Home>The Late 1st Century Roman Monarchs

The Roman Caesars
& The Late 1st Century Roman Monarchs

Greco-Roman Authors | Lessons for America from the Roman Empire 

Peter Ustinov as “Nero” >

Emperors of the Roman Empire

    • Julius 49 – 44 BC
    • Mark Antony 44 – 27 BC
    • Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
    • Tiberius 14-37 AD
    • Caligula 37-41

Monarchs of the Roman Empire

  • Galba 68-69
  • Otho 69
  • Vitellius 69
  • Vespasian 69-79
  • Titus 79-81
  • Domitian 81-96
  • Nerva 96-98
  • Trajan 98-117
  • Hadrian 117-138

  • Bernard Henderson – The Life and Principate of Emperor Nero (1903 PDF) “That thereby the Jewish nation as a nation perished from the face of the earth; that the destruction of Jerusalem emancipated the Christian Church from the danger of Jewish restrictions, and from that very narrow spirit of Jewish exclusiveness which had itself in no small measure contributed to the overthrow of the city ; that a legacy of scorn and hate was left behind to every age and people; all such and other considerations belong rather to his province, who would narrate the events of the Principate of Vespasian, Nero’s general and conqueror of Judaea. We have transgressed across our proper boundaries, albeit of some necessity, and must return to trace, as our concluding task, the course of those events whereof the tidings, in the summer of A.D. 68, stayed Vespasian’s vengeance upon Jerusalem.” .. “The verses (of Revelation) 17. 10, can be differently explained. Almost certainly Caesar is not the first, but Augustus, so we have “five fallen,” “one is,” “one is not yet come and is to continue a short space,” and ” the beast that was and is not, even he is the eighth and is of the seven ” (certainly = Nero, cf. 13. 3 ; 17. 8). The list then is, on the two rival theories, (a) Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero = the five. Galba = he who is; Galba’s successor (naturally unknown ex hyp.) = the one to come, but he can only last a short time because the end is fast approaching, and besides the pseudo-Nero is already active. Nero again = the eighth. (b) Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero = the five. Vespasian = he who is. His successor is undefined because ” the writer did not like to say the reigning Emperor would be overthrown.” Nero again = the eighth. For the Domitian theory I fail to see any possibility of a satisfactory list at all.”

Tiberius 14-37 AD

The Statelie Tragedy of Claudius Tiberius, Rome’s Greatest Tyrant (1607 PDF) Published some two years after Ben Jonson’s famous Roman play Seianus His Fall, the anonymous Claudius Tiberius Nero (1607) covers the whole period of the notorious Tiberius’ reign (14 – 37 A.D.). The anonymous dramatist, who is well seene in Antiquities, but most especially inward with Cornelius Tacitus, presents a chronicle play revelling in malicious designs, sombre plans and bloody outrages.  The play was licensed at Stationers’ Hall on April 10th 1607.  No satisfactory attribution of authorship is forthcoming.  The reproduction from the original is pronounced to be “first rate, virtually faultless.”  John S. Farmer, Editor.

Domitian 81-96

Vilified Solely to Support Late Date?

Ever since the groundbreaking work of L. L. Thompson on the The Book of Revelation (1990) no one can simply assert that Domitian instigated a widespread persecution against Christians. He offers one of the most profound new perspectives on Domitian from the primary sources (pp. 95-115). His work has received a vast amount of acceptance from subsequent Revelation scholars. However, Thompson may have exaggerated his positive portrayal of Domitian. The best refutation of the extremities of Thompson’s work, that I have come across, comes from G. K. Beale’s magisterial commentary on Revelation. Beale offers very solid and well documented examples demonstrating that the traditional view of Domitian as a tyrannical despot who increasingly desired divine recognition deserves merit evidenced in the writings of both detractors and supporters of Domitian (pp. 6-12).  Hopefully we may arrive at a more balanced and accurate conception of Domitian and his reign.  Posted by Alan S. Bandy


G. N. M. Collins
“It is significant that the decline of the Roman Empire dates from  the fall of Jerusalem.” (“Zechariah,” The New Bible Commentary, F. Davidson, ed., 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1954), 761.)

Thomas Scott
“It is also observable, that the Romans after having been thus made the executioners of divine vengeance on the Jewish nation, never prospered as they had done before; but the Lord evidently fought against them, and all the nations which composed their overgrown empire; till at last it was subverted, and their fairest cities and provinces were ravaged by barbarous invaders.” [Thomas Scott, The Holy Bible, etc., 956.]

Later Monarchs of the Roman Empire

  • Galba 68-69
  • Otho 69
  • Vitellius 69
  • Vespasian 69-79
  • Titus 79-81
  • Domitian 81-96
  • Nerva 96-98
  • Trajan 98-117
  • Hadrian 117-138
  • Antoninus Pius 138-161
  • Marcus Aurelius 161-180
  • Commodus 180-192
  • Pertinax 193
  • Didius Julianus 193
  • Septimius Severus 193-211
  • Caracalla 211-217
  • Macrinus 217
  • Heliogabalus 218-222
  • Alexander Severus 222-235
  • Maximinus 235-238
  • Gordian I and 238
  • Gordian II (jointly)
  • Pupienus and 238
  • Balbinus (jointly)
  • Gordian III 238-244
  • Philip the Arabian 244-249
  • Decius 249-251
  • Gallus 251-253
  • Aemilian 253
  • Valerian and Gallienus 253-260
  • Gallienus 260-268
  • Claudius II 268-270
  • Aurelian 270-275
  • Tacitus 275
  • Probus 276-282
  • Carus 282-283
  • Carinus and Numerianus 284
  • Diocletian 284-305
  • Diocletian and 286-305 Maximianus (jointly)
  • Constantius Chlorus 305-306 (West) jointly with Galerius (East)
  • Galerius (East) 305-311
  • Maxentius (West) 306-312
  • Constantine the Great 306-337 (West, later all) jointly with Licinius (East)
  • Licinius (East) 307-323
  • Constantius (East, 337-361later all) jointly with Constantine II (West) 337-340 and Constans (Africa) 337-350
  • Julian 361-363
  • Jovianus 363-364
  • Valentinian I (West) 364-375
  • Valens (East) 364-378
  • Gratian (West) jointly 375-383 with Valentinian II
  • Valentinian II 375-392
  • Theodosius I (East, 379-395 later all)

Western Empire

  • Honorius 395-423
  • John 424
  • Valentinian III 425-455
  • Maximus 455
  • Avitus 455-456
  • Majorian 457-461
  • Libius Severus 461-465
  • Recimir 465-467
  • Anthemius 467-472
  • Olybrius 472
  • Glycerius 473
  • Julius Nepos 473-475
  • Romulus Augustulus 475-476

Timeline of the Julio – Claudian Emperors


  • 31 Octavian and Marcus Agrippa defeat forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.
  • 30 Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. Octavian controls Egypt.
  • 27 Octavian proclaimed Augustus by the Roman Senate.
  • 27 BC to 68 AD Julio – Claudian Emperors of Rome.
  • 27 BC to 14 AD Augustus is Emperor.
  • 25 Marcus Agrippa builds the Pantheon.
  • 23 Tiberius marries Julia.
  • 6 Tiberius in Rhodes.


  • 4 Gaius dies in Armenia. Augustus adopts Tiberius.
  • 8 Julia (the Younger) banished. Ovid banished.
  • 9 Massacre of the three legions under Varus in the Teutoburg Forest. Tiberius defends the Rhine.
  • 23 Sejanus principal assistant and Commander of the Praetorian Guard.
  • 27 Tiberius moves to Capri.
  • 33 Drusus starved.
  • 37 Tiberius smothered.
  • 37 to 41 Caligula is Emperor.
  • 41 to 54 . Claudius (57) marries Agrippina (the Younger) (32).
  • 53 Nero marries Octavia.
  • 54 Claudius poisoned.
  • 54 to 68 Nero is Emperor.
  • 55 Nero poisons Britannicus.
  • 59 Nero has Agrippina (the Younger) (his mother) executed.
  • 62 Nero has Octavia executed.
  • 64 Great Fire in Rome.
  • 68 Nero commits suicide.

What do YOU think ?

17 Sep 2003


Bad count. The Roman emperors involved in Bible prophecy were only the 11 who reigned during the true first century, namely, Augustus through Domitian – the 11 horns of Dan. 7. The Rev. 17 count reduces that number from 11 to 8 because it excludes, for a very significant reason, the brief reigns of Galba, Otho and Vitellius during “the year of four emperors.” In Rev. 17:10,11 the five who were fallen were Augustus through Nero, the “one is” was Vespasian, and the seventh who had not yet come and who would only “continue a short space” was Vespasian’s son Titus, who died (probably with the help of his younger brother Domitian) after reigning only two years, and the eighth was Domitian. A correct understanding of Rev. 17:3 (“the wilderness” is the key) is necessary in order to understand that the fact that Vespasian was the “one who is” does NOT mean that the book of Revelation was written before AD 70.

23 Nov 2003


It is written “There are SEVEN kings not “eleven” as you seek to show. The “SEVEN” were clearly the following: 1. Julius Caesar (49-44 BC.) 2. Augustus (31 BC.- AD. 14) 3. Tiberius (AD. 14-37) 4. Gaius, also known as Caligula (AD. 37-41) 5. Claudius (A.D. 41-54) 6. Nero (A.D. 54-68) 7. Galba (A.D. 68-69) The apostle John wrote his Revelation during the persecution of NERO; he is the “one (who) is” and Galba is “the one who is to come…for “a short time” (A.D.68-69)”. The Papacy (the SECOND BEAST of Revelation) was set up by the so called “bishop” of Rome who succeeded the false apostle Paul. Paul was the “FIRST BEAST…who was and is not…and is of the SEVEN (a Roman)and is himself the eight” (Revelation 13. 17). Hope this helps. Patrick Geaney http://www.quicksitemaker.com/members/disciples/custom.html

19 Jan 2004


Whatever the case, it cetainly is of utmost importance that we are able to determine exactly which of the Roman emperors were the ones referred to by the angel in Rev. 17. Because the important point is that one of them is the Beast of the end time (Rev.17:11;11:7). Yes that means that he has been stored away in the bottomless pit until the time that he is to be used again, to bring the greatest persecution against the elect of God, in the history of the world; and also to fulfil all things that are written concerning the end of the age, and the second coming of Jesus (Rev. 13:7;Dan.7:258:24;12:7;Rev.16:13-16;Rev.19:19-21;II Thess.2:8-12). Also, I suggest that earnest prayer be made by all who read the comments on this site, for the individual who is under the delusion that the Apostle Paul was a false Apostle. Hopefully Patrick will experience something similar to what Saul of Tarsus experienced, which led to him becoming the greatest of all the Apostles. Regards to All, Lary