Home>The Dead Sea Scrolls: Pre-AD70 Deposits
Historical Jewish Sources
The Dead Sea Scrolls: Pre-AD70 Deposits of Jewish Writings Reflecting Preterist Eschatology

1Q16 – Pesher Psalms | 1Q71-72 – Daniel | 1QpHab – Habakkuk | 1QS – The Community Rule || 4Q169 – Nahum | 4Q171 – Psalm Pesher | 4Q266-273 ; CD – Damascus Document | 4QH – Thanksgiving Hymns | 4Q397-399 ; MMT – Works Accounted as Righteousness || “7Q5 = Mark 6:52-53” – Study of Dead Sea Scroll Fragment 7Q5


  • SBL: John, Qumran, and the Dead Sea Scrolls: Sixty Years of Discovery and Debate (2011)
  • John S. Evans The Prophecies of Daniel 2 (2008) “The position that I hold with regard to Revelation 20 puts me at odds with full preterism, which associates the “thousand years” with the forty years from AD 30 to 70. That a thousand years can be equated to a mere forty even in such to be a great challenge, and it is tempting to dismiss such an idea as patent nonsense. . . Nevertheless, it must be recognized at the outset that equating the “thousand years” to only forty years stretches the metaphorical elasticity of Revelation beyond limits of credibility for most serious students of the Bible. Furthermore, the challenge faced by FPs becomes even greater when it is recognized that their millennium” is EVEN SHORTER THAN FORTY YEARS because it begins AFTER AD30 and ENDS BEFORE AD70.” (Pages 168-170)
  • DSS: Pre-Christian Preterism – The Dead Sea scrolls: Voice of Reason (2010) “One popular conspiracy theory held that the Catholic scholars who did the initial analysis of the scrolls kept their conclusion secret because it challenged the Christian faith. Mr Vermes, who was close to that research effort, finds good reason to criticise it for slowness and carelessness—but no ground to assert a conspiracy. Nor does he accept oversimplified theories that directly link the community which gave rise to the scrolls with the advent of Christianity. The manuscripts are relevant to the study of Christian beginnings, but they are not the whole story.”



Did You Know that Preterist Theology is over 2,000 Years Old?  

The The Olivet Discourse of Jesus and various writings among the Dead Sea Scrolls testify to the extremely old age of preterist theology.

Christianity has long held that numerous prophecies were fulfilled at the arrival of John the Baptist and the birth of Jesus Christ (as well as in the later ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus).  This is Historical Preterism, and is a general Christian view dating back to the time (now over 2,000 years ago) when the first witnesses began to spread the good news of the promised redemption in the birth of a son.   The more specific eschatology of historical Christian preterism was first popularized a while later in the ministry of Jesus, Who outlined numerous prophecies to be imminently fulfilled in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem.

As old as these forms of preterism are, however, there are much earlier forms of this end times scenario to be found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.   There are Jewish counterparts to Christian preterism, all of which share the view of prophetic fulfillment in a war between the Jewish State and Rome   (the “Romano-Judean Eschaton”).

Investigation into the eschatology of the Dead Sea Scrolls has revealed a number of documents which shiver with apocalyptic expectation.   Jewish writers presented theological systems outlining the horrific events which became reality in AD70.   As the threat of Roman domination grew in the first century B.C., seers began to present an eschatology which portrayed Rome as the destroyer of Jerusalem.   Intense religious zeal poured out in a number of apocalyptic texts outlining the arrival of the end times:

  • 4Q397 – 399: “And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days”

Through language which is evocative of specific Old Testament verses, the Roman Empire is identified as the great apocalyptic beast using designations such as Kittim to represent the Roman Empire.  The Romans are, at times, explicitly mentioned:

  • 1QpHab 9:4-7: “Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem.  The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples and for the “Last Days” they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of The Roman army. ”
Historical Witness to First Century Jewish and Christian Preterist Views

These writings are of utmost significance for first century studies in fulfilled eschatology because:

1) They show a highly developed Preterist view: Daniel and the Habakkuk Commentary specifically identify the Romans (the ‘Kittim’) as the primary apocalyptic enemy, making them the earliest known “Preterist Commentaries” (This view was in currency prior to the capture of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 B.C.)

“The new leather fragment now provided a first-century B.C.-A.D. testimony to the accuracy of the text as it has been preserved – Kasidim was clearly in the text used by the copyist.  The next line, however, begins, “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim….” The modern theory had already been propounded by interpretation by the ancient community two thousand years earlier!” – John C. Trever, The Untold Story of Qumran

2) The “Pella Flight Tradition,” which explains the deposit of many scrolls, substantiates that the Preterist view was the early Christian interpretation of Christ’s Olivet Discourse (Such as found in Matthew 24:16).

Christian and Jewish refugees from Jerusalem’s impending besiegement stored numerous documents east of the city near Qumran.  Key writings discovered immediately upon the formation of the Jewish State reflect the Palestinian Christianity of James the Just.

Visual Timeline of the Desolation

3) The eschatology of the DSS reflects the “final generation” view that their period was the “End of Days” for Israel:

“And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days” (4Q397 – 399)

“..from the day of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the destruction of all the men of war who turned back with the man of lies, there shall be about forty years.” (Damascus Document, xx, 14-15) – “I will stare at his place and he will no longer be there. Its interpretation concerns all the evil at the end of the forty years, for they shall be devoured..” (Commentary on Ps 37:10, 4QPsalms Pesher [4Q17, ii, 6-8]).

Considering that the New Testament writers taught that “the end of all things (was) at hand,” as did the writers of DSS, as do Preterist Christians today — it seems that Futurist Christians stand alone in teaching that ours are the last days!

“The association between Qumran, the caves and the scrolls is, thus, a hypothesis lacking any factual archaeological basis”

Roman-Judean End Time in Dead Sea Scrolls (First Century BC/AD)
3 “For you have plundered many nations,
and you shall be plundered by all
4 the remnant of the peoples” (Hab 2:8).
Unraveled, this is about the last priests of Jerusalem
5 who shall get wealth and booty from plundering the peoples.
6 But in the last days, their wealth and their plunder their wealth and their plunder shall be given into the hand(s)
7 of the army of the Kittim.* For they shall be “the remnant of the peoples.”
— Dead Sea Scrolls, Habakkuk Midrash (1QpHab9.3-7
* Kittim: In this and other writings of the Roman period, like the War Scroll, it is a code name for the Romans.

1QHa (The Thanksgiving Psalms), at the Gnostic Society Library
1Q20 (1QapGen), paraphrase by Lesley Faulk and Amanda Scott
4Q117 (4QEzra?), translated by Lisbeth S. Fried
4Q158 (4QPPa), translated by Warren Rohde and Rick Bohn
4Q164 (4QIsaiah Pesher), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q166 (4QHosea Pesher), translated by M. Horgan
4Q168 (4QMicah Pesher?), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q170 (4QZephaniah Pesher), translated by Mark Wessner
4Q174 (4QFlorilegium), translated by unknown
4Q201 (En ara), translated by J.C. Greenfield
4Q203, 1Q23, 2Q26, 4Q530-532, 6Q8 (The Book of Giants), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q227 (Enoch and the Watchers), translated by unknown
4Q258, Community Rule, translated by E. Qimron
4Q271 (The Damascus Document), translated by J. Baumgarten
4Q285 (Isaiah), translated by G. Vermes
1Q27, 4Q299-301 (The Book of Secrets), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q302a (The Parable of the Bountiful Tree, at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q321 (Mishmarot Ba), Calendrical Document, translated by S. Talmon and I. Knohl
4Q370 (4QFloodAp), paraphrase by Andrea Dennis
1Q29, 4Q376 (Tongues of Fire), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q396 (MMTc), Some Torah Precepts, translated by J. Strugnell and E. Qimron
4Q403 (ShirShabbd), translated by C. Newsom
4Q414 (A Baptismal Liturgy), at the Gnostic Society Library
4Q420-421, translated by J.C. Greenfield
4Q448, Prayer for King Jonathon, translated by E. Eshel, H. Eshel, and A. Yardeni 4Q534 (4Qelect), translated by Ken Penner
4Q537 (4QAJa), paraphrase by Carol Hei
11Q5 (11QPsa), Plea for Deliverance, translated by J.A. Sanders
11Q13 (The Coming of Melchizedek), at the Gnostic Society Library

Showing that the expectation of the end, as presented by the DSS writers, was only mistaken as to nature — not timing.  The end did, indeed, come as predicted by the Jewish Prophets and the DSS writers.  It was associated with the fall of the temple and Jerusalem during the Roman-Jewish War

MMT Writers Believed End Was At Hand

“This was to take place at the end time, when Sons of Light, the members of the group, were to clash with the Sons of Darkness, the Romans, code-named the Kittim.  A battle against Rome did take place eventually, when the Roman general and soon-to-be emperor Vespasian marched through the area on his way to Jerusalem in the early summer of 68 C.E.  But..

the Qumran Essenes’ final battle did not end as the War Scroll imagined. ”
John Dominic Crosson

Abbreviations, Symbols and Ciphers

4Q Qumran Cave Four.  Texts are then numbered, e.g., 4Q390 = manuscript number 390 found in Cave Four
[  ] Missing letters or words
vacat Uninscribed leather
{  } Ancient scribal erasure or modern editor’s deletion
<  > Supralinear text or modern editor’s addition
. . . Traces of ink visible, but letters cannot be read


The Dead Sea scrolls: Voice of Reason (2010) “One popular conspiracy theory held that the Catholic scholars who did the initial analysis of the scrolls kept their conclusion secret because it challenged the Christian faith. Mr Vermes, who was close to that research effort, finds good reason to criticise it for slowness and carelessness—but no ground to assert a conspiracy. Nor does he accept oversimplified theories that directly link the community which gave rise to the scrolls with the advent of Christianity. The manuscripts are relevant to the study of Christian beginnings, but they are not the whole story.”

DSS Theory Faces New Challenge – “”The association between Qumran, the caves and the scrolls is, thus, a hypothesis lacking any factual archaeological basis,” Magen said in an article in the current issue of Biblical Archaeology Review. He and Peleg wrote a more detailed report of their research in “The Site of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Archaeological Interpretations and Debates,” published this year.”

Dead Sea Scrolls: Reference Materials “It has also been hypothesized that the Qumran scrolls are the secreted library of a community, perhaps Essene, that lived at Qumran, and thus survived the destruction of the settlement in c.A.D. 68. Startling parallels in expression and thought between the Qumran materials and the New Testament have led to speculation as to their influence on early Christianity.” (Kittim: “Term appearing in the Dead Sea Scrolls, used of the Romans. The Kittim are referred to as warriors from the west, who capture Jerusalem.”

DSS Reference Materials “Startling parallels in expression and thought between the Qumran materials and the New Testament have led to speculation as to their influence on early Christianity.” (Kittim: “Term appearing in the Dead Sea Scrolls, used of the Romans. The Kittim are referred to as warriors from the west, who capture Jerusalem.”

The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christianity By Robert C. Jones (1999) “Second Temple Judaism can now be seen as a transition period in which the sectarianism and apocalypticism of the period gradually gave away to rabbinic Judaism, on the one hand, and Christianity, on the other. Indeed, it is now clear that the Second Temple period was a kind of sorting process.”




War Scroll
“And the dominion of the Kittim shall come to an end, so that wickedness shall be laid low without any remnant; and there shall be no survivor of the sons of darkness.”

4Q397: “And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses have come, (24) those written in the Bo[ok of Mo]ses; therefore this is the End of Days”

4QpHab – Pesher Habakkuk
1QpHab 9:4-7: “Peshru about the priests of Jerusalem.  The final (end time) ones who gather up wealth and take a cut from the spoils from the peoples and for the “Last Days” they give their wealth with spoil into the hands of The Roman army. ” (Moellerhaus Translation)

4Q171 Pesher Psalms
4Q171 2:5-9Yet a little while (Heb: me’at, mem-ayin-tetand the wicked one will be no more. I will discern his place but he will not be there (Psalm 37:10). “Its pesher refers to all wickedness at the end of 40 years (Heb:Mem = 40). They will be finished and no wicked man will be found on the earth.” (See: 40 Years of Messiah)

Damascus Document
xx, 14-15: “..from the day of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the destruction of all the men of war who turned back with the man of lies, there shall be about forty years.” (See: 40 Years of Messiah)

Ida Froehlich (1999)
“The rule for the use of t he typological name Kittim –and most probably for other terms as well– is that the name has a collective, general meaning (in the case of the Kittim: “strangers arriving from the sea, from the direction of Cyprus”). The actual meaning of the name in a given instance is always determined by the characteristics of the term, that is, those events which the text mentions as a reference in connection with the name (sometimes, as in the case of Acco in the aforementioned text, one key word is the determining factor).

The kittim mentioned in pHab are to be identified with the Romans. Pesher Habakkuq IX.4-10 interprets the conquest of the kittim as divine punishment, in the course of which “the riches and booty of the last priests (_____ _¿______) of Jerusalem shall l be delivered into the hands of the army of the Kittim”, “at the end of the days (_¿____ _____)”. This reference most likely concerns the fight for the throne between the sons of Alexandros Jannaios, in the course of which both pretenders gave handsome sums and gifts to Aemilius Scaurus, the Roman general, and Pompeius, who was the arbiter in their dispute (cf. Jos. Ant. XIV.2-3; 3.1).” (History as seen from Qumran)

Rivka Nir (2003)
“One may also include within this group (pseudepigraphic-apocalyptic literature) the literature of the Qumran sect, which expresses conceptual and linguistic relations and ideological and theological characteristics similar to those of the pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature.  Like the apocalyptic literature, the Qumran sect’s theological focus was on the eschatological anticipation of the approaching end of days, on the war between the forces of light and the forces of darkness, and on the appearance of the expected messianic age.  Similar to the apocalyptic literature, the Qumran scrolls expressed absolute negation of the historical Jerusalem and temple.  The sect anticipates a new Jerusalem and a new temple in which atonement will be achieved, not by means of the flesh of burnt-offerings and the fat of the sacrifices, but by  a spiritual sacrifice “of lips of justice like a righteous fragrance” (1QS ix 4-5).  The scrolls of this mysterious sect also include chapters and fragments of works from the apocalyptic literature (such as the Book of Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Book of Jubilees, etc.), which likewise betray an ideological proximity to the world of Christianity.” (The Destruction of Jerusalem and the idea of Redemption, p. 13)

Peter Schafer (2003)
“One thing both movements (Qumran and Bar Kochba) would have had in common was the fight against Rome, for it is almost certain that the term “Kittim” in the Qumran texts stemming from the final phase of the Qumran community is a reference to the Romans.” (The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World, p. 152)

Lawrence Schiffman (2001)
“For many years, the Dead Sea sect had expected the Roman conquest of Palestine.  The Dead Sea sectarians felt confident that the coming of the Kittim – as they called the Romans – would trigger the great eschatological battle.  But this final, expected war failed to materialize after the Romans easily defeated the divided Hasmonaean state in 63 B.C.E.  By the time Jewish resistance developed into the full-scale revolt of 66-73 C.E., the Dead Sea sect had stabilized and had completed the gathering – with some possible exception – of its manuscript collection at Qumran.”  (Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scroll, p. 395)

Kittim – A place-name in the Aegean Islands, perhaps Kition in Cyprus, that in Dead Sea Scrolls texts serves as a code word for “Romans” (Glossary)

Neil Silberman (1993)
“All these manuscripts, taken together, might be read as the recorded faith of a community of alienated, dispossessed Jewish priests and their followers who remained true to the strictest possible interpretation of the biblical laws.  They also remained true to the hope for national redemption from the yoke of the people they called the Kittim — and we call the Romans — idolatrous invaders from across the sea “who trample the earth with their horses and beasts.” (The Hidden Scrolls, p. 3)

F.F. Bruce (1910-1990)
“They believed that the iniquities of the Wicked Priest and his associates would bring the judgement of God upon them.  As time went on, they came to see clearly who would be the instruments of God’s judgement.  God was raising up the ‘Kittim’ for this purpose, and by the ‘Kittim’, as has been said above, they probably meant the Romans.  It was indeed the Romans who, by their occupation of Judaea in 63 B.C., put an end to Hasmonaean domination; but the Qumran community could see the shape of things to come before that date.  They also saw that the Romans would exceed the terms of their commission and incur the divine judgement themselves because of their impiety and rapacity.” (New Testament History – Kittim is Rome)

John Dominic Crosson
“The Romans were not singled out as much in their secterian documents, although against them, in their so-called War Scroll, they were preparing to fight the ultimate apocalyptic battle.  This was to take place at the end time, when Sons of Light, the members of the group, were to clash with the Sons of Darkness, the Romans, code-named the Kittim.  A battle against Rome did take place eventually, when the Roman general and soon-to-be emperor Vespasian marched through the area on his way to Jerusalem in the early summer of 68 C.E.  But the Qumran Essenes’ final battle did not end as the War Scroll imagined.  What de Vaux labeled and archeologists still call Phase II of the site ended in fiery destruction, with Roman arrowheads scattered around the site.  In their final desperate act, the members took and hid their sacred scrolls in nearby caves, rolled up in storage jars with bowls and lids, and they were not discovered again until a Bedouin shepherd stumbled upon them in 1947.” (Excavating Jesus, p. 158)

Michael Baigent (1991)
“The ‘War Scroll’ imparts a metaphysical and theological dimension to the struggle against the ‘Kittim’ by depicting it as a clash between the ‘Sons of Light’ and the ‘Sons of Darkness’.  More importantly still, however, the scroll contains a vital clue to its own dating and chronology.  When speaking of the ‘Kittim’, the text refers quite explicitly to their ‘king’.  The ‘Kittim’ concerned cannot, therefore, be the soldiers of republican Rome, who invaded Palestine in 63 B.C. and who had no monarch.  On the contrary, they would have to be the soldiers of imperial Rome, who invaded in the wake of the revolt of AD66.. It is thus clear that the ‘War Scroll’ must be seen in the context not of pre-Christian times, but of the 1st century. (Dead Sea Scrolls Deception, p. 142)

“The `Habakkuk Commentary’, for example, alludes to a specific practice – victorious Roman troops making sacrificial offerings to their standards.  Josephus provides written evidence for this practice at the time of the fall of the Temple in AD70.  And it is, in fact, a practice that would make no sense under the republic, when victorious troops would have offered sacrifices to their gods.  Only with the creation of the empire, when the emperor himself was accorded the status of divinity, becoming the supreme god for his subjects, would his image, or token, or monogram, be emblazoned on the standards of his soldiers.  The ‘Habakkuk Commentary’, therefore, like the ‘War Scroll’, the ‘Temple Scroll’ and the Damascus Document’, points specifically to the Herodian epoch.” (p. 150)

John C. Trever (1965)
“The new leather fragment now provided a first-century B.C.-A.D. testimony to the accuracy of the text as it has been preserved – Kasidim was clearly in the text used by the copyist.  The next line, however, begins, “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim….” The modern theory had already been propounded by interpretation by the ancient community two thousand years earlier!” (The Untold Story of Qumran, p. 97)

Marcus Wood (2000)
Nevertheless, my main point of concern would relate to your suggestion that in 1QpHab the Kittim are clearly the Romans. This is the very point I am attempting to cast some doubt upon. On studying the Habakkuk pesher I am still in some doubt as to what the ‘telling’ points of this identification are. My research into the standards debate as a whole suggests that the pesherist’s argument is contrived from the biblical prophecy itself, combined with a more general reverent attitude to worship of standards that might be applied to any number of ancient groups. In other words it is not entirely necessary to apply this to any specific historical event. Another aspect of the argument often cited concerns the reference to the ‘eagle’. Obviously the eagle is well associated with Rome, but again this aspect is drawn directly from the prophecy itself. Instead I come to the uneasy conclusion that the general feeling portrayed in the pesher better fits the Roman advances during the broad historical period than any other nation, though precise identifications are difficult to tie down. That said, however, I agree that the reference to the Kittim in pNah clearly represents the Romans.”




‘Kittim’ as ‘the Romans’ interpretation early example of precise preterist interpretations.  The coming destruction at the hands of a ‘heathen power’ was an ancient message, dating before Moses’ declarations in Deuteronomy 28.  However, the identification of this ‘heathen power’ as Rome (Kittim) is found in Septuagint Daniel and the Habakkuk Commentary found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.  The Syriac Commentary on the Septuagint’s Daniel dates between 3rd century B.C. – 1st century B.C.; The “Habakkuk Scroll” dates “prior to 63 B.C.”

Habakkuk 1:6
“For, behold, I raise up the Kasdim, that bitter and hasty nation, that march through the breadth of the eretz, to possess dwelling places that are not theirs.”

“Its interpretation concerns the Kittim”

in Daniel 11:30

“For the Romans shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and shall return, and have indignation against the holy covenant, and shall do [his pleasure]: he shall even return, and have regard to those who forsake the holy covenant.”

 Daniel 11:30 (h) That is, the Romaine power shal come Geneva Bible Notes

Habakkuk 1:11
“Then he sweeps by like the wind, and goes on.  He is indeed guilty, whose strength is his god.”

“Interpreted, [this concerns] the commanders of the Kittim who, on the counsel of [the] House of Guilt, pass one in front of the other; one after another [their] commanders come to lay waste the earth.”


Jozef Milik
“666 Spelling” of Nero Caesar

Milik Translated Aramaic document from Murabba’at, dated to the “second year of the emperor Nero,” where the name is spelled ‘rsq nwrn’ (=666)
Member of Original Dead Sea Scrolls Editorial Board
  John C. Trever
“The new leather fragment now provided a first-century B.C.-A.D. testimony to the accuracy of the text as it has been preserved – Kasidim was clearly in the text used by the copyist.  The next line, however, begins, “Its interpretation concerns the Kittim.…” The modern theory had already been propounded by interpretation by the ancient community two thousand years earlier!” – John C. Trever, The Untold Story of Qumran
DSS | Revelations | Obit
(d. 4/29/2006)


DSS Copper Scroll “In the fortress which is in the Vale of Achor, forty cubits under the steps entering to the east: a money chest and it [sic] contents, of a weight of seventeen talents.” So begins the first column of the Copper Scroll, one of the most intriguing, and baffling, scrolls to be found among the collection known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. Sounding like something out of an Indiana Jones movie, the text of the Copper Scroll (3Q15) describes vast amounts of buried treasure. Some believe the scrolls refer to Temple treasure, hidden for safekeeping before the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 C.E.”

1.The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in eleven caves along the northwest shore of the Dead Sea between the years 1947 and 1956. The area is 13 miles east of Jerusalem and is 1300 feet below sea level. The mostly fragmented texts, are numbered according to the cave that they came out of. They have been called the greatest manuscript discovery of modern times.

2. Only Caves 1 and 11 have produced relatively intact manuscripts. Discovered in 1952, Cave 4 produced the largest find. About 15,000 fragments from more than 500 manuscripts were found.

  1. In all, scholars have identified the remains of about 825 to 870 separate scrolls.
  2. The Scrolls can be divided into two categories—biblical and non-biblical. Fragments of every book of the Hebrew canon (Old Testament) have been discovered except for the book of Esther.
  3. There are now identified among the scrolls, 19 copies of the Book of Isaiah, 25 copies of Deuteronomy and 30 copies of the Psalms .
  4. Prophecies by Ezekiel, Jeremiah and Daniel not found in the Bible are written in the Scrolls.
  5. The Isaiah Scroll, found relatively intact, is 1000 years older than any previously known copy of Isaiah. In fact, the scrolls are the oldest group of Old Testament manuscripts ever found.
  6. In the Scrolls are found never before seen psalms attributed to King David and Joshua.

    9.There are nonbiblical writings along the order of commentaries on the OT, paraphrases that expand on the Law, rule books of the community, war conduct, thanksgiving psalms, hymnic compositions, benedictions, liturgical texts, and sapiential (wisdom) writings.

  7. The Scrolls are for the most part, written in Hebrew, but there are many written in Aramaic. Aramaic was the common language of the Jews of Palestine for the last two centuries B.C. and of the first two centuries A.D. The discovery of the Scrolls has greatly enhanced our knowledge of these two languages. In addition, there are a few texts written in Greek.
  8. The Scrolls appear to be the library of a Jewish sect. The library was hidden away in caves around the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt (A.D. 66-70) as the Roman army advanced against the rebel Jews.
  9. Near the caves are the ancient ruins of Qumran. They were excavated in the early 1950’s and appear to be connected with the scrolls.
  10. The Dead Sea Scrolls were most likely written by the Essenes during the period from about 200 B.C. to 68 C.E./A.D. The Essenes are mentioned by Josephus and in a few other sources, but not in the New testament. The Essenes were a strict Torah observant, Messianic, apocalyptic, baptist, wilderness, new covenant Jewish sect. They were led by a priest they called the “Teacher of Righteousness,” who was opposed and possibly killed by the establishment priesthood in Jerusalem.
  11. The enemies of the Qumran community were called the “Sons of Darkness”; they called themselves the “Sons of Light,” “the poor,” and members of “the Way.” They thought of themselves as “the holy ones,” who lived in “the house of holiness,” because “the Holy Spirit” dwelt with them.
  12. The last words of Joseph, Judah, Levi, Naphtali, and Amram (the father of Moses) are written down in the Scrolls.

    16. One of the most curious scrolls is the Copper Scroll. Discovered in Cave 3, this scroll records a list of 64 underground hiding places throughout the land of Israel. The deposits are to contain certain amounts of gold, silver, aromatics, and manuscripts. These are believed to be treasures from the Temple at Jerusalem, that were hidden away for safekeeping.

  13. The Temple Scroll, found in Cave 11, is the longest scroll. Its present total length is 26.7 feet (8.148 meters). The overall length of the scroll must have been over 28 feet (8.75m).
  14. The scrolls contain previously unknown stories about biblical figures such asEnoch, Abraham, and Noah. The story of Abraham includes an explanation why God asked Abraham to sacrifice his only son Isaac.
  15. The scrolls are most commonly made of animal skins, but also papyrus and one of copper. They are written with a carbon-based ink, from right to left, using no punctuation except for an occasional paragraph indentation. In fact, in some cases, there are not even spaces between the words.
  16. The Scrolls have revolutionized textual criticism of the Old Testament. Interestingly, now with manuscripts predating the medieval period, we find these texts in substantial agreement with the Masoretic text as well as widely variant forms.

    21. Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls actually appeared for sale on June 1, 1954 in theWall Street Journal. The advertisement read — “The Four Dead Sea Scrolls: Biblical manuscripts dating back to at least 200 BC are for sale. This would be an ideal gift to an educational or religious institution by an individual or group. Box F206.”

  17. Although the Qumran community existed during the time of the ministry of Jesus, none of the Scrolls refer to Him, nor do they mention any of His follower’s described in the New Testament.
  18. The major intact texts, from Caves 1 & 11, were published by the late fifties and are now housed in theShrine of the Bookmuseum in Jerusalem.
  19. Since the late fifties, about 40% of the Scrolls, mostly fragments from Cave 4, remained unpublished and were unaccessible. It wasn’t until 1991, 44 years after the discovery of the first Scroll, after the pressure for publication mounted, that general access was made available to photographs of the Scrolls. In November of 1991 the photos were published by theBiblical Archaeological Societyin a nonofficial edition; a computer reconstruction, based on a concordance, was announced; the Huntington Library pledged to open their microfilm files of all the scroll photographs.
  20. The Dead Sea Scrolls enhance our knowledge of both Judaism and Christianity. They represent a non-rabbinic form of Judaism and provide a wealth of comparative material for New Testament scholars, including many important parallels to the Jesus movement. They show Christianity to be rooted in Judaism and have been called the evolutionary link between the two.

(From Century One Bookstore)





Index to Manuscript Images from the Judean Desert on
The Dead Sea Scrolls Revealed CD-ROM
published by Pixel Multimedia and Aaron Witkin Associates (1994)
and distributed by Logos Systems


    1.1 “Sectarian” 1QS [Community Rule, Manual of Discipline]

    0040.txt 1QS “Community Rule, Serekh Hay-Yahad”
    0044.txt 1QS “Covenant with God”
    0046.txt 1QS “Daily Life”
    0053.txt 1QS “Details of Worldview”
    0092.txt 1QS “General Assembly”
    0160.txt 1QS “New Members”
    0257.txt 1QS “The Council and Seniors”
    0284.txt 1QS “Transgressing Members”
    3002=4002 1QS cols 1-3 (Vermes)
    3115=4115 1QS col 1.1-13 (Vermes)
    3128=4128 1QS col 1.14-26 (Vermes)
    3137=4137 1QS col 2.1-12 (Vermes)
    3142=4142 1QS col 2.13-26 (Vermes)
    3145=4145 1QS col 3.1-12 (Vermes)
    3147=4147 1QS col 3.13-26 (Vermes)
    1008      1QS closeup, lower part of col 3
    3152=4152 1QS cols 4-5 (Vermes)
    3180=4180 1QS col 4.1-14 (Vermes)
    3189=4189 1QS col 4.15-26 (Vermes)
    3196=4196 1QS col 5.1-13 (Vermes)
    3201=4201 1QS col 5.14-26 (Vermes)
    3211=4211 1QS cols 5-6 (Vermes)
    3219=4219 1QS col 6.1-13 (Vermes)
    3225=4225 1QS col 6.14-27 (Vermes)
    3233=4233 1QS cols 7-8 (Vermes)
    1024      1QS closeup, sewing join between cols 7-8 (middle)
    1026      1QS closeup, interlinear writing, tetragr., col 8 (mid)
    3251=4251 1QS col 7.1-12 (Vermes)
    3253=4253 1QS col 7.13-24 (Vermes)
    3240=4240 1QS col 8.1-14 (Vermes)
    3246=4246 1QS col 8.15-26 (Vermes)
    3256=4256 1QS cols 8-9 (Vermes)
    1025      1QS closeup, “Chinese” sign between cols 8-9 (top)
    3262=4262 1QS col 9.1-11 (Vermes)
    3268=4268 1QS col 9.12-26 (Vermes)
    3284=4284 1QS cols 10-11 (Vermes)
    3290=4290 1QS col 10.1-12 (Vermes)
    3294=4294 1QS col 10.13-26 (Vermes)
    3298=4298 1QS col 11.1-22 (Vermes)
    1087      4QS\d = 4Q258 cols 7-8 (PAM 42.376)
    1086      4QS\d = 4Q258 col 7 top closeup (PAM 42.376)

    1.2 “Sectarian” Damascus CDC / 4QD (4Q268, etc.)
    [NOTE: this is poorly represented on the CD-ROM]

    [movie clip] Sectarian Scrolls: Damascus Document — shows other
    fragments not 4Q268, general and closeup
    0048.txt CDC Damascus Document: Brit Damsek (general)
    0155.txt CDC “Most Important Discovery”
    0104.txt CDC “History of the Sect” (= part 1)
    0203.txt CDC “Regulations and Laws” (= part 2)
    1097 sepia, page of CDC with (Schechter’s ?) handwriting below
    3004=4004 4Q268 (=4QD\c) six clusters of frgs (no text)
    1098      4Q268 (=4QD\c) frgs in 6 clusters [same as 3004]
    3117=4117 4Q268 (=4QD\c) largest cluster (Baumgarten)
    1096      4Q268 (=4QD\c) closeup, near top, 4-5 lines
    1095      4Q268 (=4QD\c) closeup, stitching holes on left, 5-6 lines

    1.3 “Sectarian” 4QMMT [Some Precepts of the Torah]

    0075.txt “Migzat Ma’asei ha-Torah”
    0153.txt “MIGZAT MA’ASEI HA-TORAH (Some of the Precepts of the Torah)”
    0159.txt “Migzat Ma’asei ha-Torah New Insights”
    3008=4008 4QMMT (no text provided) the fragments (=1255)
    1255      4QMMT the fragments (=3008)
    1254      4QMMT one section of fragmented manuscript
    3120=4120 4QMMT (Strugnell-Qimron) part of 1254 section
    1252      4QMMT fragmented part of manuscript, 4 lines
    1253      4QMMT fragmented part of manuscript, 4 lines

    1.4 “Sectarian” 11QTemple Scroll (mostly 11Q19 = MS a)

    0166.txt “Modern Analysis: …Opening Temple Scroll”
    0244.txt “Modern Analysis: Opening and Preservation, Temple Scroll”
    0156.txt “The Discovery: Yadin and the Temple Scroll, ‘Mr.Z'”
    0113.txt “The Discovery: Yadin and the Temple Scroll, In a Shoe Box”
    0295.txt “Temple Scroll: Utopian Temple Plans”
    0259.txt “Temple Scroll: The Holidays”
    0198.txt “Temple Scroll: Purity of Jerusalem”
    0139.txt “Temple Scroll: Laws of the King”
    0110.txt “Temple Scroll: Imaginary Temple”
    3011=4011 11QTemple col 15.13-18 (Yadin)
    1422      11QTemple reverse of 3011, with “mirror writing”
    1426      11QTemple cols 41-43 (=3158)
    3158=4158 11QTemple cols 41-43 (Yadin) (=1426)
    3185=4185 11QTemple col 41.8-17 (Yadin)
    1425      11QTemple cols 42-44 (=3217)
    3217=4217 11QTemple cols 42-44 (Yadin) (=1425)
    3193=4193 11QTemple col 42.7-17 (Yadin)
    3199=4199 11QTemple col 43.4-12 (Yadin)
    3204=4204 11QTemple col 43.12-17 (Yadin)
    3223=4223 11QTemple col 44.7-13 (Yadin)
    3238=4238 11QTemple col 57 (Yadin)
    3243=4243 11QTemple col 57.1-11 (Yadin)
    3249=4249 11QTemple col 57.15-21 (Yadin)

    1.5 “Sectarian” 1QM [War Scroll]

    0300.txt “History, Beliefs, Eschatology: War Scroll”
    0049.txt “The War Scroll: Dating the Scroll”
    0051.txt “The War Scroll: Describes Wars”
    0229.txt “The War Scroll: Seven-Stage War”
    0234.txt “The War Scroll: Special Descriptions”
    1448      1QM War Scroll before it was opened
    1447      1QM Fragments of the War Scroll
    1446      1QM (verso) Fragments of the War Scroll
    1260      1QM? possibly more fragments
    1369      1QM cols 5-10 mounted for display (b/w)
    3013=4013 1QM cols 5-6 (Yadin)
    3123=4123 1QM col 5.3-14 (Yadin)
    3133=4133 1QM col 6.1-15 (Yadin)
    3159=4159 1QM cols 7-8 (Yadin)
    3186=4186 1QM col 7.1-13 (Yadin)
    3194=4194 1QM col 8 (Yadin)
    3218=4218 1QM cols 9-10 (Yadin)
    3224=4224 1QM col 9.3-16 (Yadin)
    3228=4228 1QM col 10.1-13 (Yadin)
    3239=4239 1QM cols 11-12 (Yadin)
    3244=4244 1QM col 11.1-12 (Yadin)
    1444      1QM cols 11-13 (=3239 plus)
    1445      1QM cols 12-14 (=3239, 1444, 1443)
    1443      1QM cols 14-15 (=3261)
    3261=4261 1QM cols 14-15 (Yadin)
    3266=4266 1QM col 14.2-7 (Yadin)
    3272=4272 1QM col 14.8-14 (Yadin)
    3276=4276 1QM col 15.1-6 (Yadin)
    3279=4279 1QM col 15.4-14 (Yadin)
    3281=4281 1QM col 15.7-14 (Yadin)
    1442      4Q285 fragments including “Pierced Messiah” text
    3289=4289 4Q285(5) “Pierced Messiah” fragment (Vermes)
    0298.txt  4Q285 WAR RULE: “Pierced Messiah Fragment”
    0299.txt  4Q285 WAR RULE: Vermes’ translation of 298

    1.6 “Sectarian” 1QH [Hodayot, Thanksgiving Hymns]

    0109.txt Thanksgiving Scroll (1QH)
    1434      1QH as found (b/w)
    1433      1QH beginning to be opened (b/w)
    1020      1QH b/w crumpled, part open
    1417      1QH Sukenik looking at “2nd & 3rd sheets”
    1455      1QH(?) Yadin working on a manuscript (b/w)
    1306      1QH 5 lines, color, waxy, closeup
    1432      1QH b/w infra red photo
    1274      1QH Prof. Bieberkraut at work with fragments (b/w)
    3012=4012 1QH cols 1-4 (Vermes)
    3122=4122 1QH col 2.7-21 (Vermes)
    1109      1QH col 2 closeup, 6 lines, orange color
    1110      1QH col 2 closeup, 7 lines
    1431      1QH col 2 closeup, 7 lines (color)
    3132=4132 1QH col 2.22-36 (Vermes)
    3139=4139 1QH col 3.6-21 (Vermes)
    1430      1QH col 3 closeup (hole in middle, 8 lines)
    3144=4144 1QH col 3.22-36 (Vermes)

    1.7 “Sectarian” Pesharim

    0235.txt “Pesharim: Special Literary Form”

    1.7.1 Pesher Hosea

    0106.txt “HOSEA COMMENTARY: PESHER HOSHEA (4Q frag)”
    3326=4326 4QpHosea cols 1-2 (Horgan)
    3333=4333 4QpHosea col 2.1-9 (Horgan)
    1193      4QpHosea col 2.3-6 closeup
    3329=4329 4QpHosea col 2.11-19 (Horgan)
    1192      4QpHosea col 2 closeup (lower section)

    1.7.2 Pesher Nahum

    0037.txt “Pesher Nahum: Clear Historical Data”
    1032 4QpNah Allegro at table with 4-5 cols displayed b/w
    1283 4QpNah b/w 2 cols top of frg doc, sm frgs below (see 1268)
    1267 4QpNah b/w 5+ lines of top of 1283
    1268 4QpNah b/w 7 lines (one interlined) and sm frg (see 1283 below)
    3151=4151 4QpNah cols 1-2 (Allegro) (see 1283, etc.)
    3126=4126 4QpNah col 2.1-11 (Allegro) (see 1267, etc.)

    1.7.3 Pesher Habakkuk

    0136.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: Kittim”
    0204.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: Relates to Prophecies”
    0277.txt “Pesher Habakkuk: The Wicked Priest”
    3005=4005 1QpHab cols 1-3 (Vermes)
    3118=4118 1QpHab col 2 (Vermes)
    3130=4130 1QpHab col 3 (Vermes)
    1179      1QpHab cols 4-6
    3153=4153 1QpHab cols 4-5 (Vermes)
    3181=4181 1QpHab col 4 (Vermes)
    3190=4190 1QpHab col 5 (Vermes)
    3212=4212 1QpHab cols 6-7 (Vermes)
    3220=4220 1QpHab col 6 (Vermes)
    3226=4226 1QpHab col 7 (Vermes)
    1177      1QpHab col 7 closeup
    3234=4234 1QpHab cols 8-9 (Vermes)
    3241=4241 1QpHab col 8 (Vermes)
    3257=4257 1QpHab cols 10-11 (Vermes)
    1178      1QpHab col 10 closeup
    3247=4247 1QpHab col 10 (Vermes)
    3263=4263 1QpHab col 10 (Vermes)
    1352      1QpHab cols 11-13
    3269=4269 1QpHab col 11 (Vermes)
    3285=4285 1QpHab cols 12-13 (Vermes)
    3291=4291 1QpHab col 12 (Vermes)
    3295=4295 1QpHab col 13 (Vermes)

    1.8 “Sectarian” Prayer for King Jonathan = 4Q448

    3039=4039 4QPrayer for King Jonathan 4Q Eshel-Eshel-Yardeni
    3041=4041 4QPrayer for King Jonathan col A 1-10
    1296      4QPrayer for King Jonathan closeup of tab at right
    3044=4044 4QPrayer for King Jonathan col B-C
    1297      4QPrayer for King Jonathan col C (closeup)

    1.9 “Sectarian” 3QCopperPlaques

    0165.txt “Modern Analysis: … Opening Copper Scroll”
    0005.txt “The Copper Scroll: A Scroll of Copper”
    0010.txt “The Copper Scroll: Amazing Worth”
    0102.txt “The Copper Scroll: Hidden Treasures”
    0200.txt “The Copper Scroll: Real or Imaginary?”
    1395 dusting the Copper scrolls (in situ?)
    1089 rolled scrolls
    1379 rolled up Copper Plaques on dark orange background
    1082 technician cleaning the scroll
    1363 b/w picture of one of the Copper Plaques
    1436 Jig holding Copper Roll
    1453 Prof Wright-Baker cutting open the Copper Plaques (b/w)
    1404 man handling piece of copper fragment
    1088 strips of the copper scroll in drawers
    3003=4003 3QCopper cols 7-8 (Allegro)
    3116=4116 3QCopper col 7.3-10 (Allegro)
    3129=4129 3QCopper col 7.11-16 (Allegro)


    2.1 Exodus (paleo-Hebrew)

    3341=4341 4QEx paleo-Heb cols 1-2 = Ex 6.25-7.19
    3344=4344 4QEx paleo-Heb col 1.4-11 = Ex 6.35-7.16
    1131      4QEx paleo-Heb col 1 closeup (right)
    1130      4QEx paleo-Heb col 1 closeup (left)

    2.2 Leviticus (mostly paleo-Hebrew)

    0141.txt LEVITICUS VA-KIRA
    0142.txt LEVITICUS VA-KIRA
    1139      11QLev b/w scraps
    1233      11QLev b/w small fragments
    1234      11QLev b/w larger image of small fragments
    3287=4287 11QLev col 0 = Lev 21.6-11
    1134      11QLev col 0 (identical to 3387)
    3007=4007 11QLev col 1 = Lev 22.21-27
    3155=4155 11QLev col 2 = Lev 23.22-29
    3214=4214 11QLev col 3 = Lev 24.9-14
    1235      11QLev cols 4-5
    3000=4000 11QLev col 4 = Lev 25.28-36
    3236=4236 11QLev col 5 = Lev 26.17-26
    3259=4259 11QLev col 6 = Lev 27.11-19
    1228      4QLXXLev\a = 4Q119 (PAM 42.583) (b/w)

    2.3 Deuteronomy

    0054.txt (Deuteronomy)
    3306=4306 Deuteronomy col 1 = Deut 8.5-10
    1113      Deut col 1 (identical to 3306)
    1111      Deut col 1 closeup of 3 lines of 1113 = 3306
    3309=4309 Deuteronomy cols 2-3 = Deut 5.1-5,6-14
    3317=4317 Deuteronomy cols 4-5 = Deut 5.15-25
    3313=4313 Deuteronomy cols 5-6 = Deut 5.19-25, 26-30
    3320=4320 Deuteronomy panel = Deut 29.13-31.5

    2.4 Psalms

    0055.txt (Pss) “Psalms Differences in Order”
    0112.txt (Pss) “Psalms Importance of Psalms”
    0194.txt (Pss) PSALMS TEHILLIM
    0195.txt (Pss) TEHILLIM Col 19: Plea for Deliverance (A Noncanonical Psalm)
    0285.txt (Pss) Psalms-Twenty Copies Found
    0290.txt (Pss) Psalms-Unknown Psalm
    0309.txt (Pss) Psalms Written by King David
    1303      11QPss before unrolling
    1327      11QPss before unrolling, with box with frgs (b/w)
    1302      11QPss partly unrolled
    3010=4010 11QPss cols 6-8 = Ps 132.8-18 + 119.1-49
    3157=4157 11QPss cols 9-11 = Ps 119.59-120
    3184=4184 11QPss col 9 = Ps 119.59-64
    3192=4192 11QPss col 9 = Ps 119.65-73
    3198=4198 11QPss col 10 = Ps 119.82-88
    3203=4203 11QPss col 10 = Ps 119.89-96
    3206=4206 11QPss col 11 = Ps 119.105-112
    1308      11QPss col 11 closeup of 8 lines (= 1307)
    1304      11QPss col 11 closeup of 7 lines (= 1308)
    3208=4208 11QPss col 11 = Ps 119.13-120
    3216=4216 11QPss cols 12-13 = Ps 119.128-142
    3237=4237 11QPss cols 14-15 = Ps 119.171-176 + 135, 136
    1307      11QPss cols 15-18 (b/w)
    3260=4260 11QPss cols 16-17 = Ps 136.26ff
    3265=4265 11QPss col 16 = Ps 136.26
    3271=4271 11QPss col 16 = Ps 145.1 -7
    3275=4275 11QPss col 17 = Ps 145.13-17
    1305      11QPss closeup of col 17 with paleo-Heb tetragramms
    3278=4278 11QPss col 17 = Ps 145.17-21
    3288=4288 11QPss cols 18-19 = Syrian Apocryphal Ps 1-20 + Plea
    1367      11QPss somewhere in cols 20-24 (infra-red photo)
    1278      11QPss one of the 1367 columns
    3308=4308 11QPss cols 25-26 = Ps 142.4-7, 143, 149.7-9, etc.
    3310=4310 11QPss col 25 = Ps 142.1-7, 143.1-8
    3314=4314 11QPss col 26 = Ps 149.7-9, 150.1-6 + Hymn
    3328=4328 11QPss cols 27-28 = 2 Sam 23.7 + Note, Pss 140, 134, 151
    3330=4330 11QPss col 27 = 2 Sam 23.7, Ps 140
    3334=4334 11QPss col 28 = Ps 134.1-3, 151.1-7
    1361      11QApPs = 11Q11 cols 1-2 (PAM 44.113)
    3343=4343 (Masada) Ps 82.1-2
    1306      (Masada) Ps 82 closeup of 5+ lines of 3343

    2.5 Isaiah

    0246.txt (Isaiah) Isaiah Textual Differences
    0083.txt (Isaiah)Isaiah First Scroll Found
    1402 colored picture of the inside of the Shrine of the Book (with
    the ark containing all of the scroll of Isaiah\a in the center)
    1353 man and woman looking at Isaiah\a scroll in Shrine
    1351 Shrine of Book display cylinder for Isaiah\a scroll
    1366      1QIsa\a cols 1ff on display, with observers
    3006=4006 1QIsa\a cols 1-3
    3119=4119 1QIsa\a col 1 = Isa 1.1-13
    3131=4131 1QIsa\a col 1 = Isa 1.13-26
    3138=4138 1QIsa\a col 2 = Isa 1.26-2.4
    3143=4143 1QIsa\a col 2 = Isa 2.5-21
    3146=4146 1QIsa\a col 3 = Isa 2.21-3.10
    3148=4148 1QIsa\a col 3 = Isa 3.10-23
    3154=4154 1QIsa\a cols 4-6
    3182=4182 1QIsa\a col 4 = Isa 3.24-5.4
    3191=4191 1QIsa\a col 4 = Isa 5.4-14
    3197=4197 1QIsa\a col 5 = Isa 5.14-26
    3202=4202 1QIsa\a col 5 = Isa 5.26-6.7
    3205=4205 1QIsa\a col 6 = Isa 6.7-7.2
    3207=4207 1QIsa\a col 6 = Isa 7.3-14
    3213=4213 1QIsa\a cols 7-9
    3221=4221 1QIsa\a col 7 = Isa 7.15-21
    3227=4227 1QIsa\a col 7 = Isa 7.22-8.8
    3229=4229 1QIsa\a col 8 = Isa 8.8-21
    3230=4230 1QIsa\a col 8 = Isa 8.22-9.11
    3235=4235 1QIsa\a cols 9-11
    3232=4232 1QIsa\a col 9 = Isa 9.11-20
    3231=4231 1QIsa\a col 9 = Isa 10.1-14
    3242=4242 1QIsa\a col 10 = Isa 10.14-29
    3248=4248 1QIsa\a col 10 = Isa 10.29-11.12
    3252=4252 1QIsa\a col 11 = Isa 11.12-13.6
    3254=4254 1QIsa\a col 11 = Isa 13.6-14.1
    3258=4258 1QIsa\a cols 12-14
    3264=4264 1QIsa\a col 12 = Isa 14.1-13
    3270=4270 1QIsa\a col 12 = Isa 14.13-29
    3274=4274 1QIsa\a col 13 = Isa 14.29-15.9
    3277=4277 1QIsa\a col 13 = Isa 15.9-16.13
    3280=4280 1QIsa\a col 14 = Isa 16.14-17.10
    3282=4282 1QIsa\a col 14 = Isa 17.10-18.7
    3286=4286 1QIsa\a cols 15-17
    3292=4292 1QIsa\a col 15 = Isa 18.7-19.12
    3296=4296 1QIsa\a col 15 = Isa 19.13-25
    3299=4299 1QIsa\a col 16 = Isa 19.23-20.6
    3301=4301 1QIsa\a col 16 = Isa 21.1-15
    3303=4303 1QIsa\a col 17 = Isa 21.15-22.11
    3304=4304 1QIsa\a col 17 = Isa 22.12-24
    3307=4307 1QIsa\a cols 18-20
    3311=4311 1QIsa\a col 18 = Isa 22.24-23.12
    3315=4315 1QIsa\a col 18 = Isa 23.13-24.4
    3318=4318 1QIsa\a col 19 = Isa 24.4-18
    3321=4321 1QIsa\a col 19 = Isa 24.18-25.5
    1027      1QIsa\a sewn join between cols 19 and 20, closeup
    3327=4327 1QIsa\a cols 20-22
    3323=4323 1QIsa\a col 20 = Isa 25.6-12
    3324=4324 1QIsa\a col 20 = Isa 26.1-18
    3331=4331 1QIsa\a col 21 = Isa 26.19-27.8
    3335=4335 1QIsa\a col 21 = Isa 27.9-28.2
    3337=4337 1QIsa\a col 22 = Isa 28.2-13
    3338=4338 1QIsa\a col 22 = Isa 28.14-23
    3342=4342 1QIsa\a cols 23-25
    3345=4345 1QIsa\a col 23 = Isa 228.4-29.8
    3348=4348 1QIsa\a col 23 = Isa 29.9-21
    3349=4349 1QIsa\a col 24 = Isa 29.21-30.9
    3350=4350 1QIsa\a col 24 = Isa 30.9-20
    3015=4015 1QIsa\a cols 25-27
    3351=4351 1QIsa\a col 25 = Isa 30.20-29
    3352=4352 1QIsa\a col 25 = Isa 30.29-31.4
    3017=4017 1QIsa\a col 26 = Isa 31.5-32.6
    3019=4019 1QIsa\a col 26 = Isa 32.7-33.1
    3023=4023 1QIsa\a col 27 = Isa 33.1-15
    3021=4021 1QIsa\a col 27 = Isa 33.15-33.24
    3026=4026 1QIsa\a cols 28-29
    3032=4032 1QIsa\a col 28 = Isa 34.1-15
    3034=4034 1QIsa\a col 28 = Isa 34.16-36.2
    3035=4035 1QIsa\a col 29 = Isa 36.3-10
    3036=4036 1QIsa\a col 29 = Isa 36.10-20
    3038=4038 1QIsa\a cols 30-32
    3040=4040 1QIsa\a col 30 = Isa 36.20-37.10
    1049      1QIsa\a cols 30-31 = Isa 37.4ff glued join? closeup
    3043=4043 1QIsa\a col 30 = Isa 37.10-24
    3046=4046 1QIsa\a col 31 = Isa 37.24-35
    3048=4048 1QIsa\a col 31 = Isa 37.36-38.8
    3050=4050 1QIsa\a col 32 = Isa 38.9-20
    3051=4051 1QIsa\a col 32 = Isa 38.20-40.1
    3053=4053 1QIsa\a cols 34-36
    3056=4056 1QIsa\a col 34 = Isa 40.28-41.11
    3059=4059 1QIsa\a col 34 = Isa 41.12-23
    3060=4060 1QIsa\a col 35 = Isa 41.23-42.5
    3061=4061 1QIsa\a col 35 = Isa 42.5-17
    3062=4062 1QIsa\a cols 36-37
    3064=4064 1QIsa\a col 36 = Isa 42.18-43.20
    3063=4063 1QIsa\a col 36 = Isa 43.7-20
    3065=4065 1QIsa\a col 37 = Isa 43.20-44.7
    3067=4067 1QIsa\a col 37 = Isa 44.8-23
    3070=4070 1QIsa\a cols 38-39
    3071=4071 1QIsa\a col 38 = Isa 44.23-45.7
    3073=4073 1QIsa\a col 38 = Isa 45.8-21
    3075=4075 1QIsa\a col 39 = Isa 45.21-46.10
    3077=4077 1QIsa\a col 39 = Isa 46.11-47.11
    3082=4082 1QIsa\a cols 40-41
    3084=4084 1QIsa\a col 40 = Isa 47.11-48.10
    3086=4086 1QIsa\a col 40 = Isa 48.12-49.4
    3087=4087 1QIsa\a col 41 = Isa 49.4-13
    3088=4088 1QIsa\a col 41 = Isa 49.4-50.1
    3089=4089 1QIsa\a cols 42-43
    3091=4091 1QIsa\a col 42 = Isa 50.1-11
    3093=4093 1QIsa\a col 42 = Isa 51.1-13
    3094=4094 1QIsa\a col 43 = Isa 51.13-23
    3095=4095 1QIsa\a col 43 = Isa 51.23-52.12
    3096=4096 1QIsa\a cols 44-46
    3098=4098 1QIsa\a col 44 = Isa 52.13-54.4
    3100=4100 1QIsa\a col 44 = Isa 53.9-54.4
    3101=4101 1QIsa\a col 45 = Isa 54.4-13
    3102=4102 1QIsa\a col 45 = Isa 54.14-55.8
    3103=4103 1QIsa\a col 46 = Isa 55.8-56.4
    3104=4104 1QIsa\a col 46 = Isa 56.4-57.2
    1313      1QIsa\a cols 47-52
    3105=4105 1QIsa\a cols 47-48
    3107=4107 1QIsa\a col 47 = Isa 57.2-13
    3109=4109 1QIsa\a col 47 = Isa 57.14-56.6
    3111=4111 1QIsa\a col 48 = Isa 58.6-59.3
    3113=4113 1QIsa\a col 48 = Isa 59.3-17
    3160=4160 1QIsa\a cols 49-50
    3161=4161 1QIsa\a col 49 = Isa 59.17-60.10
    3163=4163 1QIsa\a col 49 = Isa 60.10-61.4
    3165=4165 1QIsa\a col 50 = Isa 61.4-62.4
    3167=4167 1QIsa\a col 50 = Isa 62.4-63.4
    1209      1QIsa\a bottom of cols 49-50
    1312      1QIsa\a closeup of bottom of cols 49-50
    3170=4170 1QIsa\a cols 51-53
    3171=4171 1QIsa\a col 51 = Isa 63.4-19
    3172=4172 1QIsa\a col 51 = Isa 63.19-65.4
    3174=4174 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.4-7
    3175=4175 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.8-12
    3176=4176 1QIsa\a col 52 = Isa 65.13-18
    3173=4173 1QIsa\a cols 52-54
    3177=4177 1QIsa\a col 53 = Isa 65.19-66.4
    3178=4178 1QIsa\a col 53 = Isa 66.4-14
    3179=4179 1QIsa\a col 54 = Isa 66.14-24
    1062      1QIsa\a col 54 closeup of 10 lines at top
    1206      1QIsa\b four cols (see also 1207, 1138)
    1207      1QIsa\b full third col of 1206
    1138      1QIsa\b closeup of top of 1207, infra red photo

    2.6 Ezekiel

    1132 Masada Ezekiel Fragments in situ

    3. “Para-Biblical” Materials, “Apocrypha” and “Pseudepigrapha”

    3.1 Wisdom of Joshua ben Sira (“Sirach” in the “Apocrypha”)

    0167.txt “Ben Sira: Opposed Hellenism”
    0304.txt “Ben Sira: Wisdom Literature”
    1052      Masada Ben Sira, in situ, blobs b/w
    1053      Masada Ben Sira panel, 3 cols b/w
    1054      Masada Ben Sira panel, 3 cols b/w
    1053      Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (=1054)
    1054      Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (=1053)
    3001=4001 Masada Ben Sira cols 4-6 (Yadin)
    3114=4114 Masada Ben Sira col 4.1-11 (Yadin)
    3127=4127 Masada Ben Sira col 5.1-11 (Yadin)
    3136=4136 Masada Ben Sira col 6.1-14 (Yadin)
    3003=4003 Masada Ben Sira (Yadin)

    3.2 Enoch (“1 Enoch” in the “Pseudepigrapha”)

    1123      4QEnoch (large view)
    3014=4014 4QEnoch
    3016=4016 4QEnoch
    1121      4QEnoch closeup
    1122      4QEnoch closeup

    3.3 Genesis Apocryphon (not previously known)

    0162.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
    0097.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
    0007.txt (Genesis Apocryphon)
    1149      1QapGen before it was opened
    1148      1QapGen before opening, closeup
    1164      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
    1165      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
    1166      1QapGen b/w Prof. Bieberkraut at work
    1143      1QapGen b/w closeup
    1167      1QapGen cols 17-21
    3149=4149 1QapGen col 20 (Vermes)
    3124=4124 1QapGen col 20.2-12 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
    3134=4134 1QapGen col 20.13-23 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
    3140=4140 1QapGen col 20.24-34 (Vermes [sic = Vermez])
    3209=4209 1QapGen col 21 (Vermes)
    3187=4187 1QapGen col 21.1-13 (Vermes)
    3195=4195 1QapGen col 21.14-23 (Vermes)
    3200=4200 1QapGen col 21.24-34 (Vermes)

    3.4 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (not previously known)

    1399      4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice closeup of col 1
    3058=4058 4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice (Newsom)
    1400      4QSongs of Sabbath Sacrifice closeup
    1409      (Masada) Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice

    3.5 Tefillin/Phylacteries (using scriptural passages)

    1018 Qumran phylactery cases, 4 lumps (b/w)
    1286 Qumran tefillin box opened, 4 compartments (b/w)
    1114 tefillin (Deut) and box, modern (color)
    3009=4009 Phylactery, with Ex 13.7-16 and Deut 6.4-9 (color)
    3121=4121 Phylactery, with Deut 6.4-9 (color)
    3156=4156 Phylactery B, with Deut 5.1-21 and Exod 13.11-16 (b/w)
    1371      Phylactery B (same as 3156)
    3183=4183 Phylactery B closeup, Deut 5.5-21


    1240 Nahal Hever Greek Minor Prophets hand B fragment (b/w)
    1050 Babata contract (upside down; papyrus)
    1405 Priestly Benediction (on silver) (see 1021?)
    1021 small roll, silver amulet (see 1405?)
    1041 Elephantine Aramaic letter [drawing] (b/w)
    1042 Elephantine ostrakon, drawing of 3 lines (b/w)
    1022 Aleppo Codex (see 1033)
    1033 Aleppo Codex (?) (see 1022)
    1284 The Times; reconstruction of Shapira roll (b/w)
    1301 Armenian Ps 151 MS with pictures to left, head on staff (b/w)


    1102 Yusuf Salad and 4Q materials in Rockefeller Museum =1362
    1362 Yusuf Salad and 4Q materials in Rockefeller Museum =1102
    1365 man (Allegro?) examining fragments on museum tables (b/w)
    1299 man (Starkey?) examining fragments on museum tables (b/w)
    1364 men (Allegro? and ?) examining fragments in boxes (b/w)
    1136 various scrolls and fragments in boxes on table (b/w)
    1347 10 boxes of fgrs, etc., 3 loose coins, neatly arranged (b/w)
    1259 tagged and numbered fragments of various sizes (b/w)
    1350 partly opened papyrus roll [unidentified] (color)
    1344 bundle of crushed papyrus rolls, with seal (b/w)
    1345 same as 1344, but slightly lighter, blurred (b/w)
    1348 strip of 7-8 seals (on papyri strips?) (b/w)


    1328 1Q scrap (shown to Sukenik) 10+ lines, dark (b/w)
    1346 7+ lines on left top of col (color)
    1287 mesh holding 8 lined, blurry doc with slit (color)
    1337 papyrus piece, 8 lines 2 col, holes (color)


    1040 amulet? Paleo Heb?
    1429 10 commandments on silver-Hebrew
    1068 Rabbinic text 1081
    1112 open book with art
    1251 drawing of a man at podium reading from scroll
    1237 photo of a man holding a scroll above a cross
    1257 photo of older man working on manuscript (modern rabb.?)
    1416 colored picture of men covered with Tallitot surrounding a
    rabbi reading a Torah scroll
    1391 b/w picture of men/scribes writing scrolls
    1390 colored picture of a present-day man observing a scroll
    1389 b/w sketch of a scribe scribing a scroll
    1375 a torah scroll. In front of it is a blue container with white
    sticks protruding from it
    1194 paper with designs
    1195 Hebrew page (printed)
    1211 colorful picture of manuscript (lettering) and scribe/priest (?)
    1279 ostrakon with 2 lines, color


    3018=4018 pots filled(top)
    3020=4020 pots filled (mid)
    3022=4022 pots filled (bottom)
    3024=4024 goblets
    3027=4027 goblet closeup 1
    3028=4028 goblet closeup 2
    3029=4029 goblet closeup 3
    3030=4030 stone vessel
    3042=4042 cup closeup 1
    3045=4045 cup closeup 2
    3047=4047 cup closeup 3
    3049=4049 cup closeup 4
    3052=4052 measuring cups: limestone
    3054=4054 wooden artifact
    3057=4057 bowl closeup
    3066=4066 combs closeup 1
    3068=4068 combs closeup 2
    3069=4069 combs all
    3072=4072 left sandal closeup 1
    3074=4074 left sandal closeup 2
    3076=4076 left sandal closeup 3
    3078=4078 right sandal closeup 1
    3079=4079 right sandal closeup 2
    3080=4080 right sandal closeup 3
    3081=4081 leather objects-all
    3083=4083 leather scroll fasteners tabs
    3085=4085 Tabs closeups
    3090=4090 textiles-all
    3092=4092 linen closeups
    3097=4097 linen cloth 2 1Q
    3099=4099 linen closeup
    3106=4106 basketry all
    3108=4108 basket closeup 1
    3110=4110 basket closeup 2
    3112=4112 basket closeup 3
    3162=4162 cored closeup 1
    3164=4164 cord closeup 2
    3166=4166 cord close 3
    3168=4168 cord close 4
    3169=4169 cordage close, Palm leaves 1Q 2Q
    3188=4188 pottery closeup 2
    3210=4210 pottery all
    3215=4215 Jar of lid
    3222=4222 pot closeup
    3245=4245 lamp close 1
    3250=4250 lamp close 2
    3255=4255 Herodian Lamp
    3267=4267 inkwell closeup 1
    3273=4273 inkwell closeup 2
    3283=4283 inkwell-main
    3293=4293 plates closeup 1
    3297=4297 plates closeup 2
    3300=4300 plates closeup 3
    3302=4302 plates closeup 4
    3305=4305 plates-main
    3312=4312 2 handled jar closeup 1
    3316=4316 2 handled jar closeup 2
    3319=4319 2 handled jar closeup 3
    3322=4322 2 handled jar closeup 4
    3325=4325 2 handled jar-main
    3332=4332 vase closeup 1
    3336=4336 vase closeup 2
    3339=4339 vase closeup 3
    3340=4340 vase main
    3346=4346 jug closeup 1
    3347=4347 jug closeup 2
    3353=4353 jug main


    1135 leather strip “7039-200”
    1141 inscribed paddle tablet
    1354 Inscribed Gk tablet, 6 lines (6 = ANAT)
    1142 clay with Gk inscr of 6-7 lines
    1174 stone tablet
    1175 same
    1183 broken stone, inscr
    1208 image of a gray stone
    1291 b/w stone inscribed 4 latin lines
    1330 b/w single line inscription on block?
    1438 inscription beginning with the word “Slavii..”
    1414 stone containig an Ancient Near Eastern inscription
    1403 inscription on stone that reads “Sea Level”
    1396 A Seal with an inscription on it
    1218 two pieces of round pottery with lettering and symbols
    1245 menorah tracing on 2 clay pieces
    3025=4025 Calendrical document (4Q Talmon-Knohl)
    3033=4033 Yahohanan Jar closeup 1
    3037=4037 Yahohanan Jar all

    MAPS and CHARTS:

    1104 Madaba map
    1217 map of Jerusalem with cities indicated and paths drawn
    1222 map of Jesusalem (highlighted), Samaria, Galilea
    1224 map of Jerusalem and cities
    1226 picture map of Jerusalem, horizon in back
    1242 ancient map of Africa, Asia and Europe
    1261 Madaba map of Jericho area
    1282 color map of near east, routes from Babylon
    1385 colored map highlighting area above Antioch?
    1435 map with highlights of the Nile River,Judea,and Mesopotamia(color)
    1382 timeline of the Roman Governors of Judea


    1037 coin with nice head (Alex?)
    1038 coin, same
    1084 coin
    1085 coin
    1310 color, front and back of coin, BASILE..
    1457 silver coins
    1459 coin back (silver)
    3125=4125 coins closeup 1
    3135=4135 coins closeup 2
    3141=4141 coind closeup 3
    3150=4150 coins


    1063 cave 4
    1069 cave 1?
    1070 caves
    1071 caves
    1151 cave
    1152 cave
    1153 other cave
    1205 inside cave
    1342 b/w stratified cliffside, caves
    1349 color, looking out from cave, slope to left, feet


    1000 man standing with pottery display (Qumran?)

    1064 Cairo Synagogue photo
    1238 photo of metal emblem with lion and lettering
    1247 photo of a priest holding staff and cross
    1248 photo of a well surrounded by stone steps
    1249 photo of steps leading to an underground entrance
    1256 photo of temple

    1210 overhead image of desert landscape, foundation of a building ?
    1300 sepia, statue of man with longish nose in robe
    1273 sepia stereo view, Jerus street (Kando shop?)
    1216 letter from Dr. Ginsberg:  The Shapira Ms. of Deuteronomy
    1220 marble figurehead of a man

    1212 painting of a stone building, men entering and exiting
    1221 drawing of a man (Josephus)?
    1223 picture of landscape, hillsides
    1225 painting of a man palying harp, Hebrew lettering
    1236 painting of a carpenter working, child in shop
    1246 drawing depicting 3 outlines of men atop a landscape painting
    1250 drawing, medallion, women and Solomon ?
    1441 resembles a mythological scene (man on horse — hell? death?)
    1428 sketch plans and architectural layout for Temple Hiero Solmitani
    1423 lined picture of altar in inner courtyard
    1440 architectural structure with tower
    1421 architectural find (a black stone surrounded by disks?)
    1380 architectural find covered in plastic?
    1368 same picture of architectural find in 1421
    1392 architectural layout of a certain structure

    1419 man observing an urn?
    1418 closer shot of the previous picture(man observing the urn)
    1356 urn?

    1412 life-size sculpture of Pharoah?
    1411 doors to church wih ornate design
    1410 warfare
    1383 sketch of warfare
    1407 lined picture of warfare
    1394 stone structures -rectangular table?
    1359 stone tables?Second Temple period?
    1358 same as picture 359
    1378 picture of temple?some tower?
    1377 women bathing in mikvah(common in the second temple period)
    1376 men entranced by a certain scene
    1374 man delivering another man’s head to a woman
    1360 cracked stone?
    1357 archaelogical dig?

    1213 b/w painting of a man on boat talking to a crowd on shore
    1214 b/w painting of a man talking/teaching a crowd of people
    1215 b/w painting of a man holding a child and talking/teaching a crowd
    1219 b/w painting of a man on hillside holding a staff, talking/teaching
    1227 b/w painting a angels and open heaven
    1229 b/w painting a Ark and man before it
    1230 b/w painting of men constructing city walls
    1231 b/w painting of inside temple with man burning scarifice
    1232 b/w painting of men building huts from trees
    1239 b/w painting of crowd watching the heavens
    1241 b/w painting of battle
    1243 b/w painting of older man pointing to slain youth
    1244 b/w painting of older man talking to an armed crowd
    1258 b/w painting
    1262 Moses and tablet with light rays as horns b/w
    1263 Moses chiding sinful people b/w
    1264 Moses gets tablets from God, with angels b/w
    1265 b/w people sitting around cylindrical bldg on left
    1269 DSS Article b/w in Illustrated London…
    1270 Ad for sale of “4 DSS”
    1275 ossuary  with double decoration b/w
    1280 hole with row of 9 stones b/w
    1281 b/w pen or stylus
    1285 b/w drawing Jesus at door of house
    1289 b/w panel reconstr of Shapira doc (5-6 lines)
    1294 b/w drawing, Pilate ?, 2 cols, man with twig
    1295 b/w drawing, 4 story house on left, armies
    1309 b/w drawing of battle scene, elephants in back?
    1316 b/w Jesus chasing money lenders on steps?
    1320 b/w view photo, sea in background
    1321 b/w man and meter rod with broken pottery
    1322 b/w pottery, short meter stick
    1324 b/w circular structure photo from above (cistern?)
    1325 b/w Kando? person standing (Fez, robed)
    1326 b/w person in tie standing
    1329 b/w barbed wire being placed by soldiers
    1331 b/w wired road near barracks-like bldg
    1333 b/w drawing, Masada terraces
    1335 b/w structure with VW on right, car on left
    1338 b/w, lever moving stone? woman on right
    1339 b/w 3 men sitting viewing small objects
    1343 b/w working by lights in large cavern
    1454 group of men with display of “Cult Masks and Standards”(b/w)
    1452 image of the flood story (b/w)
    1450 ?Scene of Jesus turning water into wine(b/w)
    1449 warfare(b/w)
    1439 horses accompanied by Greek? Roman? legion (b/w)
    1437 mythological scene-angel-(b/w)
    1406 b/w picture-remains of bones
    1401 b/w photograph of a gentleman
    1393 b/w photograph-paved coourtyard
    1387 b/w sketch of men possessing weapons
    1373 b/w picture of men building a certain structure
    1370 b/w picture of the expansive sea

    1266 color photo, Bedouin man with brown & white sheep in arms
    1271 color view of mount, tree on left
    1272 pool with reeds on left and back; color
    1276 steps up to temple, color, drawing, people in court
    1277 color drawing, cleft in mts, people on right, view
    1288 color, man and woman sifting over wheelbarrow
    1290 color man excavating at rock wall closeup
    1292 color painting, exodus? 4 levels
    1293 color two bowls
    1298 color drawing, bearded man and child (Abr/Isaac)
    1311 color, archeol workers, hoe and basket in foregr
    1314 color, tomb with bars, person inside, trees above
    1315 color, repro of Jerus Temple, stairway in foregr
    1317 color, smallish rocks, like skulls
    1318 color, skull with pattern on top
    1319 color, flask with handle and broken basket
    1323 color, ariel view of Qumran?
    1332 color, Shrine of Book top on skyline
    1334 color, mountains in back, town in front, steeples
    1336 color, “bata”
    1340 color, assorted utensils, beads
    1341 color, crown, horn, three other objects
    1458 color warfare
    1456 archaelogist? Yadin? (guy with glasses on his head) (Color)
    1451 Basin? picture of water flowing (color)
    1427 Robinson’s Arch-stairway leading into (South?)of the Temple (color)
    1424 ?Absalom’s tomb? (it is a tomb) Color
    1420 remains? courtyard? colored picture
    1415 colored picture of warfare
    1413 colored picture of Robinson’s Arch
    1408 colored overview shot of land and basin?
    1398 colored picture of courtyard of Temple?Altar?
    1397 colored picture of people entering the Temple (near Huldah Gates)
    1381 colored picture of warfare
    1386 colored picture of man holding certain instrument
    1384 colored picture of men who are about to engage in warfare
    crossing the bridge
    1372 colored picture of Jewish men learning together

    1410 b/w (War Scroll) sons of dark vs. light
    1239 b/w (War Scroll) looking at the heavens
    1106 b/w (War Scroll) looking to the heavens
    1170 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
    1105 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
    1056 (War Scroll) light vs. dark
    1383 (War Scroll) sons of dark vs. light

Organization of “Community of God”


High PriestSon of Zadoc
Army <——————- Secretariat ————————> National Courts
/  |  \
/ | \






Tribal Chiefs Levites Sons of Aaron
/ \ | / | \
Judges Officers || Council of Community Council of Holiness Master
|| || ||
\          / Congregation
Clan Chiefs
Heads of Families

APPENDIX: BELIAL REFERENCES IN THE SCROLLS The following is a (hopefully) complete list of every reference to Belial in the GM translation of the scrolls. They are cataloged by column and line location in each individual text or fragment. 1QS 1.24 1.28 2.5 2.18 10.21 4Q256 1.3 4Q260 5.2 Damascus Document CD-A 4.13 4.14 12.2 Damascus Document CD-B 19.14 4Q267 2.14 4.13 4Q268 1.18 4Q269 1.2 6Q15 1.1 5Q13 1.2 4Q398 2.5 1QM 1.1 1.5 1.13 1.15 4.2 11.8 13.2 13.4 13.11 14.9 16.11 18.1 18.3 4Q491 1.6 4Q491 2.8 4Q491 2.18 4Q496 1.3 1.5 (x2) 1.7 5.6 4Q174 1.8 (x2) 1.9 2.2 ?.3 4Q175 ?.23 11Q13 2.12 2.13 2.22 2.25 3.7(x2) 4Q171 2.11 4Q177 3.8 3.10 4.9(x2) 4.11 4.12 4.14 4.16 5.5 5.10 4Q253 ?.5 4Q390 1.4 4Q378 2.9 4Q385 2.3 4Q88 10.10 1QH 11.28 11.29 11.32 12.12 12.13 13.26 13.39 15.3 4Q429 3.8 11Q11 1.6 5.3 4Q287 2.6