:-
IN THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS:-
IN THE EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS:-
Apostasy of the Last Days
Eschatological Table, or Conspectus of Passages relating to the Last Times
Equivalent Phrases referring to the Last Times
Table of Passages relating to the Apostasy of the Last Times
Conclusion- respecting the Apostasy
Timothy and the Parousia
The Apostasy already manifesting itself
The Last Days already come
The Aeons, Ages, or World-periods
The World to come, or the new order
The End, i.e., of the Age, or AEon
The Promise of the Rest of God
The End of the Ages
Expectation of the Parousia
The Parousia approaching
The Parousia imminent
The Parousia and the Old Testament saints
The great Consummation near
Nearness and finality of the Consummation
Expectation of the Parousia
Salvation ready to be revealed in the last time
The approaching Revelation of Jesus Christ
Relation of the Redemption of Christ to the Antediluvian World
Nearness of Judgment and of the End of all things
The good tidings announced to the Dead
The Fiery Trial and the coming Glory
The Time of Judgment arrived
The Glory about to be revealed
Scoffers in the ‘Last Days’
Eschatology of St. Peter
Certainty of the approaching Consummation
Suddenness of the Parousia
Attitude of the Primitive Christians in relation to the Parousia
The New Heavens and New Earth
Nearness of the Parousia a motive to diligence
Believers not to be discouraged on account of the seeming delay of the Parousia
Allusion of St. Peter to St. Paul’s teaching concerning the Parousia
Note A.-The Kingdom of Heaven, or of God
Note B.-On the ‘ Babylon’ of 1 Peter v. 13
Note C.-On the Symbolism of Prophecy, with special reference to the Predictions of the Parousia
Note D.-Dr. Owen on ‘the Heavens and the Earth’ (2 Pet. iii. 7)
Note E.-Rev. F. D. Maurice on ‘the Last Time’ (I John ii. 18)
THE PAROUSIA IN THE APOCALYPSE.
Interpretation of the Apocalypse
Limitation of Time in the Apocalypse
Date of the Apocalypse
True significance of the Apocalypse
Structure and plan of the Apocalypse
The number Seven in the Apocalypse
The Theme of the Apocalypse
THE FIRST VISION.
Opening of the First Seal
Opening of the Second Seal
Opening of the Third Seal
Opening of the Fourth Seal
Opening of the Fifth Seal
Opening of the Sixth Seal
Episode of the Sealing of the Servants of God
1. The Woman clothed with the Sun
2. The Great Red Dragon
3. The Man Child
4. The First Wild Beast
The Number of the Beast
5. The Second Wild Beast
6. The Lamb on Mount Sion
7. The Son of Man on the Cloud
Mystery of the Scarlet Beast
The Seven Kings
The Ten Horns of the Beast
(NOTE ON REVELATION XVII.)
The Fall of Babylon
Judgment of the Beast and his confederate Powers
Judgment of the Dragon
Reign of the Saints and Martyrs
Loosing of Satan after the Thousand Years
Catastrophe of the Sixth Vision
Note A.-Reuss on the Number of the Beast
Note B.-Dr. J. M. Macdonald’s ‘Life and Writings of St. John’
-Bishop Warburton on ‘our Lord’s Prophecy on the Mount of Olives,’ and on ‘the Kingdom of Heaven’