Dead Sea Scrolls Study Archive

Habakkuk 1:6 “For, behold, I raise up the Kasdim, that bitter and hasty nation, that march through the breadth of the eretz, to possess dwelling places that are not theirs.” Comment: “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim”


Dead Sea Scrolls
Pre-AD70 Jewish Writings Reflecting Preterist Eschatology



‘Kittim’ as ‘the Romans’ interpretation early example of precise preterist interpretations.  The coming destruction at the hands of a ‘heathen power’ was an ancient message, dating before Moses’ declarations in Deuteronomy 28.  However, the identification of this ‘heathen power’ as Rome (Kittim) is found in Septuagint Daniel and the Habakkuk Commentary found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.  The Syriac Commentary on the Septuagint’s Daniel dates between 3rd century B.C. – 1st century B.C.; The “Habakkuk Scroll” dates “prior to 63 B.C.“




The Olivet Discourse of Jesus and various writings among the Dead Sea Scrolls testify to the extremely old age of preterist theology.

Christianity has long held that numerous prophecies were fulfilled at the arrival of John the Baptist and the birth of Jesus Christ (as well as in the later ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus).  This biblical view is called Historical Preterism, and is a general Christian view dating back to the time when the first witnesses began to spread the good news of the promised redemption in the birth of a child.

The more specific eschatology of historical Christian preterism was first popularized a while later in the ministry of Jesus, Who outlined numerous prophecies to be imminently fulfilled in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem.

As old as these forms of preterism are, however, there are much earlier forms of this end times scenario to be found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.   These are, for the most part, Jewish counterparts to Christian eschatology, all of which share the view of prophetic fulfillment in a war between the Jewish State and Rome   (the “Romano-Judean Eschaton”).  In general, this form of literature is called Apocalyptic.

Investigation into the eschatology of the Dead Sea Scrolls has revealed a number of documents which shiver with apocalyptic expectation.   Jewish writers presented theological systems outlining the horrific events which became reality in AD70.   As the threat of Roman domination grew in the first century B.C., seers began to present an eschatology which portrayed Rome as the destroyer of Jerusalem.   Intense religious zeal poured out in a number of apocalyptic texts outlining the arrival of the end times:

4Q397 – 399: “And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days”

Through language which is evocative of specific Old Testament verses, the Roman Empire is identified as the great apocalyptic beast using designations such as Kittim to represent the Roman Empire.  The Romans are, at times, explicitly mentioned:

1QpHab 9:4-7: “Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem.  The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples and for the “Last Days” they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of The Roman army. ”

Historical Witness to First Century Jewish and Christian Views

These writings are of utmost significance for first century studies in fulfilled eschatology because:

1) They show a highly developed Preterist view: Daniel and the Habakkuk Commentary specifically identify the Romans (the ‘Kittim’) as the primary apocalyptic enemy, making them the earliest known “Preterist Commentaries” (This view was in currency prior to the capture of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 B.C.)

“The new leather fragment now provided a first-century B.C.-A.D. testimony to the accuracy of the text as it has been preserved – Kasidim was clearly in the text used by the copyist.  The next line, however, begins, “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim….” The modern theory had already been propounded by interpretation by the ancient community two thousand years earlier!” – John C. Trever, The Untold Story of Qumran

2) The “Pella Flight Tradition,” which explains the deposit of many scrolls, substantiates that the Preterist view was the early Christian interpretation of Christ’s Olivet Discourse (Such as found in Matthew 24:16).

Christian and Jewish refugees from Jerusalem’s impending besiegement stored numerous documents east of the city near Qumran.  Key writings discovered immediately upon the formation of the Jewish State reflect the Palestinian Christianity of James the Just. See Visual Timeline of the War: Military

3) The eschatology of the DSS reflects the “final generation” view that their period was the “End of Days” for Israel:

“And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days” (4Q397 – 399)

“..from the day of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the destruction of all the men of war who turned back with the man of lies, there shall be about forty years.” (Damascus Document, xx, 14-15) – “I will stare at his place and he will no longer be there. Its interpretation concerns all the evil at the end of the forty years, for they shall be devoured..” (Commentary on Ps 37:104QPsalms Pesher [4Q17, ii, 6-8]).

Considering that the New Testament writers taught that “the end of all things (was) at hand,” as did the writers of DSS, as do Preterist Christians today — it seems that Futurist Christians stand alone in teaching that ours are the last days!

“The association between Qumran, the caves and the scrolls is, thus, a hypothesis lacking any factual archaeological basis”

Roman-Judean End Time in Dead Sea Scrolls (First Century BC/AD)

3“For you have plundered many nations,
and you shall be plundered by all
4the remnant of the peoples” (Hab 2:8).
Unraveled, this is about the last priests of Jerusalem5who shall get wealth and booty from plundering the peoples.6But in the last days, their wealth and their plunder their wealth and their plunder shall be given into the hand(s)7of the army of the Kittim.* For they shall be “the remnant of the peoples.” — Dead Sea Scrolls, Habakkuk Midrash (1QpHab9.3-7

*Kittim: In this and other writings of the Roman period, like the War Scroll, it is a code name for the Romans.

MMT Writers Believed End Was At Hand

Showing that the expectation of the end, as presented by the DSS writers, was only mistaken as to nature — not timing.  The end did, indeed, come as predicted by the Jewish Prophets and the DSS writers.  It was associated with the fall of the temple and Jerusalem during the Roman-Jewish War

“This was to take place at the end time, when Sons of Light, the members of the group, were to clash with the Sons of Darkness, the Romans, code-named the Kittim.  A battle against Rome did take place eventually, when the Roman general and soon-to-be emperor Vespasian marched through the area on his way to Jerusalem in the early summer of 68 C.E.  But..

the Qumran Essenes’ final battle did not end as the War Scroll imagined. ” John Dominic Crosson


‘Kittim’ as ‘the Romans’ interpretation early example of precise preterist interpretations.  The coming destruction at the hands of a ‘heathen power’ was an ancient message, dating before Moses’ declarations in Deuteronomy 28.  However, the identification of this ‘heathen power’ as Rome (Kittim) is found in Septuagint Daniel and the Habakkuk Commentary found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.  The Syriac Commentary on the Septuagint’s Daniel dates between 3rd century B.C. – 1st century B.C.; The “Habakkuk Scroll” dates “prior to 63 B.C.”

Habakkuk 1:6 “For, behold, I raise up the Kasdim, that bitter and hasty nation, that march through the breadth of the eretz, to possess dwelling places that are not theirs.”

“Its interpretation concerns the Kittim”“KITTIM” IN SEPTUAGINT
in Daniel 11:30

“For the Romans shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and shall return, and have indignation against the holy covenant, and shall do [his pleasure]: he shall even return, and have regard to those who forsake the holy covenant.”

 Daniel 11:30 (h) That is, the Romaine power shal come Geneva Bible Notes

Habakkuk 1:11 “Then he sweeps by like the wind, and goes on.  He is indeed guilty, whose strength is his god.”

“Interpreted, [this concerns] the commanders of the Kittim who, on the counsel of [the] House of Guilt, pass one in front of the other; one after another [their] commanders come to lay waste the earth.”

War Scroll
“And the dominion of the Kittim shall come to an end, so that wickedness shall be laid low without any remnant; and there shall be no survivor of the sons of darkness.”

: “And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days”

4QpHab – Pesher Habakkuk
1QpHab 9:4-7: “Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem.  The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples and for the “Last Days” they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of The Roman army. ” (Moellerhaus Translation)

4Q171 Pesher Psalms
4Q171 2:5-9Yet a little while (Heb: me’at, mem-ayin-tetand the wicked one will be no more. I will discern his place but he will not be there (Psalm 37:10). “Its pesher refers to all wickedness at the end of 40 years (Heb:Mem = 40). They will be finished and no wicked man will be found on the earth.” (See: 40 Years of Messiah)

Damascus Document
xx, 14-15: “..from the day of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the destruction of all the men of war who turned back with the man of lies, there shall be about forty years.” (See: 40 Years of Messiah)

Ida Froehlich (1999)
“The rule for the use of the typological name Kittim –and most probably for other terms as well– is that the name has a collective, general meaning (in the case of the Kittim: “strangers arriving from the sea, from the direction of Cyprus”). The actual meaning of the name in a given instance is always determined by the characteristics of the term, that is, those events which the text mentions as a reference in connection with the name (sometimes, as in the case of Acco in the aforementioned text, one key word is the determining factor).

Rivka Nir (2003)
“One may also include within this group (pseudepigraphic-apocalyptic literature) the literature of the Qumran sect, which expresses conceptual and linguistic relations and ideological and theological characteristics similar to those of the pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature.  Like the apocalyptic literature, the Qumran sect’s theological focus was on the eschatological anticipation of the approaching end of days, on the war between the forces of light and the forces of darkness, and on the appearance of the expected messianic age.  Similar to the apocalyptic literature, the Qumran scrolls expressed absolute negation of the historical Jerusalem and temple.  The sect anticipates a new Jerusalem and a new temple in which atonement will be achieved, not by means of the flesh of burnt-offerings and the fat of the sacrifices, but by  a spiritual sacrifice “of lips of justice like a righteous fragrance” (1QS ix 4-5).  The scrolls of this mysterious sect also include chapters and fragments of works from the apocalyptic literature (such as the Book of Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Book of Jubilees, etc.), which likewise betray an ideological proximity to the world of Christianity.” (The Destruction of Jerusalem and the idea of Redemption, p. 13)

Peter Schafer (2003)
“One thing both movements (Qumran and Bar Kochba) would have had in common was the fight against Rome, for it is almost certain that the term “Kittim” in the Qumran texts stemming from the final phase of the Qumran community is a reference to the Romans.” (The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World, p. 152)

Lawrence Schiffman (2001)
“For many years, the Dead Sea sect had expected the Roman conquest of Palestine.  The Dead Sea sectarians felt confident that the coming of the Kittim – as they called the Romans – would trigger the great eschatological battle.  But this final, expected war failed to materialize after the Romans easily defeated the divided Hasmonaean state in 63 B.C.E.  By the time Jewish resistance developed into the full-scale revolt of 66-73 C.E., the Dead Sea sect had stabilized and had completed the gathering – with some possible exception – of its manuscript collection at Qumran.”  (Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scroll, p. 395)

Kittim – A place-name in the Aegean Islands, perhaps Kition in Cyprus, that in Dead Sea Scrolls texts serves as a code word for “Romans” (Glossary)

Neil Silberman (1993)
“All these manuscripts, taken together, might be read as the recorded faith of a community of alienated, dispossessed Jewish priests and their followers who remained true to the strictest possible interpretation of the biblical laws.  They also remained true to the hope for national redemption from the yoke of the people they called the Kittim — and we call the Romans — idolatrous invaders from across the sea “who trample the earth with their horses and beasts.” (The Hidden Scrolls, p. 3)

John Dominic Crosson
“The Romans were not singled out as much in their secterian documents, although against them, in their so-called War Scroll, they were preparing to fight the ultimate apocalyptic battle.  This was to take place at the end time, when Sons of Light, the members of the group, were to clash with the Sons of Darkness, the Romans, code-named the Kittim.  A battle against Rome did take place eventually, when the Roman general and soon-to-be emperor Vespasian marched through the area on his way to Jerusalem in the early summer of 68 C.E.  But the Qumran Essenes’ final battle did not end as the War Scroll imagined.  What de Vaux labeled and archeologists still call Phase II of the site ended in fiery destruction, with Roman arrowheads scattered around the site.  In their final desperate act, the members took and hid their sacred scrolls in nearby caves, rolled up in storage jars with bowls and lids, and they were not discovered again until a Bedouin shepherd stumbled upon them in 1947.” (Excavating Jesus, p. 158)

Michael Baigent (1991)
“The ‘War Scroll’ imparts a metaphysical and theological dimension to the struggle against the ‘Kittim’ by depicting it as a clash between the ‘Sons of Light’ and the ‘Sons of Darkness’.  More importantly still, however, the scroll contains a vital clue to its own dating and chronology.  When speaking of the ‘Kittim’, the text refers quite explicitly to their ‘king’.  The ‘Kittim’ concerned cannot, therefore, be the soldiers of republican Rome, who invaded Palestine in 63 B.C. and who had no monarch.  On the contrary, they would have to be the soldiers of imperial Rome, who invaded in the wake of the revolt of AD66.. It is thus clear that the ‘War Scroll’ must be seen in the context not of pre-Christian times, but of the 1st century. (Dead Sea Scrolls Deception, p. 142)

“The `Habakkuk Commentary’, for example, alludes to a specific practice – victorious Roman troops making sacrificial offerings to their standards.  Josephus provides written evidence for this practice at the time of the fall of the Temple in AD70.  And it is, in fact, a practice that would make no sense under the republic, when victorious troops would have offered sacrifices to their gods.  Only with the creation of the empire, when the emperor himself was accorded the status of divinity, becoming the supreme god for his subjects, would his image, or token, or monogram, be emblazoned on the standards of his soldiers.  The ‘Habakkuk Commentary’, therefore, like the ‘War Scroll’, the ‘Temple Scroll’ and the Damascus Document’, points specifically to the Herodian epoch.” (p. 150)

F.F. Bruce (1959)
“They believed that the iniquities of the Wicked Priest and his associates would bring the judgement of God upon them.  As time went on, they came to see clearly who would be the instruments of God’s judgement.  God was raising up the ‘Kittim’ for this purpose, and by the ‘Kittim’, as has been said above, they probably meant the Romans.  It was indeed the Romans who, by their occupation of Judaea in 63 B.C., put an end to Hasmonaean domination; but the Qumran community could see the shape of things to come before that date.  They also saw that the Romans would exceed the terms of their commission and incur the divine judgement themselves because of their impiety and rapacity.” (New Testament History – Kittim is Rome)

John C. Trever (1965)
“The new leather fragment now provided a first-century B.C.-A.D. testimony to the accuracy of the text as it has been preserved – Kasidim was clearly in the text used by the copyist.  The next line, however, begins, “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim….” The modern theory had already been propounded by interpretation by the ancient community two thousand years earlier!” (The Untold Story of Qumran, p. 97)

Marcus Wood (2000)
Nevertheless, my main point of concern would relate to your suggestion that in 1QpHab the Kittim are clearly the Romans. This is the very point I am attempting to cast some doubt upon. On studying the Habakkuk pesher I am still in some doubt as to what the ‘telling’ points of this identification are. My research into the standards debate as a whole suggests that the pesherist’s argument is contrived from the biblical prophecy itself, combined with a more general reverent attitude to worship of standards that might be applied to any number of ancient groups. In other words it is not entirely necessary to apply this to any specific historical event. Another aspect of the argument often cited concerns the reference to the ‘eagle’. Obviously the eagle is well associated with Rome, but again this aspect is drawn directly from the prophecy itself. Instead I come to the uneasy conclusion that the general feeling portrayed in the pesher better fits the Roman advances during the broad historical period than any other nation, though precise identifications are difficult to tie down. That said, however, I agree that the reference to the Kittim in pNah clearly represents the Romans.”


Abbreviations, Symbols and Ciphers

  • 4Q – Qumran Cave Four.  Texts are then numbered, e.g.,  4Q390 = manuscript number 390 found in Cave Four
  • [  ]Missing letters or words vacat uninscribed leather
  • {  }Ancient scribal erasure or modern editor’s deletion
  • <  >Supralinear text or modern editor’s addition
  • . . .Traces of ink visible, but letters cannot be read



Index to Manuscript Images from the Judean Desert on
The Dead Sea Scrolls Revealed CD-ROM
published by Pixel Multimedia and Aaron Witkin Associates (1994)
and distributed by Logos Systems

“SECTARIAN” WRITINGS1.1 “Sectarian” 1QS [Community Rule, Manual of Discipline]0040.txt 1QS “Community Rule, Serekh Hay-Yahad”
0044.txt 1QS “Covenant with God”
0046.txt 1QS “Daily Life”
0053.txt 1QS “Details of Worldview”
0092.txt 1QS “General Assembly”
0160.txt 1QS “New Members”
0257.txt 1QS “The Council and Seniors”
0284.txt 1QS “Transgressing Members”
3002=4002 1QS cols 1-3 (Vermes)
3115=4115 1QS col 1.1-13 (Vermes)
3128=4128 1QS col 1.14-26 (Vermes)
3137=4137 1QS col 2.1-12 (Vermes)
3142=4142 1QS col 2.13-26 (Vermes)
3145=4145 1QS col 3.1-12 (Vermes)
3147=4147 1QS col 3.13-26 (Vermes)
1008      1QS closeup, lower part of col 3
3152=4152 1QS cols 4-5 (Vermes)
3180=4180 1QS col 4.1-14 (Vermes)
3189=4189 1QS col 4.15-26 (Vermes)
3196=4196 1QS col 5.1-13 (Vermes)
3201=4201 1QS col 5.14-26 (Vermes)
3211=4211 1QS cols 5-6 (Vermes)
3219=4219 1QS col 6.1-13 (Vermes)
3225=4225 1QS col 6.14-27 (Vermes)
3233=4233 1QS cols 7-8 (Vermes)
1024      1QS closeup, sewing join between cols 7-8 (middle)
1026      1QS closeup, interlinear writing, tetragr., col 8 (mid)
3251=4251 1QS col 7.1-12 (Vermes)
3253=4253 1QS col 7.13-24 (Vermes)
3240=4240 1QS col 8.1-14 (Vermes)
3246=4246 1QS col 8.15-26 (Vermes)
3256=4256 1QS cols 8-9 (Vermes)
1025      1QS closeup, “Chinese” sign between cols 8-9 (top)
3262=4262 1QS col 9.1-11 (Vermes)
3268=4268 1QS col 9.12-26 (Vermes)
3284=4284 1QS cols 10-11 (Vermes)
3290=4290 1QS col 10.1-12 (Vermes)
3294=4294 1QS col 10.13-26 (Vermes)
3298=4298 1QS col 11.1-22 (Vermes)
1087      4QS\d = 4Q258 cols 7-8 (PAM 42.376)
1086      4QS\d = 4Q258 col 7 top closeup (PAM 42.376)1.2 “Sectarian” Damascus CDC / 4QD (4Q268, etc.)
[NOTE: this is poorly represented on the CD-ROM]

[movie clip] Sectarian Scrolls: Damascus Document — shows other
fragments not 4Q268, general and closeup
0048.txt CDC Damascus Document: Brit Damsek (general)
0155.txt CDC “Most Important Discovery”
0104.txt CDC “History of the Sect” (= part 1)
0203.txt CDC “Regulations and Laws” (= part 2)
1097 sepia, page of CDC with (Schechter’s ?) handwriting below
3004=4004 4Q268 (=4QD\c) six clusters of frgs (no text)
1098      4Q268 (=4QD\c) frgs in 6 clusters [same as 3004]
3117=4117 4Q268 (=4QD\c) largest cluster (Baumgarten)
1096      4Q268 (=4QD\c) closeup, near top, 4-5 lines
1095      4Q268 (=4QD\c) closeup, stitching holes on left, 5-6 lines

1.3 “Sectarian” 4QMMT [Some Precepts of the Torah]

0075.txt “Migzat Ma’asei ha-Torah”
0153.txt “MIGZAT MA’ASEI HA-TORAH (Some of the Precepts of the Torah)”
0159.txt “Migzat Ma’asei ha-Torah New Insights”
3008=4008 4QMMT (no text provided) the fragments (=1255)
1255      4QMMT the fragments (=3008)
1254      4QMMT one section of fragmented manuscript
3120=4120 4QMMT (Strugnell-Qimron) part of 1254 section
1252      4QMMT fragmented part of manuscript, 4 lines
1253      4QMMT fragmented part of manuscript, 4 lines

1.4 “Sectarian” 11QTemple Scroll (mostly 11Q19 = MS a)

0166.txt “Modern Analysis: …Opening Temple Scroll”
0244.txt “Modern Analysis: Opening and Preservation, Temple Scroll”
0156.txt “The Discovery: Yadin and the Temple Scroll, ‘Mr.Z’”
0113.txt “The Discovery: Yadin and the Temple Scroll, In a Shoe Box”
0295.txt “Temple Scroll: Utopian Temple Plans”
0259.txt “Temple Scroll: The Holidays”
0198.txt “Temple Scroll: Purity of Jerusalem”
0139.txt “Temple Scroll: Laws of the King”
0110.txt “Temple Scroll: Imaginary Temple”
3011=4011 11QTemple col 15.13-18 (Yadin)
1422      11QTemple reverse of 3011, with “mirror writing”
1426      11QTemple cols 41-43 (=3158)
3158=4158 11QTemple cols 41-43 (Yadin) (=1426)
3185=4185 11QTemple col 41.8-17 (Yadin)
1425      11QTemple cols 42-44 (=3217)
3217=4217 11QTemple cols 42-44 (Yadin) (=1425)
3193=4193 11QTemple col 42.7-17 (Yadin)
3199=4199 11QTemple col 43.4-12 (Yadin)
3204=4204 11QTemple col 43.12-17 (Yadin)
3223=4223 11QTemple col 44.7-13 (Yadin)
3238=4238 11QTemple col 57 (Yadin)
3243=4243 11QTemple col 57.1-11 (Yadin)
3249=4249 11QTemple col 57.15-21 (Yadin)

1.5 “Sectarian” 1QM [War Scroll]

0300.txt “History, Beliefs, Eschatology: War Scroll”
0049.txt “The War Scroll: Dating the Scroll”
0051.txt “The War Scroll: Describes Wars”
0229.txt “The War Scroll: Seven-Stage War”
0234.txt “The War Scroll: Special Descriptions”
1448      1QM War Scroll before it was opened
1447      1QM Fragments of the War Scroll
1446      1QM (verso) Fragments of the War Scroll
1260      1QM? possibly more fragments
1369      1QM cols 5-10 mounted for display (b/w)
3013=4013 1QM cols 5-6 (Yadin)
3123=4123 1QM col 5.3-14 (Yadin)
3133=4133 1QM col 6.1-15 (Yadin)
3159=4159 1QM cols 7-8 (Yadin)
3186=4186 1QM col 7.1-13 (Yadin)
3194=4194 1QM col 8 (Yadin)
3218=4218 1QM cols 9-10 (Yadin)
3224=4224 1QM col 9.3-16 (Yadin)
3228=4228 1QM col 10.1-13 (Yadin)
3239=4239 1QM cols 11-12 (Yadin)
3244=4244 1QM col 11.1-12 (Yadin)
1444      1QM cols 11-13 (=3239 plus)
1445      1QM cols 12-14 (=3239, 1444, 1443)
1443      1QM cols 14-15 (=3261)
3261=4261 1QM cols 14-15 (Yadin)
3266=4266 1QM col 14.2-7 (Yadin)
3272=4272 1QM col 14.8-14 (Yadin)
3276=4276 1QM col 15.1-6 (Yadin)
3279=4279 1QM col 15.4-14 (Yadin)
3281=4281 1QM col 15.7-14 (Yadin)
1442      4Q285 fragments including “Pierced Messiah” text
3289=4289 4Q285(5) “Pierced Messiah” fragment (Vermes)
0298.txt  4Q285 WAR RULE: “Pierced Messiah Fragment”
0299.txt  4Q285 WAR RULE: Vermes’ translation of 298

1.6 “Sectarian” 1QH [Hodayot, Thanksgiving Hymns]

0109.txt Thanksgiving Scroll (1QH)
1434      1QH as found (b/w)
1433      1QH beginning to be opened (b/w)
1020      1QH b/w crumpled, part open
1417      1QH Sukenik looking at “2nd & 3rd sheets”
1455      1QH(?) Yadin working on a manuscript (b/w)
1306      1QH 5 lines, color, waxy, closeup
1432      1QH b/w infra red photo
1274      1QH Prof. Bieberkraut at work with fragments (b/w)
3012=4012 1QH cols 1-4 (Vermes)
3122=4122 1QH col 2.7-21 (Vermes)
1109      1QH col 2 closeup, 6 lines, orange color
1110      1QH col 2 closeup, 7 lines
1431      1QH col 2 closeup, 7 lines (color)
3132=4132 1QH col 2.22-36 (Vermes)
3139=4139 1QH col 3.6-21 (Vermes)
1430      1QH col 3 closeup (hole in middle, 8 lines)
3144=4144 1QH col 3.22-36 (Vermes)

1.7 “Sectarian” Pesharim

0235.txt “Pesharim: Special Literary Form”

1.7.1 Pesher Hosea

3326=4326 4QpHosea cols 1-2 (Horgan)
3333=4333 4QpHosea col 2.1-9 (Horgan)
1193      4QpHosea col 2.3-6 closeup
3329=4329 4QpHosea col 2.11-19 (Horgan)
1192      4QpHosea col 2 closeup (lower section)

1.7.2 Pesher Nahum

0037.txt “Pesher Nahum: Clear Historical Data”
1032 4QpNah Allegro at table with 4-5 cols displayed b/w
1283 4QpNah b/w 2 cols top of frg doc, sm frgs below (see 1268)
1267 4QpNah b/w 5+ lines of top of 1283
1268 4QpNah b/w 7 lines (one interlined) and sm frg (see 1283 below)
3151=4151 4QpNah cols 1-2 (Allegro) (see 1283, etc.)
3126=4126 4QpNah col 2.1-11 (Allegro) (see 1267, etc.)

1.7.3 Pesher Habakkuk

0136.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: Kittim”
0204.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: Relates to Prophecies”
0277.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: The Wicked Priest”
3005=4005 1QpHab cols 1-3 (Vermes)
3118=4118 1QpHab col 2 (Vermes)
3130=4130 1QpHab col 3 (Vermes)
1179      1QpHab cols 4-6
3153=4153 1QpHab cols 4-5 (Vermes)
3181=4181 1QpHab col 4 (Vermes)
3190=4190 1QpHab col 5 (Vermes)
3212=4212 1QpHab cols 6-7 (Vermes)
3220=4220 1QpHab col 6 (Vermes)
3226=4226 1QpHab col 7 (Vermes)
1177      1QpHab col 7 closeup
3234=4234 1QpHab cols 8-9 (Vermes)
3241=4241 1QpHab col 8 (Vermes)
3257=4257 1QpHab cols 10-11 (Vermes)
1178      1QpHab col 10 closeup
3247=4247 1QpHab col 10 (Vermes)
3263=4263 1QpHab col 10 (Vermes)
1352      1QpHab cols 11-13
3269=4269 1QpHab col 11 (Vermes)
3285=4285 1QpHab cols 12-13 (Vermes)
3291=4291 1QpHab col 12 (Vermes)
3295=4295 1QpHab col 13 (Vermes)

1.8 “Sectarian” Prayer for King Jonathan = 4Q448

3039=4039 4QPrayer for King Jonathan 4Q Eshel-Eshel-Yardeni
3041=4041 4QPrayer for King Jonathan col A 1-10
1296      4QPrayer for King Jonathan closeup of tab at right
3044=4044 4QPrayer for King Jonathan col B-C
1297      4QPrayer for King Jonathan col C (closeup)

1.9 “Sectarian” 3QCopperPlaques

0165.txt “Modern Analysis: … Opening Copper Scroll”
0005.txt “The Copper Scroll: A Scroll of Copper”
0010.txt “The Copper Scroll: Amazing Worth”
0102.txt “The Copper Scroll: Hidden Treasures”
0200.txt “The Copper Scroll: Real or Imaginary?”
1395 dusting the Copper scrolls (in situ?)
1089 rolled scrolls
1379 rolled up Copper Plaques on dark orange background
1082 technician cleaning the scroll
1363 b/w picture of one of the Copper Plaques
1436 Jig holding Copper Roll
1453 Prof Wright-Baker cutting open the Copper Plaques (b/w)
1404 man handling piece of copper fragment
1088 strips of the copper scroll in drawers
3003=4003 3QCopper cols 7-8 (Allegro)
3116=4116 3QCopper col 7.3-10 (Allegro)
3129=4129 3QCopper col 7.11-16 (Allegro)


2.1 Exodus (paleo-Hebrew)

3341=4341 4QEx paleo-Heb cols 1-2 = Ex 6.25-7.19
3344=4344 4QEx paleo-Heb col 1.4-11 = Ex 6.35-7.16
1131      4QEx paleo-Heb col 1 closeup (right)
1130      4QEx paleo-Heb col 1 closeup (left)

2.2 Leviticus (mostly paleo-Hebrew)

1139      11QLev b/w scraps
1233      11QLev b/w small fragments
1234      11QLev b/w larger image of small fragments
3287=4287 11QLev col 0 = Lev 21.6-11
1134      11QLev col 0 (identical to 3387)
3007=4007 11QLev col 1 = Lev 22.21-27
3155=4155 11QLev col 2 = Lev 23.22-29
3214=4214 11QLev col 3 = Lev 24.9-14
1235      11QLev cols 4-5
3000=4000 11QLev col 4 = Lev 25.28-36
3236=4236 11QLev col 5 = Lev 26.17-26
3259=4259 11QLev col 6 = Lev 27.11-19
1228      4QLXXLev\a = 4Q119 (PAM 42.583) (b/w)

2.3 Deuteronomy

0054.txt (Deuteronomy)
3306=4306 Deuteronomy col 1 = Deut 8.5-10
1113      Deut col 1 (identical to 3306)
1111      Deut col 1 closeup of 3 lines of 1113 = 3306
3309=4309 Deuteronomy cols 2-3 = Deut 5.1-5,6-14
3317=4317 Deuteronomy cols 4-5 = Deut 5.15-25
3313=4313 Deuteronomy cols 5-6 = Deut 5.19-2526-30
3320=4320 Deuteronomy panel = Deut 29.13-31.5

2.4 Psalms

0055.txt (Pss) “Psalms Differences in Order”
0112.txt (Pss) “Psalms Importance of Psalms”
0194.txt (Pss) PSALMS TEHILLIM
0195.txt (Pss) TEHILLIM Col 19: Plea for Deliverance (A Noncanonical Psalm)
0285.txt (Pss) Psalms-Twenty Copies Found
0290.txt (Pss) Psalms-Unknown Psalm
0309.txt (Pss) Psalms Written by King David
1303      11QPss before unrolling
1327      11QPss before unrolling, with box with frgs (b/w)
1302      11QPss partly unrolled
3010=4010 11QPss cols 6-8 = Ps 132.8-18 + 119.1-49
3157=4157 11QPss cols 9-11 = Ps 119.59-120
3184=4184 11QPss col 9 = Ps 119.59-64
3192=4192 11QPss col 9 = Ps 119.65-73
3198=4198 11QPss col 10 = Ps 119.82-88
3203=4203 11QPss col 10 = Ps 119.89-96
3206=4206 11QPss col 11 = Ps 119.105-112
1308      11QPss col 11 closeup of 8 lines (= 1307)
1304      11QPss col 11 closeup of 7 lines (= 1308)
3208=4208 11QPss col 11 = Ps 119.13-120
3216=4216 11QPss cols 12-13 = Ps 119.128-142
3237=4237 11QPss cols 14-15 = Ps 119.171-176 + 135, 136
1307      11QPss cols 15-18 (b/w)
3260=4260 11QPss cols 16-17 = Ps 136.26ff
3265=4265 11QPss col 16 = Ps 136.26
3271=4271 11QPss col 16 = Ps 145.1 -7
3275=4275 11QPss col 17 = Ps 145.13-17
1305      11QPss closeup of col 17 with paleo-Heb tetragramms
3278=4278 11QPss col 17 = Ps 145.17-21
3288=4288 11QPss cols 18-19 = Syrian Apocryphal Ps 1-20 + Plea
1367      11QPss somewhere in cols 20-24 (infra-red photo)
1278      11QPss one of the 1367 columns
3308=4308 11QPss cols 25-26 = Ps 142.4-7143149.7-9, etc.
3310=4310 11QPss col 25 = Ps 142.1-7143.1-8
3314=4314 11QPss col 26 = Ps 149.7-9150.1-6 + Hymn
3328=4328 11QPss cols 27-28 = 2 Sam 23.7 + Note, Pss 140134151
3330=4330 11QPss col 27 = 2 Sam 23.7Ps 140
3334=4334 11QPss col 28 = Ps 134.1-3151.1-7
1361      11QApPs = 11Q11 cols 1-2 (PAM 44.113)
3343=4343 (Masada) Ps 82.1-2
1306      (Masada) Ps 82 closeup of 5+ lines of 3343

2.5 Isaiah

0246.txt (Isaiah) Isaiah Textual Differences
0083.txt (Isaiah)Isaiah First Scroll Found
1402 colored picture of the inside of the Shrine of the Book (with
the ark containing all of the scroll of Isaiah\a in the center)
1353 man and woman looking at Isaiah\a scroll in Shrine
1351 Shrine of Book display cylinder for Isaiah\a scroll
1366      1QIsa\a cols 1ff on display, with observers
3006=4006 1QIsa\a cols 1-3
3119=4119 1QIsa\a col 1 = Isa 1.1-13
3131=4131 1QIsa\a col 1 = Isa 1.13-26
3138=4138 1QIsa\a col 2 = Isa 1.26-2.4
3143=4143 1QIsa\a col 2 = Isa 2.5-21
3146=4146 1QIsa\a col 3 = Isa 2.21-3.10
3148=4148 1QIsa\a col 3 = Isa 3.10-23
3154=4154 1QIsa\a cols 4-6
3182=4182 1QIsa\a col 4 = Isa 3.24-5.4
3191=4191 1QIsa\a col 4 = Isa 5.4-14
3197=4197 1QIsa\a col 5 = Isa 5.14-26
3202=4202 1QIsa\a col 5 = Isa 5.26-6.7
3205=4205 1QIsa\a col 6 = Isa 6.7-7.2
3207=4207 1QIsa\a col 6 = Isa 7.3-14
3213=4213 1QIsa\a cols 7-9
3221=4221 1QIsa\a col 7 = Isa 7.15-21
3227=4227 1QIsa\a col 7 = Isa 7.22-8.8
3229=4229 1QIsa\a col 8 = Isa 8.8-21
3230=4230 1QIsa\a col 8 = Isa 8.22-9.11
3235=4235 1QIsa\a cols 9-11
3232=4232 1QIsa\a col 9 = Isa 9.11-20
3231=4231 1QIsa\a col 9 = Isa 10.1-14
3242=4242 1QIsa\a col 10 = Isa 10.14-29
3248=4248 1QIsa\a col 10 = Isa 10.29-11.12
3252=4252 1QIsa\a col 11 = Isa 11.12-13.6
3254=4254 1QIsa\a col 11 = Isa 13.6-14.1
3258=4258 1QIsa\a cols 12-14
3264=4264 1QIsa\a col 12 = Isa 14.1-13
3270=4270 1QIsa\a col 12 = Isa 14.13-29
3274=4274 1QIsa\a col 13 = Isa 14.29-15.9
3277=4277 1QIsa\a col 13 = Isa 15.9-16.13
3280=4280 1QIsa\a col 14 = Isa 16.14-17.10
3282=4282 1QIsa\a col 14 = Isa 17.10-18.7
3286=4286 1QIsa\a cols 15-17
3292=4292 1QIsa\a col 15 = Isa 18.7-19.12
3296=4296 1QIsa\a col 15 = Isa 19.13-25
3299=4299 1QIsa\a col 16 = Isa 19.23-20.6
3301=4301 1QIsa\a col 16 = Isa 21.1-15
3303=4303 1QIsa\a col 17 = Isa 21.15-22.11
3304=4304 1QIsa\a col 17 = Isa 22.12-24
3307=4307 1QIsa\a cols 18-20
3311=4311 1QIsa\a col 18 = Isa 22.24-23.12
3315=4315 1QIsa\a col 18 = Isa 23.13-24.4
3318=4318 1QIsa\a col 19 = Isa 24.4-18
3321=4321 1QIsa\a col 19 = Isa 24.18-25.5
1027      1QIsa\a sewn join between cols 19 and 20, closeup
3327=4327 1QIsa\a cols 20-22
3323=4323 1QIsa\a col 20 = Isa 25.6-12
3324=4324 1QIsa\a col 20 = Isa 26.1-18
3331=4331 1QIsa\a col 21 = Isa 26.19-27.8
3335=4335 1QIsa\a col 21 = Isa 27.9-28.2
3337=4337 1QIsa\a col 22 = Isa 28.2-13
3338=4338 1QIsa\a col 22 = Isa 28.14-23
3342=4342 1QIsa\a cols 23-25
3345=4345 1QIsa\a col 23 3345=4345 1QIsa\a col 23 = Isa 228.4-29.8
3348=4348 1QIsa\a col 23 = Isa 29.9-21
3349=4349 1QIsa\a col 24 = Isa 29.21-30.9
3350=4350 1QIsa\a col 24 = Isa 30.9-20
3015=4015 1QIsa\a cols 25-27
3351=4351 1QIsa\a col 25 = Isa 30.20-29
3352=4352 1QIsa\a col 25 = Isa 30.29-31.4
3017=4017 1QIsa\a col 26 = Isa 31.5-32.6
3019=4019 1QIsa\a col 26 = Isa 32.7-33.1
3023=4023 1QIsa\a col 27 = Isa 33.1-15
3021=4021 1QIsa\a col 27 = Isa 33.15-33.24
3026=4026 1QIsa\a cols 28-29
3032=4032 1QIsa\a col 28 = Isa 34.1-15
3034=4034 1QIsa\a col 28 = Isa 34.16-36.2
3035=4035 1QIsa\a col 29 = Isa 36.3-10
3036=4036 1QIsa\a col 29 = Isa 36.10-20
3038=4038 1QIsa\a cols 30-32
3040=4040 1QIsa\a col 30 = Isa 36.20-37.10
1049      1QIsa\a cols 30-31 = Isa 37.4ff glued join? closeup
3043=4043 1QIsa\a col 30 = Isa 37.10-24
3046=4046 1QIsa\a col 31 = Isa 37.24-35
3048=4048 1QIsa\a col 31 = Isa 37.36-38.8
3050=4050 1QIsa\a col 32 = Isa 38.9-20
3051=4051 1QIsa\a col 32 = Isa 38.20-40.1
3053=4053 1QIsa\a cols 34-36
3056=4056 1QIsa\a col 34 = Isa 40.28-41.11
3059=4059 1QIsa\a col 34 = Isa 41.12-23
3060=4060 1QIsa\a col 35 = Isa 41.23-42.5
3061=4061 1QIsa\a col 35 = Isa 42.5-17
3062=4062 1QIsa\a cols 36-37
3064=4064 1QIsa\a col 36 = Isa 42.18-43.20
3063=4063 1QIsa\a col 36 = Isa 43.7-20
3065=4065 1QIsa\a col 37 = Isa 43.20-44.7
3067=4067 1QIsa\a col 37 = Isa 44.8-23
3070=4070 1QIsa\a cols 38-39
3071=4071 1QIsa\a col 38 = Isa 44.23-45.7
3073=4073 1QIsa\a col 38 = Isa 45.8-21
3075=4075 1QIsa\a col 39 = Isa 45.21-46.10
3077=4077 1QIsa\a col 39 = Isa 46.11-47.11
3082=4082 1QIsa\a cols 40-41
3084=4084 1QIsa\a col 40 = Isa 47.11-48.10
3086=4086 1QIsa\a col 40 = Isa 48.12-49.4
3087=4087 1QIsa\a col 41 = Isa 49.4-13
3088=4088 1QIsa\a col 41 = Isa 49.4-50.1
3089=4089 1QIsa\a cols 42-43
3091=4091 1QIsa\a col 42 = Isa 50.1-11
3093=4093 1QIsa\a col 42 = Isa 51.1-13
3094=4094 1QIsa\a col 43 = Isa 51.13-23
3095=4095 1QIsa\a col 43 = Isa 51.23-52.12
3096=4096 1QIsa\a cols 44-46
3098=4098 1QIsa\a col 44 = Isa 52.13-54.4
3100=4100 1QIsa\a col 44 = Isa 53.9-54.4
3101=4101 1QIsa\a col 45 = Isa 54.4-13
3102=4102 1QIsa\a col 45 = Isa 54.14-55.8
3103=4103 1QIsa\a col 46 = Isa 55.8-56.4
3104=4104 1QIsa\a col 46 = Isa 56.4-57.2
1313      1QIsa\a cols 47-52
3105=4105 1QIsa\a cols 47-48
3107=4107 1QIsa\a col 47 = Isa 57.2-13
3109=4109 1QIsa\a col 47 = Isa 57.14-56.6
3111=4111 1QIsa\a col 48 = Isa 58.6-59.3
3113=4113 1QIsa\a col 48 = Isa 59.3-17
3160=4160 1QIsa\a cols 49-50
3161=4161 1QIsa\a col 49 = Isa 59.17-60.10
3163=4163 1QIsa\a col 49 = Isa 60.10-61.4
3165=4165 1QIsa\a col 50 = Isa 61.4-62.4
3167=4167 1QIsa\a col 50 = Isa 62.4-63.4
1209      1QIsa\a bottom of cols 49-50
1312      1QIsa\a closeup of bottom of cols 49-50
3170=4170 1QIsa\a cols 51-53
3171=4171 1QIsa\a col 51 = Isa 63.4-19
3172=4172 1QIsa\a col 51 = Isa 63.19-65.4
3174=4174 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.4-7
3175=4175 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.8-12
3176=4176 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.13-18
3173=4173 1QIsa\a cols 52-54
3177=4177 1QIsa\a col 53 = Isa 65.19-66.4
3178=4178 1QIsa\a col 53 = Isa 66.4-14
3179=4179 1QIsa\a col 54 = Isa 66.14-24
1062      1QIsa\a col 54 closeup of 10 lines at top
1206      1QIsa\b four cols (see also 1207, 1138)
1207      1QIsa\b full third col of 1206
1138      1QIsa\b closeup of top of 1207, infra red photo

2.6 Ezekiel

1132 Masada Ezekiel Fragments in situ

3. “Para-Biblical” Materials, “Apocrypha” and “Pseudepigrapha”

3.1 Wisdom of Joshua ben Sira (“Sirach” in the “Apocrypha”)

0167.txt “Ben Sira: Opposed Hellenism”
0304.txt “Ben Sira: Wisdom Literature”
1052      Masada Ben Sira, in situ, blobs b/w
1053      Masada Ben Sira panel, 3 cols b/w
1054      Masada Ben Sira panel, 3 cols b/w
1053      Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (=1054)
1054      Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (=1053)
3001=4001 Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (Yadin)
3114=4114 Masada Ben Sira col 4.1-11 (Yadin)
3127=4127 Masada Ben Sira col 5.1-11 (Yadin)
3136=4136 Masada Ben Sira col 6.1-14 (Yadin)
3003=4003 Masada Ben Sira (Yadin)

3.2 Enoch (“1 Enoch” in the “Pseudepigrapha”)

1123      4QEnoch (large view)
3014=4014 4QEnoch
3016=4016 4QEnoch
1121      4QEnoch closeup
1122      4QEnoch closeup

3.3 Genesis Apocryphon (not previously known)

0162.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
0097.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
0007.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
1149      1QapGen before it was opened
1148      1QapGen before opening, closeup
1164      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
1165      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
1166      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
1143      1QapGen b/w closeup
1167      1QapGen cols 17-21
3149=4149 1QapGen col 20 (Vermes)
3124=4124 1QapGen col 20.2-12 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
3134=4134 1QapGen col 20.13-23 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
3140=4140 1QapGen col 20.24-34 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
3209=4209 1QapGen col 21 (Vermes)
3187=4187 1QapGen col 21.1-13 (Vermes)
3195=4195 1QapGen col 21.14-23 (Vermes)
3200=4200 1QapGen col 21.24-34 (Vermes)

3.4 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (not previously known)

1399      4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice closeup of col 1
3058=4058 4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice (Newsom)
1400      4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice closeup
1409      (Masada) Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice

3.5 Tefillin/Phylacteries (using scriptural passages)

1018 Qumran phylactery cases, 4 lumps (b/w)
1286 Qumran tefillin box opened, 4 compartments (b/w)
1114 tefillin (Deut) and box, modern (color)
3009=4009 Phylactery, with Ex 13.7-16 and Deut 6.4-9 (color)
3121=4121 Phylactery, with Deut 6.4-9 (color)
3156=4156 Phylactery B, with Deut 5.1-21 and Exod 13.11-16 (b/w)
1371      Phylactery B (same as 3156)
3183=4183 Phylactery B closeup, Deut 5.5-21


1240 Nahal Hever Greek Minor Prophets hand B fragment (b/w)
1050 Babata contract (upside down; papyrus)
1405 Priestly Benediction (on silver) (see 1021?)
1021 small roll, silver amulet (see 1405?)
1041 Elephantine Aramaic letter [drawing] (b/w)
1042 Elephantine ostrakon, drawing of 3 lines (b/w)
1022 Aleppo Codex (see 1033)
1033 Aleppo Codex (?) (see 1022)
1284 The Times; reconstruction of Shapira roll (b/w)
1301 Armenian Ps 151 MS with pictures to left, head on staff (b/w)


1102 Yusuf Salad and 4Q materials in Rockefeller Museum =1362
1362 Yusuf Salad and 4Q materials in Rockefeller Museum =1102
1365 man (Allegro?) examining fragments on museum tables (b/w)
1299 man (Starkey?) examining fragments on museum tables (b/w)
1364 men (Allegro? and ?) examining fragments in boxes (b/w)
1136 various scrolls and fragments in boxes on table (b/w)
1347 10 boxes of fgrs, etc., 3 loose coins, neatly arranged (b/w)
1259 tagged and numbered fragments of various sizes (b/w)
1350 partly opened papyrus roll [unidentified] (color)
1344 bundle of crushed papyrus rolls, with seal (b/w)
1345 same as 1344, but slightly lighter, blurred (b/w)
1348 strip of 7-8 seals (on papyri strips?) (b/w)


1328 1Q scrap (shown to Sukenik) 10+ lines, dark (b/w)
1346 7+ lines on left top of col (color)
1287 mesh holding 8 lined, blurry doc with slit (color)
1337 papyrus piece, 8 lines 2 col, holes (color)


1040 amulet? Paleo Heb?
1429 10 commandments on silver-Hebrew
1068 Rabbinic text 1081
1112 open book with art
1251 drawing of a man at podium reading from scroll
1237 photo of a man holding a scroll above a cross
1257 photo of older man working on manuscript (modern rabb.?)
1416 colored picture of men covered with Tallitot surrounding a
rabbi reading a Torah scroll
1391 b/w picture of men/scribes writing scrolls
1390 colored picture of a present-day man observing a scroll
1389 b/w sketch of a scribe scribing a scroll
1375 a torah scroll. In front of it is a blue container with white
sticks protruding from it
1194 paper with designs
1195 Hebrew page (printed)
1211 colorful picture of manuscript (lettering) and scribe/priest (?)
1279 ostrakon with 2 lines, color


3018=4018 pots filled(top)
3020=4020 pots filled (mid)
3022=4022 pots filled (bottom)
3024=4024 goblets
3027=4027 goblet closeup 1
3028=4028 goblet closeup 2
3029=4029 goblet closeup 3
3030=4030 stone vessel
3042=4042 cup closeup 1
3045=4045 cup closeup 2
3047=4047 cup closeup 3
3049=4049 cup closeup 4
3052=4052 measuring cups: limestone
3054=4054 wooden artifact
3057=4057 bowl closeup
3066=4066 combs closeup 1
3068=4068 combs closeup 2
3069=4069 combs all
3072=4072 left sandal closeup 1
3074=4074 left sandal closeup 2
3076=4076 left sandal closeup 3
3078=4078 right sandal closeup 1
3079=4079 right sandal closeup 2
3080=4080 right sandal closeup 3
3081=4081 leather objects-all
3083=4083 leather scroll fasteners tabs
3085=4085 Tabs closeups
3090=4090 textiles-all
3092=4092 linen closeups
3097=4097 linen cloth 2 1Q
3099=4099 linen closeup
3106=4106 basketry all
3108=4108 basket closeup 1
3110=4110 basket closeup 2
3112=4112 basket closeup 3
3162=4162 cored closeup 1
3164=4164 cord closeup 2
3166=4166 cord close 3
3168=4168 cord close 4
3169=4169 cordage close, Palm leaves 1Q 2Q
3188=4188 pottery closeup 2
3210=4210 pottery all
3215=4215 Jar of lid
3222=4222 pot closeup
3245=4245 lamp close 1
3250=4250 lamp close 2
3255=4255 Herodian Lamp
3267=4267 inkwell closeup 1
3273=4273 inkwell closeup 2
3283=4283 inkwell-main
3293=4293 plates closeup 1
3297=4297 plates closeup 2
3300=4300 plates closeup 3
3302=4302 plates closeup 4
3305=4305 plates-main
3312=4312 2 handled jar closeup 1
3316=4316 2 handled jar closeup 2
3319=4319 2 handled jar closeup 3
3322=4322 2 handled jar closeup 4
3325=4325 2 handled jar-main
3332=4332 vase closeup 1
3336=4336 vase closeup 2
3339=4339 vase closeup 3
3340=4340 vase main
3346=4346 jug closeup 1
3347=4347 jug closeup 2
3353=4353 jug main


1135 leather strip “7039-200”
1141 inscribed paddle tablet
1354 Inscribed Gk tablet, 6 lines (6 = ANAT)
1142 clay with Gk inscr of 6-7 lines
1174 stone tablet
1175 same
1183 broken stone, inscr
1208 image of a gray stone
1291 b/w stone inscribed 4 latin lines
1330 b/w single line inscription on block?
1438 inscription beginning with the word “Slavii..”
1414 stone containig an Ancient Near Eastern inscription
1403 inscription on stone that reads “Sea Level”
1396 A Seal with an inscription on it
1218 two pieces of round pottery with lettering and symbols
1245 menorah tracing on 2 clay pieces
3025=4025 Calendrical document (4Q Talmon-Knohl)
3033=4033 Yahohanan Jar closeup 1
3037=4037 Yahohanan Jar all


1104 Madaba map
1217 map of Jerusalem with cities indicated and paths drawn
1222 map of Jesusalem (highlighted), Samaria, Galilea
1224 map of Jerusalem and cities
1226 picture map of Jerusalem, horizon in back
1242 ancient map of Africa, Asia and Europe
1261 Madaba map of Jericho area
1282 color map of near east, routes from Babylon
1385 colored map highlighting area above Antioch?
1435 map with highlights of the Nile River,Judea,and Mesopotamia(color)
1382 timeline of the Roman Governors of Judea


1037 coin with nice head (Alex?)
1038 coin, same
1084 coin
1085 coin
1310 color, front and back of coin, BASILE..
1457 silver coins
1459 coin back (silver)
3125=4125 coins closeup 1
3135=4135 coins closeup 2
3141=4141 coind closeup 3
3150=4150 coins


1063 cave 4
1069 cave 1?
1070 caves
1071 caves
1151 cave
1152 cave
1153 other cave
1205 inside cave
1342 b/w stratified cliffside, caves
1349 color, looking out from cave, slope to left, feet


1000 man standing with pottery display (Qumran?)

1064 Cairo Synagogue photo
1238 photo of metal emblem with lion and lettering
1247 photo of a priest holding staff and cross
1248 photo of a well surrounded by stone steps
1249 photo of steps leading to an underground entrance
1256 photo of temple

1210 overhead image of desert landscape, foundation of a building ?
1300 sepia, statue of man with longish nose in robe
1273 sepia stereo view, Jerus street (Kando shop?)
1216 letter from Dr. Ginsberg:  The Shapira Ms. of Deuteronomy
1220 marble figurehead of a man

1212 painting of a stone building, men entering and exiting
1221 drawing of a man (Josephus)?
1223 picture of landscape, hillsides
1225 painting of a man palying harp, Hebrew lettering
1236 painting of a carpenter working, child in shop
1246 drawing depicting 3 outlines of men atop a landscape painting
1250 drawing, medallion, women and Solomon ?
1441 resembles a mythological scene (man on horse — hell? death?)
1428 sketch plans and architectural layout for Temple Hiero Solmitani
1423 lined picture of altar in inner courtyard
1440 architectural structure with tower
1421 architectural find (a black stone surrounded by disks?)
1380 architectural find covered in plastic?
1368 same picture of architectural find in 1421
1392 architectural layout of a certain structure

1419 man observing an urn?
1418 closer shot of the previous picture(man observing the urn)
1356 urn?

1412 life-size sculpture of Pharoah?
1411 doors to church wih ornate design
1410 warfare
1383 sketch of warfare
1407 lined picture of warfare
1394 stone structures -rectangular table?
1359 stone tables?Second Temple period?
1358 same as picture 359
1378 picture of temple?some tower?
1377 women bathing in mikvah(common in the second temple period)
1376 men entranced by a certain scene
1374 man delivering another man’s head to a woman
1360 cracked stone?
1357 archaelogical dig?

1213 b/w painting of a man on boat talking to a crowd on shore
1214 b/w painting of a man talking/teaching a crowd of people
1215 b/w painting of a man holding a child and talking/teaching a crowd
1219 b/w painting of a man on hillside holding a staff, talking/teaching
1227 b/w painting a angels and open heaven
1229 b/w painting a Ark and man before it
1230 b/w painting of men constructing city walls
1231 b/w painting of inside temple with man burning scarifice
1232 b/w painting of men building huts from trees
1239 b/w painting of crowd watching the heavens
1241 b/w painting of battle
1243 b/w painting of older man pointing to slain youth
1244 b/w painting of older man talking to an armed crowd
1258 b/w painting
1262 Moses and tablet with light rays as horns b/w
1263 Moses chiding sinful people b/w
1264 Moses gets tablets from God, with angels b/w
1265 b/w people sitting around cylindrical bldg on left
1269 DSS Article b/w in Illustrated London…
1270 Ad for sale of “4 DSS”
1275 ossuary  with double decoration b/w
1280 hole with row of 9 stones b/w
1281 b/w pen or stylus
1285 b/w drawing Jesus at door of house
1289 b/w panel reconstr of Shapira doc (5-6 lines)
1294 b/w drawing, Pilate ?, 2 cols, man with twig
1295 b/w drawing, 4 story house on left, armies
1309 b/w drawing of battle scene, elephants in back?
1316 b/w Jesus chasing money lenders on steps?
1320 b/w view photo, sea in background
1321 b/w man and meter rod with broken pottery
1322 b/w pottery, short meter stick
1324 b/w circular structure photo from above (cistern?)
1325 b/w Kando? person standing (Fez, robed)
1326 b/w person in tie standing
1329 b/w barbed wire being placed by soldiers
1331 b/w wired road near barracks-like bldg
1333 b/w drawing, Masada terraces
1335 b/w structure with VW on right, car on left
1338 b/w, lever moving stone? woman on right
1339 b/w 3 men sitting viewing small objects
1343 b/w working by lights in large cavern
1454 group of men with display of “Cult Masks and Standards”(b/w)
1452 image of the flood story (b/w)
1450 ?Scene of Jesus turning water into wine(b/w)
1449 warfare(b/w)
1439 horses accompanied by Greek? Roman? legion (b/w)
1437 mythological scene-angel-(b/w)
1406 b/w picture-remains of bones
1401 b/w photograph of a gentleman
1393 b/w photograph-paved coourtyard
1387 b/w sketch of men possessing weapons
1373 b/w picture of men building a certain structure
1370 b/w picture of the expansive sea

1266 color photo, Bedouin man with brown & white sheep in arms
1271 color view of mount, tree on left
1272 pool with reeds on left and back; color
1276 steps up to temple, color, drawing, people in court
1277 color drawing, cleft in mts, people on right, view
1288 color, man and woman sifting over wheelbarrow
1290 color man excavating at rock wall closeup
1292 color painting, exodus? 4 levels
1293 color two bowls
1298 color drawing, bearded man and child (Abr/Isaac)
1311 color, archeol workers, hoe and basket in foregr
1314 color, tomb with bars, person inside, trees above
1315 color, repro of Jerus Temple, stairway in foregr
1317 color, smallish rocks, like skulls
1318 color, skull with pattern on top
1319 color, flask with handle and broken basket
1323 color, ariel view of Qumran?
1332 color, Shrine of Book top on skyline
1334 color, mountains in back, town in front, steeples
1336 color, “bata”
1340 color, assorted utensils, beads
1341 color, crown, horn, three other objects
1458 color warfare
1456 archaelogist? Yadin? (guy with glasses on his head) (Color)
1451 Basin? picture of water flowing (color)
1427 Robinson’s Arch-stairway leading into (South?)of the Temple (color)
1424 ?Absalom’s tomb? (it is a tomb) Color
1420 remains? courtyard? colored picture
1415 colored picture of warfare
1413 colored picture of Robinson’s Arch
1408 colored overview shot of land and basin?
1398 colored picture of courtyard of Temple?Altar?
1397 colored picture of people entering the Temple (near Huldah Gates)
1381 colored picture of warfare
1386 colored picture of man holding certain instrument
1384 colored picture of men who are about to engage in warfare
crossing the bridge
1372 colored picture of Jewish men learning together

1410 b/w (War Scroll) sons of dark vs. light
1239 b/w (War Scroll) looking at the heavens
1106 b/w (War Scroll) looking to the heavens
1170 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
1105 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
1056 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
1383 (War Scroll) sons of dark vs. light

1QHa (The Thanksgiving Psalms), at the Gnostic Society Library
1Q20 (1QapGen), paraphrase by Lesley Faulk and Amanda Scott
4Q117 (4QEzra?), translated by Lisbeth S. Fried
4Q158 (4QPPa), translated by Warren Rohde and Rick Bohn
4Q164 (4QIsaiah Pesher), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q166 (4QHosea Pesher), translated by M. Horgan
4Q168 (4QMicah Pesher?), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q170 (4QZephaniah Pesher), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q174 (4QFlorilegium), translated by unknown
4Q201 (En ara), translated by J.C. Greenfield
4Q203, 1Q23, 2Q26, 4Q530-532, 6Q8 (The Book of Giants), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q227 (Enoch and the Watchers), translated by unknown
4Q258, Community Rule, translated by E. Qimron
4Q271 (The Damascus Document), translated by J. Baumgarten
4Q285 (Isaiah), translated by G. Vermes
1Q27, 4Q299-301 (The Book of Secrets), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q302a (The Parable of the Bountiful Tree, at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q321 (Mishmarot Ba), Calendrical Document, translated by S. Talmon and I. Knohl
4Q370 (4QFloodAp), paraphrase by Andrea Dennis
1Q29, 4Q376 (Tongues of Fire), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q396 (MMTc), Some Torah Precepts, translated by J. Strugnell and E. Qimron
4Q403 (ShirShabbd), translated by C. Newsom
4Q414 (A Baptismal Liturgy), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q420-421, translated by J.C. Greenfield
4Q448, Prayer for King Jonathon, translated by E. Eshel, H. Eshel, and A. Yardeni 4Q534 (4Qelect), translated by Ken Penner
4Q537 (4QAJa), paraphrase by Carol Hei
11Q5 (11QPsa), Plea for Deliverance, translated by J.A. Sanders
11Q13 (The Coming of Melchizedek), at the Gnostic Society Library

Organization of “Community of God”

High PriestSon of Zadoc
Army <——————- Secretariat ————————> National Courts
/  |  \
/ | \






Tribal Chiefs Levites             Sons of Aaron
/ \ | / | \
Judges Officers || Council of Community Council of Holiness Master
|| || ||
\     / Congregation
Clan Chiefs
Heads of Families

APPENDIX: BELIAL REFERENCES IN THE SCROLLS The following is a (hopefully) complete list of every reference to Belial in the GM translation of the scrolls. They are cataloged by column and line location in each individual text or fragment. 1QS 1.24 1.28 2.5 2.18 10.21 4Q256 1.3 4Q260 5.2 Damascus Document CD-A 4.13 4.14 12.2 Damascus Document CD-B 19.14 4Q267 2.14 4.13 4Q268 1.18 4Q269 1.2 6Q15 1.1 5Q13 1.2 4Q398 2.5 1QM 1.1 1.5 1.13 1.15 4.2 11.8 13.2 13.4 13.11 14.9 16.11 18.1 18.3 4Q491 1.6 4Q491 2.8 4Q491 2.18 4Q496 1.3 1.5 (x2) 1.7 5.6 4Q174 1.8 (x2) 1.9 2.2 ?.3 4Q175 ?.23 11Q13 2.12 2.13 2.22 2.25 3.7(x2) 4Q171 2.11 4Q177 3.8 3.10 4.9(x2) 4.11 4.12 4.14 4.16 5.5 5.10 4Q253 ?.5 4Q390 1.4 4Q378 2.9 4Q385 2.3 4Q88 10.10 1QH 11.28 11.29 11.32 12.12 12.13 13.26 13.39 15.3 4Q429 3.8 11Q11 1.6 5.3 4Q287 2.6

Date: 26 Apr 2010
Time: 15:02:24

Thank you for all the information about the Dead Sea Scroll. It will sure help to clear up some of the biblical confusion we are fed today. May the Heavenly Father continue to inspire you all in this grand over-taking. Thanks again.

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