St. Thomas Aquinas
Angelic Doctor and Prince of Scholastics | Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225/27 | Died at Fossa Nuova, 7 March, 1274 | Canonised by Pope John XXII 49 Years after Death
“There is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship.”
GOLDEN CHAIN | ON THE ETERNITY OF THE WORLD
From St. Thomas Aquinas’ hand (with accent marks)
|“To take something away from the perfection of the creature is to abstract from the perfection of the creative power itself.”||“It is requisite for the relaxation of the mind that we make use, from time to time, of playful deeds and jokes.”|
“The signs of which we read in the gospels, as Augustine says, writing to Hesychius about the end of the world, refer not only to Christ’s coming to judgment, but also to the time of the sack of Jerusalem, and to the coming of Christ in ceaselessly visiting His Church. So that, perhaps, if we consider them carefully, we shall find that none of them refers to the coming advent, as he remarks: because these signs that are mentioned in the gospels, such as wars, fears, and so forth, have been from the beginning of the human race” (Summa Theologica, Supplement Question 73, Article 1)
(On the Significance of A.D. 70)
“ after the founding of the Church of Christ, Judaea was to be punished for her treachery, the Lord fitly, after praising the devotedness of the Church in the person of the poor widow, goes out of the temple, and foretold its coming ruin, and the contempt in which the buildings now so wonderful were soon to be held.” (Golden Chain, Mark 14:2)
(On Mark 13:2)
“Now some may endeavour to prove that Christ’s words were false, by saying that many ruins were left, but this is not at all the point; for though some ruins had been left, still at the consummation of all things one stone shall not be left upon another. Besides it is related, that Aelius Adrian overturned [p. 255] the city and the temple from the foundation, so that the word of the Lord here spoken was fulfilled.”
(On Mark 13:9)
“He says “kings and rulers,” as, for instance, Agrippa, Nero and Herod. Again, His saying, “for My sake,” gave them no small consolation, in that they were about to suffer for His sake. “For a testimony against them,” means, as a judgment beforehand against them, that they might be inexcusable, in that though the Apostles were labouring for the truth, they would not join themselves to it. Then, that they might not think that their preaching should be impeded by troubles and dangers, He adds: “And the Gospel must first be published among all nations.” (Golden Chain, in loc.)
(On Resurrection Life)
“Considered on the part of their efficiency, which is dependent on the Divine power, both Christ’s death and His Resurrection are the cause both of the destruction of death and of the renewal of life: but considered as exemplar causes, Christ’s death—by which He withdrew from mortal life—is the cause of the destruction of our death; while His Resurrection, whereby He inaugurated immortal life, is the cause of the repairing of our life.” (Source)
“Rm. 6:6, “that the body of sin may be destroyed,” a gloss says: “The effect of Baptism is that the old man is crucified, and the body of sin destroyed, not as though the living flesh of man were delivered by the destruction of that concupiscence with which it has been bespattered from its birth; but that it may not hurt him, when dead, though it was in him when he was born.” Therefore for the same reason neither are the other penalties taken away by Baptism.” (Source)
“Whether the rewards assigned to the beatitudes refer to this life?
Objection 1: It would seem that the rewards assigned to the beatitudes do not refer to this life. Because some are said to be happy because they hope for a reward, as stated above (Article ). Now the object of hope is future happiness. Therefore these rewards refer to the life to come.
Objection 2: Further, certain punishments are set down in opposition to the beatitudes, Lk. 6:25, where we read: “Woe to you that are filled; for you shall hunger. Woe to you that now laugh, for you shall mourn and weep.” Now these punishments do not refer to this life, because frequently men are not punished in this life, according to Job 21:13: “They spend their days in wealth.” Therefore neither do the rewards of the beatitudes refer to this life.
Objection 3: Further, the kingdom of heaven which is set down as the reward of poverty is the happiness of heaven, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xix) [*Cf. De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 1]. Again, abundant fullness is not to be had save in the life to come, according to Ps. 16:15: “I shall be filled [Douay: ‘satisfied’] when Thy glory shall appear.” Again, it is only in the future life that we shall see God, and that our Divine sonship will be made manifest, according to 1 Jn. 3:2: “We are now the sons of God; and it hath not yet appeared what we shall be. We know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like to Him, because we shall see Him as He is.” Therefore these rewards refer to the future life.
On the contrary, Augustine says (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4): “These promises can be fulfilled in this life, as we believe them to have been fulfilled in the apostles. For no words can express that complete change into the likeness even of an angel, which is promised to us after this life.”
I answer that, Expounders of Holy Writ are not agreed in speaking of these rewards. For some, with Ambrose (Super Luc. v), hold that all these rewards refer to the life to come; while Augustine (De Serm. Dom. in Monte i, 4) holds them to refer to the present life; and Chrysostom in his homilies (In Matth. xv) says that some refer to the future, and some to the present life.
In order to make the matter clear we must take note that hope of future happiness may be in us for two reasons. First, by reason of our having a preparation for, or a disposition to future happiness; and this is by way of merit; secondly, by a kind of imperfect inchoation of future happiness in holy men, even in this life. For it is one thing to hope that the tree will bear fruit, when the leaves begin to appear, and another, when we see the first signs of the fruit.
Accordingly, those things which are set down as merits in the beatitudes, are a kind of preparation for, or disposition to happiness, either perfect or inchoate: while those that are assigned as rewards, may be either perfect happiness, so as to refer to the future life, or some beginning of happiness, such as is found in those who have attained perfection, in which case they refer to the present life. Because when a man begins to make progress in the acts of the virtues and gifts, it is to be hoped that he will arrive at perfection, both as a wayfarer, and as a citizen of the heavenly kingdom. ”
(On Fulfillment of Prophecy)
“Yet because the Old Law was ended by Christ’s death, according to His dying words, “It is consummated” (Jn. 19:30), it may be understood that by His suffering He fulfilled all the precepts of the Old Law. He fulfilled those of the moral order which are founded on the precepts of charity, inasmuch as He suffered both out of love of the Father, according to Jn. 14:31: “That the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father hath given Me commandment, so do I: arise, let us go hence”—namely, to the place of His Passion: and out of love of His neighbor, according to Gal. 2:20: “He loved me, and delivered Himself up for me.” Christ likewise by His Passion fulfilled the ceremonial precepts of the Law, which are chiefly ordained for sacrifices and oblations, in so far as all the ancient sacrifices were figures of that true sacrifice which the dying Christ offered for us. Hence it is written (Col. 2:16,17): “Let no man judge you in meat or drink, or in respect of a festival day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbaths, which are a shadow of things to come, but the body is Christ’s,” for the reason that Christ is compared to them as a body is to a shadow. Christ also by His Passion fulfilled the judicial precepts of the Law, which are chiefly ordained for making compensation to them who have suffered wrong, since, as is written Ps. 68:5: He “paid that which” He “took not away,” suffering Himself to be fastened to a tree on account of the apple which man had plucked from the tree against God’s command.” (Source)
“Whether Christ should have been circumcised? Objection 1: It would seem that Christ should not have been circumcised. For on the advent of the reality, the figure ceases. But circumcision was prescribed to Abraham as a sign of the covenant concerning his posterity, as may be seen from Gn. 17. Now this covenant was fulfilled in Christ’s birth. Therefore circumcision should have ceased at once.” (Source)
“I answer that, It was fitting that Christ’s preaching, whether through Himself or through His apostles, should be directed at first to the Jews alone. First, in order to show that by His coming the promises were fulfilled which had been made to the Jews of old, and not to the Gentiles. Thus the Apostle says (Rm. 15:8): “I say that Christ . . . was minister of the circumcision,” i.e. the apostle and preacher of the Jews, “for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers.” (Source)
(On Hermeneutical Methods)
“Article 10: Whether the same passage of holy scripture can have several senses. Thus we proceed to the tenth point. It seems that the same passage of holy scripture cannot have several senses, namely the historical or literal, the allegorical, the tropological or moral, and the anagogical. Multiple senses in scripture prepare the way for confusion and deception. They also compromise coherent reasoning. From several propositions there results, not an argument, but a collection of fallacies. Sacred scripture, however, should display the truth without any fallacy whatsoever. Thus there should not be several senses in the same passage.
“The scripture which is called ‘The Old Testament’ has a fourfold meaning, namely history, etiology, analogy and allegory.” These four seem inconsistent with the aforementioned. Thus it does not seem fitting that the same passage of sacred scripture should be exposited according to the four aforementioned senses.” (Source)
ON THE JEWS
“Whether the Old Law enjoined fitting precepts concerning rulers?
Objection 1: It would seem that the Old Law made unfitting precepts concerning rulers. Because, as the Philosopher says (Polit. iii, 4), “the ordering of the people depends mostly on the chief ruler.” But the Law contains no precept relating to the institution of the chief ruler; and yet we find therein prescriptions concerning the inferior rulers: firstly (Ex. 18:21): “Provide out of all the people wise [Vulg.: ‘able’] men,” etc.; again (Num. 11:16): “Gather unto Me seventy men of the ancients of Israel”; and again (Dt. 1:13): “Let Me have from among you wise and understanding men,” etc. Therefore the Law provided insufficiently in regard to the rulers of the people.
Further, according to Mt. 12:25: “Every kingdom divided against itself shall be made desolate”: a saying which was verified in the Jewish people, whose destruction was brought about by the division of the kingdom. But the Law should aim chiefly at things pertaining to the general well- being of the people. Therefore it should have forbidden the kingdom to be divided under two kings: nor should this have been introduced even by Divine authority; as we read of its being introduced by the authority of the prophet Ahias the Silonite (3 Kgs. 11:29, seqq.). ”
Job 21:15, Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him? This can refer to the Jews who say that Christ is merely human, and not God; Jn 10:33, because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. And so the Jews, not believing that he was the one promised in the law, declare, There is no God, namely this one who is preaching to us. And on this account he said, The fool, for as the eyes of their mind are blind they did not want to accept the wisdom of God; Ps 81:5, They have not known nor understood. And Wis 2:21, for their own malice blinded them. Or perhaps the sinner is rebuked here.”
Daniel 13: “They have turned away their eyes, that they might not look unto heaven.” And exactly this was done among the Jews when they said at John 11: “(if we let him alone so, all will believe in him); and the Romans will come and take away our place and nation.” (Psalm 13)
“The authority of the preaching: he thundered. Clouds, that is, the apostles, passed, from the Jews to the Nations: Job 37: Clouds spread his light, which go round about. Act 13: You must first speak the word of God; but because etc.. Hail causes much damage to fruits and flowers, and their preaching was like a hail of threatening.”
“Exod. 15: I will unsheath my sw
ord, my hand will kill them. Allegorically it speaks of Christ, who pursues our enemies the Jews, and other sinners, punishing them bodily and spiritually.” (Psalm 17)
“Or may it be found in evil, that is may it be known: by your enemies, that is in the Jews in judgment, when they come to judgment – Luke 21: They will see the son of man coming etc. And may your right hand, that is your son, come upon, that is punish, all who hate you.”
“Or, they have turned away, because they want to inflict evil menacing them, on others. For a two-fold evil used to threaten the Jews, namely the evil of punishment: and this they tried to cast back upon Christ when they killed him so that they might not incur the might of the Romans. ” (Psalm 20)
“Psalm 9: He has humbled him in his own snare, he will turn back to himself and fall, when etc. In such a manner did this happen to the Jews, because they themselves handed Christ over to the gentiles, and afterwards they were handed over to the gentiles.” (Psalm 34)
“Since Christ said at the very outset of the preaching of the Gospel: “The kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Mt. 4:17), it is most absurd to say that the Gospel of Christ is not the Gospel of the kingdom. But the preaching of the Gospel of Christ may be understood in two ways. First, as denoting the spreading abroad of the knowledge of Christ: and thus the Gospel was preached throughout the world even at the time of the apostles, as Chrysostom states (Hom. lxxv in Matth.). And in this sense the words that follow—“and then shall the consummation come,” refer to the destruction of Jerusalem, of which He was speaking literally.” (cite: Here)
MYSTICISM AND ALLEGORY
“Mystically speaking, however, by the ten strings of the psalterium is signified the law of God, which consists in ten commandments, and it is appropriate that it be touched with the hand, that is with good performance, and from above, because these commandments are to be satisfied according to the hope of eternal life, otherwise it would be touched from what is below.” (Psalm 2)
“Mystically, by tabernacle the holy Church is designated. Apocalypse 21: Behold the tabernacle of God is with men. This tabernacle, that is, the Church, was torn from the hands of the Philistines, that is, from demons. And what is said in this psalm pertains to the gifts of the Holy Ghost, through which this tabernacle is perfected. “ (Psalm 28)
“Love takes up where knowledge leaves off.”
(Theory: Non-Occurence of Prophecy)
“This Gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world . . . and then shall the consummation come.” But the Gospel of Christ is already preached throughout the whole world: and yet the consummation has not yet come. Therefore the Gospel of Christ is not the Gospel of the kingdom, but another Gospel, that of the Holy Ghost, is to come yet, like unto another Law.” (Summa Theologica, vol. 2, 1292)
(Theory: New Covenant Insufficiency)
“P(2a)-Q(106)-A(4)-O(1) ï¿½ It would seem that the New Law will not last until the end of the world. Because, as the Apostle says (1 Corinthians 13:10), “when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away.” But the New Law is “in part,” since the Apostle says (1 Corinthians 13:9): “We know in part and we prophesy in part.” Therefore the New Law is to be done away, and will be succeeded by a more perfect state. (Summa Theologica, vol. II, p. 1291)
From Summa Theologica:
“Clearly the person who accepts the Church as an infallible guide will believe whatever the Church teaches.”
“If forgers and malefactors are put to death by the secular power, there is much more reason for excommunicating and even putting to death one convicted of heresy.”
WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID
John F. McCarthy
St. Thomas reflected on this method and gave a valuable explanation of the four senses in addition to expounding them in his commentaries on the Scriptures. His teaching can serve as the starting point for a more extended and differentiated exposition of this method, beginning with the first big distinction between the “literal” sense and the “spiritual,” or “mystical,” sense. For St. Thomas, this distinction arises from the fact that the rightly understood meaning of the words themselves of Sacred Scripture pertains to the literal, or historical, sense, while the fact that the things expressed by the words signify other things produces the spiritual sense. Thus, the spiritual sense is understood to be a typical, or figurative, sense which is based upon the literal sense and presupposes it. This basic double sense is possible because God, who is the principal Author of Sacred Scripture, has brought it about that things and events having their own historical meaning are used also to signify other things. But the central thing signified by these prefigurements is Jesus Christ Himself, who as the God-Man is the central focus of the spiritual sense and the subject of an extended symbolism which is known as the Allegory of Christ.
The distinction between the literal and the spiritual senses of Sacred Scripture is analytical, even though spiritual realities are often the primary meaning of a text, because a certain interaction of faith and reason is implied in this division. The original meaning of words can be examined by unaided reason, as can the unfolding of visible happenings, but the spiritual meaning of words and events can be seen only by the light of faith. In Part I, Question I of the Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas points out that revealed teaching is necessary for man (article 1), that this teaching is a science based upon revealed truths that are visible under the light of faith (article 2), and that God is the subject of this science (article 7). Approaching, then, the distinction between the literal and the spiritual senses from an analytical point of view, I would say that the literal sense tends to be exclusively seen by the unaided human reason, while the spiritual sense is penetrated by theological reason aided by the light of faith. Where the text is speaking literally about spiritual realities, and above all about supernatural realities, the unaided reason can see the statement in a flattened and unmeaningful way, but it cannot “understand” the statement. Where the text contains spiritual meanings beneath the literal sense, the unaided reason can see these meanings at best in a flattened and unmeaningful way, while reason enlightened by faith can both see the spiritual meanings in a meaningful way and see the literal meaning in a more complete way – provided that it has the appropriate theological framework at its command.
Looking, then, at sacred teaching as presented by the text of Sacred Scripture, and reasoning along the lines of St. Thomas, we can justifiably say that the inspired writings are necessary, not only because what is contained in them spiritually could not be figured out by man on his own, but also because the poor, fallen reason of man tends away from the spiritual truth and towards his own self-gratification. Men without grace do not want to know the spiritual truth and they endeavor to rub it out where it is written. But men possessed of faith and sanctifying grace will discover the truth and understand it.
. . . St. Thomas answers affirmatively to the question “whether there ought to be distinguished four senses of Sacred Scripture,”34 basing his response upon the authority of St. Augustine of Hippo and of Venerable Bede. St. Augustine observed: “In all the holy books it is behooving to discern the eternal things to be seen there, the deeds that are there narrated, the future things that are predicted, the things that are commanded to be done.”35 St. Thomas sees these four things to refer respectively to the anagogical, the historical, the allegorical, and the tropological senses of Sacred Scripture.
St. Thomas also quotes Venerable Bede as saying: “There are four senses of Sacred Scripture: history, which narrates things done; allegory, in which one thing is understood from another; tropology (that is, moral discourse), in which the ordering of habits is treated; and anagogy, by which we are led upward to treat of highest and heavenly things.”36 St. Thomas identifies the “historical sense” of Bede with the literal sense presented by the words themselves, and he makes an analytical division of the spiritual sense into allegory, tropology, and anagogy . . .
. . . St. Thomas notes in the first place that things which actually happened can refer to Christ and his members as shadows of the truth, and this is what produces the allegorical sense, while other comparisons, being imaginary rather than real, whether in Sacred Scripture or in other literature, do not stand outside of the literal sense. Hence, the allegorical sense of Sacred Scripture is not imaginary and is not a genre of human inventiveness.
. . . Finally, it might seem that, if these four senses were necessary for Sacred Scripture, each and every part of Sacred Scripture would have to have these four senses, but, as Augustine says in his commentary on Genesis, “in some parts the literal sense alone is to be sought.” To this St. Thomas replies that various parts of Scripture have four, three, two, or only one of these senses. Thus, the literal events of the Old Testament can be expounded in the four senses. The things spoken literally of Christ as the Head of the New Testament Church can also be expounded according to the four senses, because the historical Body of Christ can be expounded allegorically of the Mystical Body of Christ, and tropologically of the acts of the faithful to be modelled after the example of Christ, and anagogically inasmuch as Christ is the way to glory that has been shown to us. The things spoken literally of the Church of the New Testament can be expounded in three senses, because they can also be expounded tropologically and anagogically, but not allegorically, except that things mentioned literally regarding the primitive Church may have allegorical meaning regarding the later Church of the New Testament. The things of moral import in the literal sense can be expounded only literally and allegorically. And, finally, the things spoken literally regarding the state of glory cannot be expounded in any other sense.” (NEO-PATRISTIC EXEGESIS TO THE RESCUE)
“Saint Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican theologian and philosopher, was born Thomas d’Aquino, the son of a baron, in his family’s castle at Roccasecca, in the vicinity of Naples in southern Italy, in 1224 or 1225. At about the age of five, Thomas was placed by his parents in the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. His uncle had been abbot of the monastery, and his family had similar ambitions for Thomas. When Monte Cassino became the scene of a battle between papal and imperial troops, however, Thomas withdrew and enrolled at the University of Naples, one of few where a full range Aristotelian doctrine was studied, in November of 1239, where he stayed until April of 1244. There he came into contact with members of the Dominican order and, against the opposition of his family, became a Dominican friar in late April of 1244. Shortly after, in May of 1244, his family intervened forcibly, having him abducted and detained thereafter at Roccasecca. His mother tried to persuade Thomas for more than a year to give up his membership in the Dominican order. Failing to persuade him, Thomas was allowed to return to his order in July or August of 1245. He then went north to study for his novitiate till 1248, after which he came under the guidance of Albert the Great at Cologne until the Fall of 1252, during which time (1250/51) he was ordained a priest.
From the Fall of 1252 to the Spring of 1259, Thomas taught at the Dominican house of studies in Paris. It was during this time that he lectured on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Between March 3 and June 17 of 1256, he was incepted as a master of theology, and was regent master in theology at Paris until 1259, during which time that he began his Summa contra gentiles. 1259 found Aquinas leaving Paris for Naples, where he stayed until the Fall of 1261 as head of the Dominican house of studies. From September of that same year to September of 1265, Aquinas was at Orvieto as a lector, where he completed the Summa contra gentiles. After a time at Rome in 1265 and Viterbo in 1267 (his great work, the Summa Theologiae was begun in 1266), he took up his second Parisian regency from January of 1269 to 1272. This was followed by his assignment to Naples in 1272 as regent of theology. His writing throughout contains a consistent construction and defense of his system, based on Aristotles’, adapting Aristotle to the needs of the 13th century. December 6, 1273 saw the cessation of his writing, after a physical and mental breakdown from years of overwork. While going north to attend the Council of Lyon, Thomas injured his head, fell ill and died in the Cistercian abbey of Fossanova on March 7, 1274. ” (cite: )
Andrew Sandlin (2000)
“Second, it appeals, I believe, to curious, creative minds for whom theological novelty is especially appealing. These individuals rightly grasp the fact of theological and dogmatic development (who but the most obscurantist would deny it?), but they do not believe that this development may occur legitimately only within the matrix of orthodox Christianity. Any other theological and dogmatic development, whatever it may be, is not Christian. Christianity, while a highly traditional and historically anchored Faith, does carry in its bosom at any one time a number of gifted (or at least curious) individuals who are not quite satisfied with the doctrinal formulations of their time. Some simply wish to make the Faith relevant to their contemporary situation; and if they do this within the context of orthodoxy, they may just break ground in advancing the kingdom (Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, Kuyper, and Van Til come immediately to mind). Others are merely arrogant, setting their own imagination against the entire testimony of the saints for 1700 years. To those for whom the constraints of orthodoxy Christianity are uncomfortably restrictive, their own gifted (or, in some cases, ignorant) minds furnish a new and exciting (and heretical and damnable) alternative. I know of no devotee of this heresy, not one, who is deeply schooled in the history of the church or its theology. They may be exegetes or theologians (though there are frankly few of these), but they are not historians. Historians know better. So, for that matter, do all orthodox Christians.” (The Braying of Heretics)
On how a woman is born to be a woman
ï¿½Objection: It can be argued that woman should not have formed part of the world as it was initially created. For Aristotle says that a female is an occasioned male. But it would be wrong for something occasioned and [hence] deficient to be part of the initial creation. Therefore woman should not have been a part of that world.ï¿½ (Thomas answers that the female is defective as a particular event; not as part of the general scheme of things). Summa Theologica, 1, qu. 92, art 1, ob. 1
Reply: ï¿½Vis-a-vis [seen as caused by] the natura particularis [i.e., the action of the male semen], a female is deficient and unintentionally caused. For the active power of the semen always seeks to produce a thing completely like itself, something male. So if a female is produced, this must be because the semen is weak or because the material [provided by the female parent] is unsuitable, or because of the action of some external factor such as the winds from the south which make the atmosphere humid. But vis-a-vis [seen as caused by] natura universalis [general Nature] the female is not accidentally caused but is intended by Nature for the work of generation. Now the intentions of Nature come from God, who is its author. This is why, when he created Nature, he made not only the male but also the femaleï¿½ Summa Theologica, 1, qu. 92, art 1, ad 1.
Note. Thomas Aquinas followed Aristotle in attributing the conception of a woman to a defect of a particular seed. The male semen intends to produce a complete human being, a man, but at times it does not succeed and produces a woman. A woman is, therefore, a mas occasionatus, a failed male. Thomas stresses that this does not imply that women were not part of God’s grand scheme of creation. However, a female is not perfect.
ï¿½According to the medicine of his century, which, of course, Thomas did not correct, woman was an incomplete man, a half-baked male, whose unfinished characteristics come about through some weakness in the parents, some disposition in the human material or some extrinsic cause such as, for example, a strong south wind at the time of conception. Nevertheless Thomas thinks it is unjust to consider woman a cosmic accident; she was not an accident, this creature was made on purpose, deliberately planned by God.ï¿½ Walter Farrell, O.P., A Companion to the Summa, I ch. 12. Read also M. Nolan, ï¿½The Defective Male: What Aquinas Really Saidï¿½, New Blackfriars.
In procreation the man is active, the woman is passive
As regards generation by coition, there are, in the present state of life, two things to be considered. One, which comes from nature, is the union of man and woman; for in every act of generation there is an active and a passive principle. Wherefore, since wherever there is distinction of sex, the active principle is male and the passive is female; the order of nature demands that for the purpose of generation there should be concurrence of male and female. The second thing to be observed is a certain deformity of excessive concupiscence, which in the state of innocence would not have existed, when the lower powers were entirely subject to reason. Summa Theologica, I qu. 98, art 1.
The male seed has an active force from its male parent
Now the more powerful an agent, the greater scope its action has: for instance, the hotter a body, the greater the distance to which its heat carries. Therefore bodies not endowed with life, which are the lowest in the order of nature, generate their like, not through some medium, but by themselves; thus fire by itself generates fire. But living bodies, as being more powerful, act so as to generate their like, both without and with a medium. Without a medium–in the work of nutrition, in which flesh generates flesh: with a medium–in the act of generation, because the semen of the animal or plant derives a certain active force from the soul of the generator, just as the instrument derives a certain motive power from the principal agent. And as it matters not whether we say that something is moved by the instrument or by the principal agent, so neither does it matter whether we say that the soul of the generated is caused by the soul of the generator, or by some seminal power derived therefrom. Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1.
The active force in the male seed also derives power from the heavenly bodies
This active force which is in the semen, and which is derived from the soul of the generator, is, as it were, a certain movement of this soul itself: nor is it the soul or a part of the soul, save virtually; thus the form of a bed is not in the saw or the axe, but a certain movement towards that form. Consequently there is no need for this active force to have an actual organ; but it is based on the (vital) spirit in the semen which is frothy, as is attested by its whiteness. In which spirit, moreover, there is a certain heat derived from the power of the heavenly bodies, by virtue of which the inferior bodies also act towards the production of the species as stated above (115, 3, ad 2). And since in this (vital) spirit the power of the soul is concurrent with the power of a heavenly body, it has been said that “man and the sun generate man.” Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1, ad 3.
The male seed takes nourishment from the mother
“In perfect animals, generated by coition, the active force is in the semen of the male, as the Philosopher says (De Gener. Animal. ii, 3); but the foetal matter is provided by the female. . . . And after the sensitive soul, by the power of the active principle in the semen, has been produced in one of the principal parts of the thing generated, then it is that the sensitive soul of the offspring [=the foetus] begins to work towards the perfection of its own body, by nourishment and growth.” (Summa Theologica II, q. 18, art. 1, ad 4.)
In spite of their lower function, also the female sexual organs will remain at the Resurection
“We must not suppose, what some have thought, that female sex has no place in the bodies of the risen Saints. For since resurrection means the reparation of the defects of nature, nothing of what makes for the perfection of nature will be withdrawn from the bodies of the risen. Now among other organs that belong to the integrity of the human body are those which minister to generation as well in male as in female. These organs therefore will rise again in both . . . Neither is the weakness of the female sex inconsistent with the perfection of the resurrection. Such weakness is no departure from nature, but is intended by nature. This natural differentiation will argue the thoroughgoing perfection of nature, and commend the divine wisdom that arranges creation in diversity of ranks and orders.” (Summa contra Gentiles, IV, qu. 88.) (cite: womanpriests.org)
“As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active power of the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of a woman comes from defect in the active power.”
THOMAS AQUINAS ON HERMENEUTICS
Article 10: Whether the same passage of holy scripture can have several senses.
Thus we proceed to the tenth point. It seems that the same passage of holy scripture cannot have several senses, namely the historical or literal, the allegorical, the tropological or moral, and the anagogical. Multiple senses in scripture prepare the way for confusion and deception. They also compromise coherent reasoning. From several propositions there results, not an argument, but a collection of fallacies. Sacred scripture, however, should display the truth without any fallacy whatsoever. Thus there should not be several senses in the same passage.
Furthermore, Augustine says, “The scripture which is called ‘The Old Testament’ has a fourfold meaning, namely history, etiology, analogy and allegory.” These four seem inconsistent with the aforementioned. Thus it does not seem fitting that the same passage of sacred scripture should be exposited according to the four aforementioned senses.
Furthermore, there is also a parabolic sense, which does not seem to be included among these four senses.
But on the contrary Gregory says, “Sacred scripture transcends all other sciences in the manner of its expression, because in one and the same statement, while narrating an event, it proclaims a mystery.”
Response: It must be said that the author of sacred scripture is God, who has the power not only to use words in expressing himself – men can do that much – but of using things as well. Thus, since words signify something in any science, this science is special in that not only the words but the things signified by the words signify something. The primary signification, through which words signify things, is called the literal or historical sense. That signification whereby things signified by words have themselves also a signification is called the spiritual sense, which is based on the literal, and presupposes it. Now this spiritual sense has a threefold division.
[This phrase in italics was missing in the base file for this texts, and has been supplied from the Dominican Fathers’ translation.]
This spiritual sense is itself divided in a threefold way. Paul says, “The Old Law is a figure of the New Law” (Heb. 7:19), and the New Law is, as Dionysius says, “a figure of the glory to come.” Moreover, in the New Law the things that are done are signs of what we ourselves should do.
Thus, insofar as things in the Old Law signify things in the New Law, we have the allegorical sense. Insofar as things done by Christ or by those who prefigure Christ are signs of what we ourselves should do, we have the moral sense. Insofar as they signify what is involved in eternal glory, we have the anagogical sense.
Because the literal sense is what the author intends, and because the author of sacred scripture is God who contains all things within his understanding, there is nothing impossible about even the literal sense containing several meanings, as Augustine suggests.
To the first argument, therefore, it must be said that manifold senses do not lead to equivocation or to any other type of ambiguity, for, as was just said, theses senses are not multiplied in such a way that a single word signifies several things, but rather because the things signified by these words can be signs of still other things. Thus no confusion follows from the reading of sacred scripture, for all other senses are founded on the literal sense. From it alone arguments can be drawn, and not from what is said allegorically, as Augustine explains in his letter against Vincent the Donatist. Nor does this fact detract in any way from sacred scripture, for nothing necessary to the faith is said in a spiritual sense which is not explicitly stated in the literal sense elsewhere.
To the second argument it must be said that these three things – history, etiology and analogy – belong to a single literal sense. It is history when, as Augustine explains, something is straightforwardly reported. It is etiology when the cause of that thing is explained, as when God explains why Moses permitted the repudiation of wives, namely because of the hardness of their hearts. It is analogy when the truth of one scripture is shown to be consistent with the truth of another. Among the four, allegory alone stands for the spiritual senses. In the same way, Hugh of St. Victor includes the anagogical sense under the allegorical and enumerates only three senses: The historical, allegorical and tropological.
To the third it must be said that the parabolic sense is included under the literal, for words can signify something properly and something else figuratively. In the latter case, the literal sense is not the figure of speech itself but the thing figured by it. For example, when scripture refers to the arm of God, the literal sense is not that God has a physical limb, but that he has what that limb signifies, namely the power to do things. Thus it is clear that no falsehood can ever underlie the literal sense of sacred scripture.” (Source)
SHIP OF FOOLS ON AQUINAS
The theologian who trashed his theology
THERE IS little scope for overstating the extreme cleverness of Thomas Aquinas. ‘Very clever’, for example, would in fact be more like an understatement.
His books are quite incomprehensible to most mortals. Fortunately, there are many books written to explain Thomas’s books. Unfortunately, anyone who understands Thomas immediately becomes incomprehensible as well, so they don’t get us very far.
Not a likely passenger on the Ship of Fools, you might think. He’s considered one of the greatest thinkers in history, by people who know about thinking. His influence on Christian ideas has been immeasurable. And he invented the limerick ï¿½ although it has to be said that his own efforts weren’t terribly funny.
He was entirely obsessed with deep and clever thinking. Ecclesiastical dignitaries and fellow brain-boxes would travel across the world to compare notes or tap his thoughts, only to find they couldn’t get a word out of him, because he was too engrossed in mulling things over.
His greatest work of all was Summary of Theology, a big title for the biggest book you’ve ever seen (and if you’ve seen it you’ll probably have seen some other pretty big books as well). In this he ties up all those little nagging questions about who is God, what is everything else, the meaning of life, and whether the Risen Christ had phlegm.
By St Nicholas’s Day 1273, he was 49 and had been writing the book for eight years, with no end in sight. That day, he sat in his cell and wrote the words: ‘The parts of penitence, because they are actions, have these last two relationships of power and order in time, but no order of position…’
He laid down his quill and went out to Mass. When he came back, he looked even more distracted and overawed than normal. The monks asked him if he was all right, and he murmered, ‘I’ve met God.’
Thomas continued in this state for a worryingly long time. In the end they suggested he go back to his cell and get on with that book they were eagerly awaiting the next volume of.
‘Oh no,’ he said. ‘I’ve met God. That’s just a big pile of straw.’
And sure enough, he didn’t write another word of theology for the rest of his life. (Although, admittedly, that wasn’t especially long, because he died in a freak donkey-riding accident the following year.) (Source)
Thomas Aquinas on Sexual Pleasure
“A key to understanding the sexual ethics of Thomas Aquinas is his position that spouses sin whenever their purpose in having intercourse is the pleasure of it. The pleasure itself, Thomas declares, is not sinful, but necessary, natural and good. Nevertheless, it cannot be rational man’s intended end. Other sense pleasures can be, inasmuch as they are pleasures of knowing something, e.g., a beautiful color. Sexual pleasure is a pleasure of knowing, too, but the kind of knowing is so minimal and negligible that it is not worthy of being an end intended by rational man. In modern critical dialogue one can ask: Is Thomas’ ethical thinking radically handicapped by a model of knowledge that is valid, but unrealistically exclusive?” (John Giles Milhaven)
SEVEN DEADLY SINS
John Cassian: (8 sins) gluttony, fornication,avarice, anger, dejection, sloth, vainglory and pride.
Gregory the Great: pride, envy, anger, dejection, avarice, gluttony and lust. (Source: Encyclopedia of Religion. Ferm.)
St. Thomas Aquinas: anger, covetousness, envy, gluttony, lust, pride and sloth. (Source: Benet’s Readers Encyclopedia.)
The Dumb Ox
The Universal Teacher
Teacher with pagan philosphers at his feet
ï¿½The end of my labours is come. All that I have written appears to me as so much straw, after the secrets that have been revealed to me! I hope in the Mercy of God that the end of my life may soon follow the end of my labours.ï¿½
(a) In finem puero Domini David, qui locutus est Domino verba cantici huius in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu omnium inimicorum eius, et de manu Saulis. (a) To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David, who spoke the words of this song to the Lord in the day when the Lord snatched him from the hands of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. PSALMUS XVII Diligam te, Domine, fortitudo mea: Dominus firmamentum meum, et refugium meum, et liberator meus. I will love thee, O Lord, my strength: The Lord is my firmament, my refuge, and my deliverer. (b) Deus meus adiutor meus, et sperabo in eum. Protector meus, et cornu salutis meae, et susceptor meus. Laudans invocabo Dominum, et ab inimicis meis salvus ero. (b) My God is my helper, and in him will I put my trust. My protector and the horn of my salvation, and my support. Praising I will call upon the Lord: and I shall be saved from my enemies. (c) Circumdederunt me dolores mortis, et torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me. (c) The sorrows of death surrounded me: and the torrents of iniquity troubled me. (d) Dolores inferni circumdederunt me; praeoccupaverunt me laquei mortis. In tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum, et ad Deum meum clamavi. Et exaudivit me de templo sancto suo vocem meam; et clamor meus in conspectu eius introivit in aures eius. (d) The sorrows of hell encompassed me: and the snares of death prevented me. In my affliction I called upon the Lord, and I cried to my God: And he heard my voice from his holy temple: and my cry before him came into his ears. (e) Commota est, et contremuit terra, fundamenta montium conturbata sunt, et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis. (e) The earth shook and trembled: the foundations of the mountains were troubled and were moved, because he was angry with them. (f)Ascendit fumus in ira eius, et ignis a facie eius exarsit: carbones succensi sunt ab eo. There went up a smoke in his wrath: and a fire flamed from his face: coals were kindled by it. (g) Inclinavit caelos, et descendit; et caligo sub pedibus eius. Et ascendit super Cherubim. (g) He bowed the heavens, and came down: and darkness was under his feet. And he ascended upon the cherubim, and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds. (h) Et volavit; volavit super pennas ventorum. Et posuit tenebras latibulum suum, in circuitu eius tabernaculum eius; tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Prae fulgore in conspectu eius nubes transierunt, grando, et carbones ignis. (h) and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds. And he made darkness his covert, his pavilion round about him: dark waters in the clouds of the air. At the brightness that was before him the clouds passed, hail and coals of fire. (i) Et intonuit de caelo Dominus, et Altissimus dedit vocem suam: grando, et carbones ignis. Et misit sagittas suas, et dissipavit eos. (i) And the Lord thundered from heaven, and the Highest gave his voice: hail and coals of fire. And he sent forth his arrows, and he scattered them: he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them. (k) Fulgura multiplicavit, et conturbavit eos. (k) he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them. (l) Et apparuerunt fontes aquarum, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis terrarum. Ab increpatione tua, Domine, ab increpatione spiritus irae tuae. (l) Then the fountains of waters appeared, and the foundations of the world were discovered: At thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the spirit of thy wrath. (m) Misit de summo, et accepit me, et assumpsit me de aquis multis. (m) He sent from on high, and took me: and received me out of many waters. (n) Eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis, et ab his qui oderunt me, quoniam confortati sunt super me. Praevenerunt me in die afflictionis meae, et factus est Dominus protector meus. Et eduxit me in latitudinem; salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam; et secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi. Quia custodivi vias Domini, nec impie gessi a Deo meo. Quoniam omnia iudicia eius in conspectu meo, et iustitias eius non repuli a me. (n) He delivered me from my strongest enemies, and from them that hated me: for they were too strong for me. They prevented me in the day of my affliction: and the Lord became my protector. And he brought me forth into a large place: he saved me, because he was well pleased with me. And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and will repay me according to the cleanness of my hands: Because I have kept the ways of the Lord; and have not done wickedly against my God. For all his judgments are in my sight: and his justices I have not put away from me. (o) Et ero immaculatus cum eo, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea. Et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum eius. (o) And I shall be spotless with him: and shall keep myself from my iniquity. And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and according to the cleanness of my hands before his eyes. (p) Cum sancto sanctus eris, et cum viro innocente innocens eris: et cum electo electus eris, et cum perverso perverteris. Quoniam tu populum humilem salvum facies; et oculos superborum humiliabis. (p) With the holy, thou wilt be holy; and with the innocent man thou wilt be innocent. And with the elect thou wilt be elect: and with the perverse thou wilt be perverted. For thou wilt save the humble people; but wilt bring down the eyes of the proud. (q) Quoniam tu illuminans lucernam meam, Domine: Deus meus illumina tenebras meas. (q) For thou lightest my lamp, O Lord: O my God enlighten my darkness. (r) Quoniam in te eripiar a tentatione, et in Deo meo transgrediar murum. (r) For by thee I shall be delivered from temptation; and through my God I shall go over a wall. (s) Deus meus, impolluta via eius, eloquia Domini igne examinata: protector est omnium sperantium in se. Quoniam quis Deus praeter Dominum; aut quis Deus praeter Deum nostrum? (s) As for my God, his way is undefiled: the words of the Lord are fire tried: he is the protector of all that trust in him. For who is God but the Lord? or who is God but our God? (t) Deus qui praecinxit me virtute, et posuit immaculatam viam meam. (t) God who hath girt me with strength; and made my way blameless. (u) qui perfecit pedes meos tamquam cervorum, et super excelsa statuens me: Qui docet manus meas ad praelium: et posuisti ut arcum brachia mea. (u) Who hath made my feet like the feet of harts: and who setteth me upon high places. Who teacheth my hands to war: and thou hast made my arms like a brazen bow. (x) Et dedisti mihi protectionem salutis tuae, et dextera tua suscepit me: et disciplina tua correxit me in finem: et disciplina tua ispa me docebit. Dilitasti gressus meos subtus me, et non sunt infirmata vestigia mea. (x) And thou hast given me the protection of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath held me up: And thy discipline hath corrected me unto the end: and thy discipline, the same shall teach me. Thou hast enlarged my steps under me; and my feet are not weakened. (y) Persequar inimicos meos, et comprehendam illos; et non convertar donec deficiant. (y) I will pursue after my enemies, and overtake them: and I will not turn again till they are consumed. (z) Confringam illos, nec poterunt stare: cadent subtus pedes meos. (z) I will break them, and they shall not be able to stand: they shall fall under my feet. (aa) Et praecinxisti me virtute ad bellum, et supplantasti insurgentes in me subtus me: et inimicus meus dedisti mihi dorsum, et odientes me disperdisti. (aa) And thou hast girded me with strength unto battle; and hast subdued under me them that rose up against me. And thou hast made my enemies turn their back upon me, and hast destroyed them that hated me. (bb) Clamaverunt, nec erat qui solvos faceret, ad Dominum; nec exaudivit eos. Et comminuam eos ut pulverem ante faciem venti, ut lutum platearum delebo eos. (bb) They cried, but there was none to save them, to the Lord: but he heard them not. And I shall beat them as small as the dust before the wind; I shall bring them to nought, like the dirt in the streets. (cc) Eripies me de contradictionibus populi, constitues me in caput gentium. Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi; in auditu euris obedivit mihi. (cc) Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people: thou wilt make me head of the Gentiles. A people, which I knew not, hath served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me. (dd) Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi, filii alieni inveterati sunt, et claudicaverunt a semitis suis. (dd) The children that are strangers have lied to me, strange children have faded away, and have halted from their paths. (ee) Vivit Dominus, et benedictus Deus meus; et exaltetur Deus salutis meae. (ee) The Lord liveth, and blessed be my God, and let the God of my salvation be exalted : (ff) Deus, qui das vindictas mihi, et subdis populos sub me, liberator meus de inimicis meis iracundis. Et ab insurgentibus in me exaltabis me; a viro iniquo eripies me. Propterea confitebor tibi in nationibus, Domine; et nomini tuo Psalmum dicam. Magnificans salutes Regis eius, et faciens misericordiam Christo suo David, et semini eius usque in saeculum. (ff) O God, who avengest me, and subduest the people under me, my deliverer from my enemies. And thou wilt lift me up above them that rise up against me: from the unjust man thou wilt deliver me. Therefore will I give glory to thee, O Lord, among the nations, and I will sing a psalm to thy name. Giving great deliverance to his king, and shewing mercy to David his anointed: and to his seed for ever. In praecedenti psalmo psalmista petivit orando liberari ab inimicis; hic autem liberatus gratias agit. In the preceding psalm, the psalmist sought in prayer to be liberated from his enemies; here he has been liberated and is giving thank Et primo gratias agit de beneficio liberationis. Secundo prorumpit in laudem liberatoris, ibi, caeli enarrant gloriam Dei. And first he gives thanks for the benefit of liberation. Second, he burst into praise of the liberator, where he says, “The heavens tell the glory of God. Titulus. In finem puero Domini David. Et locutus est verba cantici hujus in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu inimicorum ejus, et de manu Saulis. Et psalmus iste de verbo ad verbum habetur 2 Reg. 22. Et historia est, quia 1 Reg. 19, legitur quomodo Saul quaerebat eum occidere: et eo mortuo 2 Reg. 2: Iterum Ader et filius ejus fuit contra eum. The title. To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David. And he spoke the words of this song on the day when the Lord rescued him from the hands of his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. And this psalm, word for word, is to be found in 2 Kings 22. The story is, as in 1 Kings 19, how Saul sought to kill him: and when Saul had died, 2 Kings 2: Again Abner and his son were against him. Tandem victoriam habuit David contra eos. Et ideo fecit hunc psalmum. Et Hieronymus dicit idem. Et quia per David significatur Christus, omnia ista referri possunt ad Christum, vel secundum caput, vel secundum corpus, scilicet ecclesiam quia liberata est a Saule, idest morte: Saul enim interpretatur petitio, quia ad petitionem populi datus fuit, immo potius extortus. unde non fuit datus ad permanendum. In the end David was victorious over them. And on this account he made this psalm. And Jerome says the same thing. And since Christ is signified by David, all these things can be referred to Christ, either according to the head, or according to the body, namely the Church, which is liberated from Saul, that is, from death: the name “Saul” is translated as “petition”, because he was given, or rather extorted (from God) because the people asked for him, and he was not given so that he would remain for any length of time. Sic Christus primo sustinet mortem, postea remanet quietus, secundum glossam. Liberatur etiam ab inimicis omnibus, Judaeis et daemonibus, et quantum ad corpus suum, idest ecclesiam. Dividitur autem ista pars in tres. In prima in generali commemorat beneficium liberationis. In secunda ostendit potentiam liberantis, ibi, commota est. In tertia modum liberationis, ibi, misit de summo etc.. Thus Christ first bore death, then there was a time of quiet, according to the gloss. He was also liberated from all his enemies, the Jews and demons, and with respect to his body, that is, the Church. This part is divided into three. In the first part he recalls the benefit of liberation in general terms. In the second part he shows the power of the one who liberates, where he writes, and it was moved. In the third part, he shows the mode of liberation, where he writes, he sent from the high place etc.. Circa primum duo facit. Primo commemorat affectum quem concepit ex beneficio praedicto. In secundo ostendit effectum inde sequentem, ibi, laudans. Duplex affectus surrexit in eo ex hujusmodi beneficio; scilicet amoris et spei. Et primo ponit primum. Secundo secundum, ibi, Deus meus. Primo ponit affectum amoris ad Deum. Secundo rationem ejus, ibi, fortitudo. Dicit ergo: o domine qui me liberasti, ego semper, diligam te, quia in te manebo: Jo. 15: manete in dilectione: Ro. 8: certus sum, quia neque vita neque mors, neque angeli, neque creatura alia poterit nos separare a caritate Christi. With regard to the first he does two things. First, he recalls the emotion that he conceived from the aforesaid benefit. In the second he shows the effect that follows from this, where he writes, praising. A twofold emotion arises in him from this sort of benefit; namely, the emotion of love and the emotion of hope. First, he presents the first emotion. Second, he presents the second, where he writes, my God. Second, he presents the reason for this, where he writes, fortitude. He says therefore: O Lord, who has freed me, I will always love you because I will abide in you: John 15: stay fixed in love: Romans 8: I am certain that neither life nor death, nor angels, nor any other creature can separate us from the love of Christ. Diligere enim est rationabilium, amare generale est: Judic. 5: qui diligunt te, sicut sol in ortu suo splendet, ita rutilant. Ratio autem dilectionis alicujus est propter proprium bonum. Unde quando quis reputat bonum suum dependere ab aliquo, haec est ratio quare diligat eum. David reputabat totum bonum suum a Deo; unde dicit, diligam te, quia tu es fortitudo mea. To love (diligere) is proper to rational beings, while to love (amare) has a general sense: Judges 5: Those who love you (diligere) while shine like that sun in its rising, thus will they sparkle. The reason for one’s love (dilection) of something is on account of his own good. Hence when someone reckons that his own good depends upon another, this is the reason for loving (diligere) that other person. David reckoned that all his good was from God; hence he says, I will love (diligere) you, because you are my strength. Fortitudo habet firmare animum, ne quis recedat a bono propter difficultates imminentes. Quomodo autem sit ejus fortitudo, ostendit. Homo indiget fortitudine ad duo. Primo in bonis, ut stabiliatur in eis: et ideo dicit, Dominus firmamentum, idest firmum fundamentum: 2 Reg. 22: Dominus petra mea: Matth. 7: Omnis qui audit verba mea et facit ea, similis est viro aedificanti domum suam supra petram. The role of fortitude is to make the mind firm, lest someone draw back from the good because of the difficulties that threaten. He shows the qualities of this fortitude. A man needs fortitude for two things. First, he needs fortitude in good things, to be established in them: and so he says, the Lord is a firm thing, that is, a firm foundation: 2 Kings 22: The Lord is my rock: Matt. 7: Everyone who hears my words and does them, is like a man who builds his house upon a rock. Item in malis: et hoc ad duo. Uno modo antequam adveniat, ut fugiat: unde dicit, refugium meum: Prov. 14: Turris fortissima nomen Domini: Psal. 103: Petra refugium herinaciis. alio modo, postquam evenerint, ut liberet; unde dicit, et liberator meus. Again, he needs fortitude in evil things: and this is for two reasons. First, before they come, so that he may flee: Prov. 14: The name of the Lord is the strongest tower: Psal. 103: The rock is a refuge for hedgehogs. In another way, after the evils have taken place, that he will liberate; hence he says, and my liberator. (b) Deus meus. Hic ponit affectum spei: et differt inter spem et amorem: quia amor est vis unitiva: amamus enim aliquid inquantum reputamus illud nostrum; et ideo dicit quod ipse est fortitudo sua: isa. 12: fortitudo et laus mea Dominus, et factus est mihi in salutem. Spes importat defensionem ab extrinseco; et utrumque Deus facit. (b) My God. Here he presents the emotion of hope: and there is a difference between hope and love: because love is a unitive power: for we love something insofar as we deem it is ours; and therefore he says that He is his strength: Isaiah 12: My strength and my praise is the Lord, and He has become salvation for me. Hope implies protection from something outside; and God does both. Vel sic. Objectum spei est bonum arduum futurum, possibile adipisci. Sicut ergo quis amat propter bonum jam datum, ita sperat futurum ex fiducia ex amore concepta, et ex similibus, inquantum credit similia in futurum recipere. Et ideo hic tria facit. Primo sperat refugium et firmamentum quod est in bonis. Secundo petit protectorium quod est in malis, quae jam evenerunt. Dicit ergo primo, Deus meus adjutor meus: Psal. 95: Nisi quia Dominus adjuvit me, paulo minus habitasset in inferno anima mea etc.. Et ideo sperabo in eum: Eccl. 2: Qui timetis Dominum, sperate in illum, et cum oblectatione venient vobis misericordiae. Or thus. The object of hope is a difficult future good, something that is possible to achieve. Thus, just as someone loves (another) an account of a good already given, so he hopes for a future good out of a confidence that is conceived from love, and from like things, insofar as believes that he will receive like things in the future. And therefore he does these three things. First he hopes for the refuge and firm foundation that is in good things. Second, he asks for protection in evil things that have already occurred. Therefore he says first, my God, my helper: Psalm 95: Were not the Lord my help, I would have soon dwelt in the grave etc.. And thus I will hope in him: Eccl. 2: You who fear the Lord, hope in him, and mercies will come to you with delight. Secundo speramus liberari a malis, quibus nondum subjecti sumus, quia defendit nos. Primo, ne laedamur. Secundo, quod ea vincamus et pro victoria coronat. Quantum ad primum dicit, protector meus. Hieronymus habet, scutum, quod protegit ne transfigi possit a malis; sic facit Deus: Ps. 63: protexisti me Deus a conventu malignantium. Quantum ad secundum dicit, et cornu salutis, quia animalia cornu impingunt; ita virtus Dei contra adversarios resistit, quia pugnat, ut vincat mala temporalia et spiritualia: Psal. 43: in te inimicos nostros ventilabimus cornu: et in nomine tuo spernemus insurgentes in nobis: 1 Reg. 2: Exultavit cor meum in Domino, et exaltatum est cornu meum in Deo meo, idest virtus mea. Second, we hope to freed from evils to which we have not yet been subjected, because he defends us. First, we hope not to be harmed. Second, we hope that we may conquer them and that He crowns us for victory. With respect to the first he says, my protector. Jerome has the word shield, which protects someone so he cannot be pierced by evils; God does this: Ps. 63: God, you have protected me from the gathering of evil doers. With respect to the second he says, and the horn of salvation, because animals pierce with their horns; thus the power of God resists adversaries, because He fights to conquer temporal and spiritual evils: Psalm 43: In you we will ventilate our enemies with a horn: and in your name we will remove those who rise up among us: 1 Kings 2: My heart exulted in the Lord, and my horn is raise in my God, that is, my power. Quantum ad tertium, et susceptor meus. Quando quis vincit, suscipitur cum triumpho; sic etiam facit Deus: Joan. 14: iterum veniam et accipiam vos ad me ipsum, ut ubi sum ego, et vos sitis: Ps. 72: cum gloria suscepisti me. Simile habetur 2 Reg. 22. Consequenter ponit effectum sequentem, scilicet laudem. Laus est sermo elucidans magnitudinem virtutis, vel ex hoc saltem sequitur. Primo ergo ponit laudem. Secundo ejus efficaciam. Dicit ergo, laudans invocabo Dominum; quasi dicat: ex hoc laudem propriam non habeo, sed quaero tuam, quia tu fecisti; Isa. 63: miserationum Domini recordabor: laudem Domini super omnibus, quae retribuit mihi. Et invocabo, te, secure cum efficacia, quia sic invocans, salvus ero ab inimicis meis: Joel. ult.: quicumque invocaverit nomen Domini, salvus erit. With respect to the third, and my support. When someone is victorious, he is received with a triumph; God also does this: John 14: I will come again and receive you do myself, so that you will be where I am: Ps. 72: you have received me with glory. A like passage is found in 2 Kings 22. Consequently he presents the effect that follows from this, namely praise. Praise is speech that makes clear that greatness of power, or at least it follows from this. First, therefore, he presents praise. Second, the effective power of praise. He says, therefore, praising, I will call upon the Lord; as if to say: from this, I do not have proper praise, but I will seek your praise, because you have acted; Isaiah 63: I will remember the mercies of the Lord: the praise of the Lord over all that He has given me. And I will invoke You, free of care with effective power, because when I call upon you in this way, I will be saved from my enemies: Joel (the end) whoever will call upon the name of the Lord, will be saved. (c) Circumdederunt. Hic ponitur necessitas liberationis. Et primo magnitudinem liberationis ostendit. Secundo orationem quam fundit ad Deum, in tribulatione. Trtio ponit exauditionem, exaudivit. (c) They surrounded. Here we are presented with the necessity of liberation. First he shows the greatness of the liberation. Second, there is the prayer that he pours forth to God, in tribulation. Third, he shows the prayer being heard, where he writes, he heard. Nota quod ista tria sic sunt ad invicem ordinata, iniquitas, mors et infernus, quod ex iniquitate homo inducitur ad mortem, et per mortem deducitur ad infernum: et sicut primum est via ad secundum, ita est secundum ad tertium. Et ideo primo dicit de primo progressu. Secundo de secundo, quod de morte vadunt ad infernum, ibi, dolores inferni etc.. Primo duo facit. Primo ponit modum. Secundo viam ad eam, scilicet iniquitatem, torrentes iniquitatis. Note that these three are ordered to one another: wickedness, death and hell. From wickedness a man is drawn to death, and through death he is led to hell: As just as the first (wickedness) is the road to the second (death), so the second (death) is the road to the third.. And thus he first speaks of the first step. Second, he speaks of the second step, that they go from death to hell, where he writes, the pains of hell etc.. First he does two things. First he presents how this happens (the mode). Secondly he presents the road to death, namely wickedness, the torrents of wickedness. Dolor mortis maximus est: 1 Reg. 15: Siccine separas amara mors? Eccl. 41: Mors, quam amara est memoria tua. Unde quando quis non potest eam effugere, tunc circumdant eum dolores; et tanto magis, quanto sunt ineffugabiles. Via est iniquitas: quasi: ideo timeo eam, quia, torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me. Torrens est fluxus aquae decurrentis cum impetu: Job 6: Sicut torrens qui raptim transit in convallibus. Impetus ergo subitus iniquitatis interioris, puta subitae tentationis et gravis, est torrens impellens ad peccatum. Vel exterioris, sicut impetus alicujus hostis. et hi, conturbaverunt me. The pain of death is the greatest pain: 1 Kings 15: Doth bitter death separate in this manner? Eccl. 41: Death, how bitter is your memory. Hence, when someone cannot flee death, then pains surround him; and all the more as he cannot flee from these pains. The road is wickedness: as if to say: therefore I will fear him, because the torrents of iniquity have disturbed me. A torrent is a flow of water that is running downhill with force: Job 6: Like a torrent that suddenly passes through in the valleys. The sudden forceful onset of inner wickedness, for example, that of a sudden and serious temptation, is a torrent impelling one to sin. Or that the sudden onset of an outer wickedness, like the attack of an enemy. And they surrounded me. (d) Dolores. Hic prosequitur secundum progressum; et ideo dicit, dolores inferni, idest similes infernalibus: Gen. 37: Lugens in infernum descendam. vel dolores qui concipiuntur ex timore inferni. Et hi circumdant quando inevitabiles sunt. Et veniunt hi dolores, quia praeoccupaverunt me laquei mortis. Quae mors? (d) Sorrows. Here he follows a sequence. and so he says: the sorrows of hell, that is, sorrows like those of hell: Genesis 37: I will go down mourning, to my son in the nether world, or sorrows which are conceived out of fear of hell. And these surround a man when they are inevitable. And these sorrows come, because the snares of death have caught me. What death is this? Prov. 21: Qui congregat thesauros lingua mendacii, vanus et excors est: et impingetur ad laqueos mortis. Ecce necessitas. Sed remedium apposuit orationis. Et primo ponitur oratio; et ideo dicit, in tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum. Oseae 6: in tribulatione sua mane consurgent ad me: Baruch 3: Nunc Domine Deus etc.. Isa. 55: Quaerite Dominum dum inveniri potest etc.. Ps. 49 Invoca me in die tribulationis et eruam te: Sap. 7: Invocavi, et venit in me spiritus sapientiae. Proverbs 21: He who gathers treasures by lying tongue is vain and foolish, and shall stumble upon the snares of death. Here is the necessity. But he adds the remedy of prayer. And first he presents prayer, and thus he says, in my tribulation I called upon the Lord. Osee 6: In their affliction they will rise early to me: And now, O Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, the soul in anguish and the troubled spirit cry to you. Isaiah 55: Seek the Lord while He may be found, etc. Psalm 49: Then call upon me in time of distress; I will rescue you, and you shall glorify me. Consequenter ponitur orantis devotio, quia, ad Dominum meum clamavi, idest cum magnitudine devotionis orantis: Ps. 119: ad dominum cum tribularer etc.. Heb. 5: cum clamore valido et lacrymis offerens, exauditus est: et dicit, ad Dominum meum clamavi, non alienum. Deut. 10: Dominum Deum tuum adorabis etc.. Consequently he presents the devotion of the one who is praying, because he writes, to my Lord I cried, that is, with the greatness of the devotion of the man who prays: Ps. 119: To the Lord when I was in tribulation etc.. Hebrews 5: For Jesus, in the days of his earthly prayers and supplications to him who was able to save him from death, and was heard because of his reverent submission: and he writes, I cried to my God, not to an alien God: Deuteronomy 10: You will adore the Lord your God etc.. Tertio ponitur exauditio, exaudivit. Duo dixerat: se invocasse et clamasse. Et ideo dicit exauditam vocem et clamorem. Unde? De templo sancto vocem meam exaudivit. Templum Dei est ipsa excellentia suae sanctitatis, quia Dominus est templum suum: Apoc. 21. Templum non vidi in ea: Dominus enim Deus omnipotens templum illius est etc.. Item templum est ipse Christus: Joan. 2: hoc autem dicebat de templo corporis sui, in quo Deus est per unionem personae. Third, he presents the hearing, when he writes, he heard. He says two things: that he invoked and that he cried. And he says that the voice and clamor was heard. From where? From his holy temple He heard my voice. The temple of God is the excellence of his sanctity, because the Lord is his own temple: Apoc. 21. I say no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty is its temple etc.. Again, the temple is Christ himself: John 2: He said this about the temple of his Body, in which God is by the union of person. Item anima justa, in qua Deus est per gratiam. 1 Cor. 3: Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos. Item Beata Virgo: Psal. 5: Adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum, in qua, idest per quam exaudivit nos Deus: Ps. 33: Exaudivit me, et ex omnibus tribulationibus meis eripuit me. Item Ecclesia: Ps. 10: Dominus in templo suo. Et de quolibet templo isto exaudivit: 3 Reg. 18: Si quis cognoverit plagam cordis sui, et expanderit manus suas in domo hac, tu exaudies in loco habitationis tuae. Again, the just soul in whom God is by grace. 1 Cor. 3: For the temple of God, which is you, is holy. Again, the Blessed Virgin: Psalm 5: I will adore at your Holy Temple, in which, that is, through which, God has listened to us: Psalm 33: He listened to me, and he rescued me from all my tribulations. Again, the Church: Psalm 10: The Lord in his temple. And in this temple he hears about everything: 3 Kings 8: When a man shall know the wound of his own heart, and shall spread forth his hands in this house, then hear thou in heaven, in the place of thy dwelling. Et non solum orationem dicit exauditam, sed etiam clamorem; ideo dicit, Et clamor meus in conspectu ejus introivit in aures ejus. Et dicit, in conspectu, idest in oculis ejus, quia omnia videt: Exo. 3: Videns vidi afflictionem etc.. Vel in conspectu, idest in beneplacito: vel in corde, ubi ipse solus conspicit: 1 Reg. 16: Homo videt ea quae apparent, Deus autem intuetur cor. Et introivit in aures ejus, per acceptationem: Jac. 5: clamor eorum in aures Domini. Vel in aures, idest in clementiam ejus: Eccl. 15: Oratio humiliantis se nubes penetrat. He says not only that the prayer is heard, but the cry as well; thus he says, and my cry has entered in his sight into his ears. And he says, in his sight, that is, in his eyes, because he sees all things: Exodus 3: I have witnessed the affliction etc. Or in the sight, that is, in the good pleasure: or in the heart, where He alone sees: 1 Kings 16: for man sees the things that appear, but God beholds the heart. And it entered into his ears, by acceptance: James 5: And their cry has entered into the ears of the Lord. Or into the ears, that is, into his clemency: Eccl. 15: The prayer of the one who humbles himself penetrates the clouds. (e) Commota. Supra egit psalmista de affectu concepto ex beneficiis liberationis; hic agit de potentia liberantis. Potentia agentis ostenditur ex effectu agentis; quae autem hic dicuntur, possunt ad duplicem Dei effectum pertinere: scilicet ad illum qui ostenditur in corporalibus, et ad effectum redemptionis. (e) Shaken. Above, the psalmist discusses the feeling conceived from the benefits of liberation; here he discusses the power of the liberator. The power of the one who acts is shown from the effect of the one who acts; the things that are said here can apply to two of God’s effects: to the effect that is shown in physical things, and to the effect of redemption. Et forte verius ad utrumque: quia ea quae hic dicuntur sub figura corporalium, spiritualiter complentur per effectum redemptionis. Effectus autem divinae potentiae maxime manifestatur in rebus corporalibus, quia spiritualia minus sunt nobis nota; et praecipue in illis quas homines admirantur; et haec sunt commotiones elementorum, scilicet terrae, aeris, aquae et ignis. Perhaps more truly his words apply to both: because those things that are said under the figure of physical things, are fulfilled spiritually by the effect of redemption. The effect of divine power is most manifest in physical things, because spiritual things are less known to us; and this is chiefly in things at which men wonder; these are the shaking of elements, that is, of the earth, air, water and fire. Dividitur ergo pars ista in tres partes. Primo ostendit Dei potentiam in effectibus qui sunt circa terram. Secundo in permutationibus aeris. Tertio in permutationibus aquarum. Secunda, ibi, Inclinavit caelos. tertia, ibi, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Sed si ad mysterium referatur, dividitur in duo. Primo ostendit fructum divinae redemptionis factae per Christum. Secundo modum ipsius, ibi, Inclinavit caelos. Prima in duo. Ad primum referendo, primo agit de effectu terrae, quae est ab imo. Thus this part is divided into three parts. First he shows the power of God in the effects that are on the earth. Second, in the changes of the air. Third, in the changes of the waters. The second part is where he says He bowed the heavens. The third part, where he says, Then the fountains of waters appeared. But if this is taken to refer to a mystery, it is divided into two. First he shows the fruit of the divine redemption brought about by Christ. Second, he shows the mode of this redemption, where he says, He bowed the heavens. The first part is divided into two. Referring to the first, he talks about the effect of the first, which is from below. Secundo de eo, qui a summo ascendit. Si mystice, sic ostenditur duplex effectus redemptionis: scilicet poenitentia peccatorum, et devotio justorum, ibi, Ascendit. Sed secundum quod refertur ad corporalem effectum, qui est ab imo terrae, maxime mirabilis effectus est terraemotus etc.. Hic tria tangit. Primo ipsam commotionem. Secundo id quod mirabilem eam reddit. Tertio ejus causam. Dicit ergo, Commota est et contremuit terra. Second, he talks about that which goes up from the highest place. If this is taken in a mystic sense, then the twofold effect of redemption is shown: namely, penance or sinners, and the devotion of just men, where he says, He went up. But insofar as it refers to the physical effect, which is from the lowest part of the earth, the most wonderful effect is the earthquake, etc. Here he touches upon three things. First, the shaking itself. Second, that which makes this shaking wonderful. Third, the cause of the shaking. Therefore he says, The earth was shaken and trembled. Dupliciter aliquid movetur. Uno modo movetur aliquid de loco in locum: et sic non movetur terra. Alio modo ad modum trementis: et sic mirabilem facit esse terraemotum concussio montium: quia si terra mollis moveretur, non esset mirabile; sed quando moventur montes, tunc mirabile est; et ideo dicit, Conturbata sunt, quia videntur stabilitatem amisisse. Prima causa est voluntas divina; et hanc exprimit metaphorice cum dicit, Quoniam iratus est eis, scilicet Deus. Sicut cum dominus turbatur, qui ei assistunt, tremunt; ita ad commotionem Dei omnia turbantur. Something may be moved in two ways. In one way, something is moved from place to place, and the earth is not moved in this way. In another way, something may be moved as something that trembles. And so a strike upon the mountains makes a wonderful earthquake; because if it were soft earth that were moved, it would not evoke wonder; bed when the mountains are moved, then this is wonderful; and so he says, They were shaken, because they seemed to lose their firmness. The first cause is the divine will; and he expresses this metaphorically when he says, Because He was angry with them, namely, God. Just as when a lord is upset, those who serve him tremble, to when God is upset, all things are upset. Mystice designatur per hoc commotio hominum ad poenitentiam. Item inter eos quidam sunt minores: et hi designantur per terram; unde dicit, Commota est et contremuit terra, idest qui prius peccatores erant et terreni: Is. 51: Posuisti ut terram cor tuum, et quasi viam transeuntibus. In a mystical sense, by this is designated the movement of men to repentance. At the same time, among those who are lesser, and these men are designated by earth; hence he says, The earth was shaken and trembled, that is, those who are in the first place sinners and earthly: Isaiah 51: Thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as a way to them that went over. Haec commota est per affectum a terrenis ad caelestia, et hoc a tremore quem concepit de poenis: Is. 26: a timore tuo Domine concepimus, et quasi parturivimus et peperimus spiritum salutis. The earth is shaken by a feeling from things of the earth to things of the heavens, and this is from the trembling that is conceived concerning punishments: Isaiah 26: We have conceived, and been as it were in labor, and have brought forth wind; we have not wrought salvation upon the earth. Quidam sunt magni; et hi dicuntur montes, idest superbientes in saeculo. Commota sunt, per Christi adventum. Montium fundamenta sunt illa in quibus firmantur, scilicet divitiae, potestates et honores: Ps. 45: Transferuntur montes in cor maris, puta turbantur quando veniunt adversitates; et post totaliter commoventur: Is. 23: Dominus exercituum cogitavit hoc ut detraheret omnem superbiam gloriae, et ad ignominiam deduceret universos inclytos terrae. Certain people are great; and these are called mountains, that is, those who take pride in this age. They are shaken by the coming of Christ. The foundations of the mountains are those things in which these people are made firm, namely, riches, powers and honors: Psalm 45: The mountains are moved into the heart of the sea, which we may suppose to mean that they are disturbed when adversities come; and after this they are completely shaken: Isaiah 23: The Lord of hosts hath designed it, to pull down the pride of all glory, and bring to disgrace all the glorious ones of the earth. Omnia regna et potestates quae habent initium, habebunt occasum: ratio est, quoniam turbatus est eis. Hoc potest dupliciter intelligi. Si de malis, non est dubium quin ex vindicta Dei, quae dicitur ira, transferentur; si de bonis, idest quoniam ira Dei eis innotuit, ideo convertuntur. Innotuit enim per eum: Rom. 1: revelatur ira Dei de caelo super omnem impietatem et injustitiam hominum eorum qui veritatem Dei in injustitia detinent. All the kingdoms and powers that have a beginning also have their fall: the reason is that He is disturbed with them. This can be understood in two ways. If it is a matter of evil things, there is no doubt that they are moved from their position by God’s vengeance, which is called anger. If it is a matter of good things, it is because the anger of God is made known to them, and so they convert. It is made known by Him: Romans 1: The anger of God has been revealed from heaven over all the impiety and injustice of those men who hold back the truth of God in injustice. (f) Ascendit. Hic ponitur corporaliter exponendo effectus, qui est a summo. Effectus autem terrae a summo est, quando terra caelesti igne in aliqua sui parte comburitur: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo tangit materiam ipsam. Secundo accensionem ignis et combustionem. (f) There went up. Here is presented in a physical way the effect that is from on high. The effect of the earth is from the highest place, when the earth in some part of itself is burning from a heavenly fire: and with regard to this he does two things. First he deals with the matter itself. Second, he deals with the rising of the fire and the burning. Materia ejus est fumus siccus resolutus ascendens quousque inflammetur; et ideo dicit, ascendit fumus in ira ejus, idest in voluntate ejus, idest Dei per quam sic punit. A facie, idest a potestate ejus, ignis exardescit, idest accenditur; et carbones, idest materia combustibilis hic incenditur. Mystice per hoc innuuntur duo: scilicet devotio orationis, et inflammatio caritatis. Ascendit: et ex hoc consideratur ira Dei contra peccatores. Ascendit fumus, devotae orationis: Apoc. 8: ascendit fumus aromatum, idest ignis caritatis: a facie ejus, idest Christi, exardescit: Luc. 12: ignem veni mittere in terram. Carbones succensi sunt ab eo, scilicet isti susceptivi accensionis. Its matter is the dry and smoke that is set loose and arises until fire breaks out; and therefore he says, smoke went up in his anger, that is, in his will, that is, the will of God by which He punishes. From His face, that is, from His power, the fire flames out, that is, it is kindled; and coals, that is, combustible material is set aflame here. Two things are mystically suggested here: namely devotion in prayer, and the burning of charity. There went up: and here we consider the anger of God against sinners. There went up smoke, the smoke of devoted prayer: Apoc. 8: There went up an aromatic smoke, that is, the fire of charity: from His face, that is, Christ, it flamed: Luke 12: I have come to sent fire upon the earth. The coals have been lit by Him, that it, those who were capable of being kindled. Carbo aliquando habuit ignem; sic homo a principio habuit caritatem, sed extinctus erat; sed isti succensi sunt a Christo. item carbones non humidi sic incenduntur, sed humidi, non: sicut humidi fluxu carnalium: ps. 119: sagittae potentis acutae cum carbonibus etc.. Commota est et contremuit terra; fundamenta montium conturbata sunt et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis. A coal at one time had fire; so, a man had charity in the beginning, but it was snuffed out; but these have been kindled by Christ. Again, coals that are not wet are set on fire in this way, but wet coals are not: like those who are wet from the flow of carnal things: Psalm 119: The arrows of the powerful are sharp with coals etc.. The earth was shaken and trembled; the foundations of the mountains were disturbed and shaken, because He was angry at them. Deus irasci dicitur, quia ad modum irati se habet non in se, sed quantum ad effectum: Dominus autem iratus facit tremere servum, et leo catulum. Pro quo sciendum, quod virtus continens membra dimittitur exterius, et revertitur interius, puta ad cor quasi fugiens, et cedens malo imaginato: vel virtuti surgenti contra eam cui resistere non potest, et membra tremunt, sicut murus cum concutitur fundamentum. Anima enim continet corpus, et est quasi fundamentum ejus; et pars animae partem corporis. Unde concusso fundamento concutitur murus; et concussa virtute concutitur membrum. Sic ergo effectus irae in animali est tremor. God is said to anger, because He is like one who is angry not in himself, but with respect to his effect. An angry master makes his servant tremble, and a lion causes a cub to tremble. With regard to this, it should be known that the virtue which contains the members is outwardly lost, and returns within, for example, to the heart as one fleeing, and it gives in to some imagined evil: or it gives in to a power that rises against it, a power that it cannot resist, and the members tremble, like a wall when the foundation is struck. For the soul contains the body, and it is like the foundation of the body; and the part of the soul contains the part of the body. Hence, when the foundation is struck, the wall is struck; and when a power is struck, the member is struck. Thus in an animal, the effect of anger is shaking. Dicitur autem animal tremere, quando concutitur pars ejus, toto in eodem loco manente: et similiter quia contingit hoc in terraemotu, dicitur terra tremere per similitudinem ad animalia. Dicitur enim Deus irasci terrae in terraemotu. An animal is said to tremble when part of it is struck, while the whole animal remains in one spot: and likewise, because this happens is an earthquake, the earth is said to tremble by a comparison with animals. For God is said to be angry in an earthquake. Vel sic. In homine sunt quatuor: scilicet ratio, vires sensitivae, natura, res et corpus. Sed in mundo sunt Deus, angeli, animalia, plantae, et elementa. Videmus enim quod ad malum imaginatum, cui corpus non potest resistere, corpus statim tremit; non ex cognitione, sed quodam naturali ordine sive naturaliter, inquantum virtus mali imaginati est potentior. Et similiter Deus cum vertit virtutem suam super terram, licet non cognoscat iram, naturaliter tremit. Fundamenta, idest aliquae concavitates sive terra concava, qua mota montes concutiuntur. Or in this way. There are four things in man: namely, reason, the sensitive powers, nature, the thing and body. But in the world there are God, the angels, the animals, the plants and the elements. For we see that the body immediately trembles when it imagines an evil that the body cannot resist; it does not tremble from knowledge, but by a certain natural order, that is, naturally, insofar as the power of the imagined evil is greater. And likewise God, when He directs his power over the earth, although the earth does not know anger, it naturally trembles. The foundations, that is, certain concavities like concave earth, and when this is moved that mountains are struck. Quoniam iratus etc.. Prima causa est voluntas Dei sive virtus ejus volens in eis agere: sed mediantibus causis secundis hoc agit; ita quod omnes causae secundae comparantur ad terram sicut imaginatum malum commovens membra. Ascendit fumus. Ubi nota secundum philosophum, quod a terra humida resolvitur virtute caloris solis vapor calidus et humidus; a terra autem sicca vapor siccus et calidus; sed naturaliter plus ascendit secundus quam primus. hic enim assimilatur igni, ille aeri: et hunc vaporem psalmista vocat fumum, secundum calidum et siccum. Because he was angry etc.. The first cause is the will of God or his virtue that wills to act in them, but this acts by the mediation of secondary causes; so that all secondary causes are compared to earth like an imagined evil moves the members. Smoke rose up. Here, note that according to the philosopher, warm and human vapor is released from moist earth by the power of the sun’s heat. Dry and hot vapor is released from dry earth. But naturally, the second vapor rises more than the first. The latter is likened to fire, the former to air: and psalmist calls this vapor smoke, as it is hot and dry. Philosophus vero vocat eum materiam incendii. Sursum enim latus hic vapor cum modico augmento caloris factus, per modum circulationis accenditur. Qui quidem fumus siccus si habeat longitudinem et latitudinem, postquam accensus est, vocatur flamma. Est enim flamma, secundum philosophum, spiritus sicci ardoris. The philosopher call it the matter of fire. When this vapor is taken aloft and a small amount of heat is added, it is set aflame by way of circulation. If this dry smoke had length and breadth after it is set afire, it is called a flame. For a flame, according to the philosopher, is a spirit or gust of dry heat. Si longitudinem tantum, vocatur daly sive titiones et aegibes sive caprae et sidera. Daly quidem quando est materia illa incendii longa, continua sine scintillatione. caprae vocatur quando est cum scintillatione, idest quando videtur salire et discurrere, sicut caprae. sidera, quando est materia discontinua, et videtur volare sicut sidera: et hoc habet minimum de materia. If it has only length, it is called torches or firebrands, and “aegibes” (goats), or planets and stars. They are called torches when the matter is long in its burning, continuous without twinkling. It called goats when it is with twinkling, that is, when it seems to leap and run around, like goats. Stars, when it is discontinuous matter, and seems to fly like stars, and that has the least amount of matter. Est et aliud genus siderum, quod est frigus expellens calidum: et talia sidera non videntur volare, sed magis projici, ut dicit philosophus: et generantur non ex fumo omnino sicco, sed vapore magis humido et calido; qui secundum naturam suam non tantum ascendit sicut siccus, sicut dictum est. Et quia est siccum, patitur a frigido et repercutitur, et inferius projicitur. And there is another kind of stars, which is cold and expels what is hot: and such stars do not appear to fly, but rather they seem to be thrown, as the philosopher says: and they are not generated at all from dry smoke, but rather from moist and warm vapor; which according to its nature does not ascend as much as the dry, as was said. And since it is dry, it is subject to the cold and is struck down, and is thrown down. Et fit hoc in die et in sereno: alias extingueretur a densitate et humiditate aeris. Et quia videtur in die, signum est, quod est prope terram. Accenditur autem dupliciter; et per continuationem, sicut superior flamma accendit inferiorem lucernam; sive per motum a frigore et constrictione, sive conglobatione calidi. Sic ergo dicit, ascendit fumus, idest exhalatio sicca: in ira ejus, idest per voluntatem ipsius volentem agere in eo. Et ignis, idest ille fumus qui vocatur ignis etiam a philosopho in principio Metaph., quasi eo quod non habeat proprium nomen: sicut exhalatio humida quae vocatur vapor; sed dicitur ignis, quia disposita est ad ascensionem, et quia est calida et sicca sicut ignis. And this happens in day and in calm weather; otherwise it would be extinguished by the density and humidity of the air. And that it appears in the day is a sign that it is close to the earth. It is set on fire in two ways; by continuation, as a flame above lights a lamp below; or by motion on account of cold and squeezing, or the pressing together of that which is hot. Then therefore he says, smoke rose up, that is, a dry exhalation: in his anger, that is, by his will, willing to act in it. And fire, that is, the smoke that is called fire also by the philosopher in the beginning of the Metaphysics, as if it did not have a proper name: just as the humid exhalation which is called steam; but it is called fire, because it is disposed to rise, and because it is hot and dry like fire. Iste enim ignis exarsit, idest accensus est, scilicet a Deo tamquam a prima causa: qui quidem ignis accensus vocatur dalus, flamma et sidera: sidera dico generata primo modo, ut dictum est. Et carbones succensi sunt ab eo, idest sidera secundo modo generata. Vel sic. Commota est etc.. Vapor siccus virtute caloris solis a terra elevatus, aliquando est subtilis: et tunc elevatur superius, et facit intensionem, ut dictum est supra. For this fire burns, that is, it is ignited, namely by God as by the first cause: this fire when lite is called a firebrand, flame and stares: I speak of stars generated in the first way, as was said. And coals have been kindled by him, that is, starts generated in the second way. Or thus. The earth was shaken etc.. Dry vapor when it is lifted from the earth by the power of the sun’s heat is sometimes fine or subtle; and then it is lifted higher and it makes stretching (intensity), as was said above. Aliquando in superficie terrae est aliquantulum grossior; unde a frigore repercussus non tantum ascendit, et est ventus; aliquando in terram elevatur grossior vapor siccus, qui propter suam grossitiem et terrae soliditatem et profunditatem non expirat extra, sed clauditur in terra, et congregatur in aliqua concavitate terrae simili sibi, et coarctatur ab aliquo corpore non sibi simili in specie, et sic agitatur in terrae visceribus: et sic commovet eam: nec mirum, cum videamus ventum in mari facere undas quasi montes, et in terra elevare arbores et aedificia facere corruere, et in aere tempestates maximas facere. At times, it is somewhat thicker in the surface of the earth; hence when it is affected by cold it does not rise as much, and it is a wind; at times it is raised to the earth as a thicker dry vapor, which on account of its thickness and the solidity and depth of the earth does not breathe out any further, but is locked in the earth, and it is gathered in some cavernous space of the earth that is like itself, and it is confined by some body which is not like itself in species, and thus it is agitated in the bowels of the earth; and thus it moves the earth: it is no wonder, since we see the wind at sea make waves like mountains, and upon the land we see the wind lift trees and make buildings collapse, and make very great storms in the air. Quod autem ventus sit causa terraemotus, signum est quod ante terraemotum consuevit fieri tranquillitas a ventis; sed post terraemotum sunt venti. Materia autem terraemotus subtiliata per calorem solis expirat a terra: et sic cessat terraemotus et fit ventus. Causa terraemotus est impulsio unius venti ab alio: et propterea non potest esse in tota terra simul, sed durant per ducenta miliaria ad plus, ut dicit Seneca. Et dicit quod terraemotus divisit Siciliam a Calabria, et Hispaniam ab Africa. Et durat aliquando per quadraginta dies; aliquando per unum annum. Item nota quod terra solida a qua non potest vapor exire exterius, apta est ut cito moveatur: ea enim quae est de natura lapidea, non leviter movetur et concutitur; oportet tamen ab aliqua parte porosam esse, unde ingrediatur vapor; ut per poros intret, et per soliditatem contineatur. One sign that wind is the cause of earthquakes is that before an earthquake the air usually becomes tranquil without wind; but after the earthquake there are winds. The matter of an earthquake is made fine by the heat of the sun and breathes out from the earth; and so the earthquake ceases and the wind begins. The cause of an earthquake is one wind being pushed by another; and on this account there cannot be an earthquake at the same time over the whole earth, but they extend over two hundred miles at the most, as Seneca says. And Seneca says that it was an earthquake that divided Sicily from Calabria, and Spain from Africa. And sometimes an earthquake lasts forty days; sometimes a whole year. Again, note that solid earth from which vapor cannot leave is apt to be quickly moved; for such earth is of a stony nature, it is not moved lightly and it is struck; however, it must be porous in some part, from which the vapor enters; as the vapor enters by pores and is contained by solidity. Et si dicas, si ingrediatur non potest egredi, dicendum quod non potest semper hoc facere: quia aliquando semper continuatur ingressus et elevatio vaporis ad locum illum. Et iterum, quia calidum non vadit inferius, ad hoc cooperatur unda maris claudens poros, et pro frigore recludens inferius. Unde loca cavernosa circa mare faciunt frequenter terraemotum. Item nota quod iste vapor continue egreditur de terra quantum ad aliquid, et propterea tempore terraemotuum animalia quae portant caput juxta terram saepe ex hoc inficiuntur per vaporem illum venenosum egredientem de terra. And if you say that if it enters it cannot leave, it should be said that it cannot always do this: because sometimes the entry and elevation of vapor to this place is continuous. And again, because that which is hot does not descend, and the waves of the sea that close the pores work together to this end, and enclose it below for cold. Again, note that this vapor continuously leaves the earth to some extent, and on this account, in time of earthquakes animals that carry their heads close to the earth are often thereby affected by the poisonous vapor that comes out of the earth. (g) Inclinavit. Hic agit de ventis. Ubi nota quod materia venti est vapor vel exhalatio sicca calefacta, sed non ita subtiliata quod possit ad supremum locum ascendere, nec ita calefacta: unde impeditur a frigore et ingrossatur et repercutitur inferius: et haec repercussa movet aerem. Habet tamen tantum de caliditate quod non ita vincitur a frigore ut convertatur ad terram; et dicitur, caligo, et dicitur, sub pedibus, quia non est alta sicut illa quae accenditur in flamma. Aliquando autem non statim repercutitur, sed agitat nubes, quia non totaliter vincitur, nec directe redit inferius ad terram: et propter hunc motum tortuosum quasi nititur sursum ascendere, et non valet propter repercussionem; et hoc est quod dicit. (g) He bowed the heavens. Here he discusses winds. Note that the matter of wind is a dry vapor or exhalation that has been warmed, but which is not so fine that it can rise to the highest place, nor has it been heated to that extent: hence it is impeded by cold, is thickened and beaten to a lower place: and when it is struck it moves the air. It has enough heat that it is not bound by the cold to become earth; and it says, darkness, and it says, under his feet, because it not high like that which is ignited into flame. At times it is not struck right away, but it disturbs the clouds, because it is not totally bound, nor does it return directly below to earth; and because of this twisting motion, it tries, as it were, to rise, and it cannot because it is beaten back; and this is what he says. (h) Et volavit. Hic agit de permutationibus aeris secundum corporales effectus: et est triplex permutatio: scilicet in ventis, in nubibus et tonitruis: et agit de qualibet. Circa primum proponit tria. Primo causam effectivam omnium istarum transmutationum. Secundo materiam. Tertio modum. (h) And he flew. Here he discusses the changes in the air with respect to physical effects: and there is a threefold change: namely, in the air, in the clouds, and in the thunders: and he treats each of these. With regard to the first he proposes three things. First, the efficient cause of all these changes. Second, the matter. Third, the mode. Causa autem omnium istorum est corpus caeleste, quod suo motu causat has alterationes aeris; et ideo dicit, Inclinavit caelos, idest virtutem caelestium corporum ordinavit ad hos effectus: quia hoc habent a Deo. Et descendit. Licet Deus immobilis manens omnia operetur, dicitur tamen moveri per effectum, inquantum facit mobiles effectus. Sap. 7: Omnibus mobilibus mobilior est sapientia; et secundum hoc dicitur descendere, inquantum facit descendere virtutem caelorum. The cause of all these is a heavenly body, which by its motion causes these changes in the air, and so he says, he bowed down the heavens, that is, he ordered the power of the heavenly bodies to these effects: because they have this from God. And he came down. Although God works all things while remaining immobile himself, he is said to be moved by way of an effect, insofar as he makes effects that can be moved. Wisdom 7: Wisdom is more mobile than all mobile things; and according to this He is said to come down, insofar as he makes the power of the heavens come down. Materia ventorum est caligo, sive fumus siccus; non ita subtilis quod ascendat usque ad ignem, sed subsistens; et dicit, sub pedibus, idest sub potestate ejus; et totum est a Deo. The matter of the winds is darkness, or dry smoke; it is not so fine that it rises to fire, but it remains; and he said, under his feed, that is, under his power; and all is from God. Modus. Ascendit super cherubim. Notandum quod Judaei fingunt quod sicut rex habet currum, ita habet Deus etiam currum, qui est Cherubin; et imaginantur deum corporalem et similem Cherubin. Et ideo in Psalmo Hieronymi etiam de verbo ad verbum dicitur, equitavit super Cherubin. Et isti habent falsam imaginationem; quia quae imaginabiliter dicuntur in scriptura, signa sunt spiritualis veritatis. Divina autem sapientia moveri dicitur, inquantum motum causat in mobilia. Quidquid autem causat Deus in istis inferioribus, causat ministerio spiritualis creaturae: unde dicit Augustinus quod Deus movet corporalem creaturam mediante spirituali: sed non facit hoc sua virtute spiritualis creatura, sed Deo praesidente. et dicitur hoc specialiter facere Cherubin, quia interpretatur plenitudo scientiae: et Deus omnia per suam scientiam facit. Mode. He ascended upon the Cherubim. It should be noted that the Jews images that just as a king has a chariot, so God also has a chariot, which is the Cherubim; and they imagine God as physical and like the Cherubim. And so in the Psalm of Jerome it is also said word for word, he rode upon the Cherubim. And they have a false imagination, because the things that are said using images in Scripture, are sings of a spiritual truth. Divine wisdom is said to be moved, insofar as it causes movement in mobile things. Whatever God causes in this things below, he causes by the ministry of a spiritual creature: hence Augustine says that God moves the physical creature by the mediation of a spiritual creature: but the spiritual creature does not do this by his own power, but God presides. And the Cherubim are said especially to do this, because Cherubim translates as fullness of knowledge: and God makes all things by his knowledge. Et dicitur esse super Cherubim, quia scientia Dei excedit scientiam angelorum. Et ideo facit hoc Deus, volans, idest volare faciens. Et per Cherubin, idest per suam scientiam, et super eos qui excedit illos: et dixit volavit, quia motus venti non est uniformis: et dicit, pennas ventorum, propter velocitatem motus eorum. Mystice hic ponitur mysterium incarnationis. Et primo ponitur Christi incarnatio, per quam exivit et venit in mundum. Secundo ejus ascensio, qua ivit ad Patrem, ibi, Ascendit super Cherubim. Tertio ea quae post Christi ascensionem in ecclesia facta sunt, et posuit tenebras. And he is said to go up upon the Cherubim, (or above the Cherubim), because the knowledge of God exceeds the knowledge of the angels. And therefore God does this, flying, that is, making fly. And through the Cherubim, that is, through his knowledge, and over the Cherubim because he exceeds them: and he said, he flew, because the motion of the wind is not uniform: and he says, the wings of the wind, on account of the speed of their motion. Mystically the mystery of the incarnation is presented here. And first, the incarnation of Christ is presented, by which he departed and came into the world. Second, his ascension, whereby he went to the Father, where it says, he went up upon the Cherubim. Third, the things that have happened in the Church after Christ’s ascension, and he made darkness his covert. Dicit ergo, inclinavit caelos et descendit, etc.. Si quis magnus facit humilitatem alicui parvo de villa, dicitur facere injuriam et dejectionem toti loco cui praesidet. Sic filius hominis dicitur humiliare se et inclinare caelos, quia voluit venire ad nos humilis. Descendit, idest visibilis apparuit: Baruch, 3: post haec in terris visus est, et cum hominibus conversatus est. 1 Joan. 1: Quod vidimus et audivimus et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de verbo vitae. He says therefore, he bowed down the heaven and descended, etc.. If someone great humiliates someone small from a village, he is said to cause insult and dejection to the entire place over which he presides. Thus the son of man is said to humiliate himself and bend down the heavens, because he wanted to come to as as someone humble. He came down, that is, he appeared as visible: Baruch 3: after these things he was seen in the lands, and he conversed with men. 1 John 1: That which we have seen and heard and what our hands have touched of the word of life. Descendit ergo per humilitatem accipiendo carnem humanam, moriendo et docendo humilia. Vel, inclinavit caelos, idest praedicatores, et descendit, faciens eos dicere capacia hominibus. Et caligo, idest diabolus et omnes mali, sub pedibus ejus, idest Christi: Psal. 109: Ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum. De ascensione dicit, ascendit super Cherubim. Eph. 4: Qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes caelos ut adimpleret omnia. Super Cherubim, idest super ordines angelorum: Eph. 1: constituens eum ad dexteram suam in caelestibus super omnem principatum et potestatem et virtutem et dominationem etc.. Et omnia subjecit sub pedibus ejus, et ipsum dedit caput super omnem ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius: Hier. 32: fortissime, magne, potens, Dominus exercituum nomen tibi, magnus consilio et incomprehensibilis cogitatu. He descended therefore by humility in taking on human flesh, dying and teaching things that are humble. Or, he bowed down the heavens, that is, preachers, and he descended, making them speak things to men which men were capable of grasping. And darkness, that is devil and all evil men, under his feet, that is, the feet of Christ: Psalm 109: I will make your enemies your foot stool. He speaks of the ascension, he ascended above (upon) the Cherubim. Eph. 4: He who descended is the very one who ascended above all the heavens to make complete all things. Over (or upon) the Cherubim, that is, over the orders of angels: Eph. 1: seating him at his right hand in the heavens above every principality, virtue and domination etc.. And he has put all things under Christ’s feet and has made him the head over the whole church, which is his body. Jer. 32: O most mighty, great, and powerful, the Lord of hosts is thy name. Great in counsel, and incomprehensible in thought. Et dicit specialiter, super Cherubim, quia non solum ascendit ut est etiam eis superior, sed quia eis est incomprehensibilis. Volavit, volavit, duplex volatus intelligitur hic. Primo inquantum fama ejus post ascensionem in brevi tempore per totum mundum crevit; unde dicit, super pennas ventorum, idest plus quam pennae quae sparguntur impulsu ventorum, quia in modico tempore ante tres annos: Psal. 18: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum etc.. quia ante destructionem Hierusalem. Vel, volavit etc. Ascendens in caelum factus invisibilis, et volavit ab aspectu nostro: Act. 1: nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum. And he says specially, over the Cherubim, because not only does he ascend as he is also higher than them, but because he is incomprehensible to them. He flew, he flew – a two-fold flight is understood here. First, insofar as his fame grew through the whole world in a short time after his ascension; hence he says, on the wings of the winds, that is, more than wings or feathers that are scattered by a gust of wind, because in a short, less than three years: Psalm 18: Their sound went through the whole earth etc., because it was before the destruction of Jerusalem. Or, he flew etc. When he ascended into heaven he became invisible, and he flew from our sight: Acts 1: A cloud took him from our eyes. Item volavit super pennas ventorum, idest super scientiam angelorum: Ps. 103: Qui facit angelos suos spiritus etc.. Unde dicitur in Lib. 5 De Causis, quod prima causa superior est omni narratione: et non deficiunt linguae a narratione ejus, nisi quia deficiunt a narratione esse ipsius, quia est super omnem causam. Et dicit commentator, quod ejus non est judicium nec cognitio. Et posuit tenebras, etc.. sicut dictum est, quae hic inducuntur ad ostendendum Dei miram potentiam, qua David liberatus est, possunt referri ad corporales effectus in figura, et ad spirituales in mysterio. Again, he flew upon the wings of the winds, that is, upon the knowledge of the angels: Ps. 103: He who made his spirits angels etc.. Hence we read in Book 5 of De Causis, that the first cause is higher than all telling: and tongues do not cease from the telling of it, unless it is because they cease or fail from the telling of his being, which is above every cause. And the commentator says that there is no judgement or knowledge of him. And he made the darkness, etc.. as was said, that here the darkness is mentioned to show the marvelous power of God, by which David was set free, and the darkness can refer figuratively to physical effects, and mystically to spiritual effects. Primo ergo introducit psalmista secundum quod exponitur secundum corporales effectus excellentiam divinae potentiae in aere: et hoc tripliciter: scilicet quantum ad ventos, quantum ad pluvias et nubes, et quantum ad fulgura. Et quia de ventis supra dictum est, dicendum est de pluviis in aere. Secundum ergo nubes et pluvias, invenimus duplicem commutationem in aere; unam de sereno in nubilum, aliam de nubilo in serenum. Primo ergo ponit primam commutationem. Secundo secundam, ibi, prae fulgore. circa primum tria facit. primo ostendit nubilosi temporis obscuritatem. First, therefore, the psalmist mentions the excellence of the divine power in the air, as he expounding upon the physical effects. And he does this in three ways: namely, with respect to the winds, with respect to the rains and clouds, and with respect to lightning. And because he spoke above of the winds, he is going to speak of the rains in the air. With respect to clouds and rains, we find a twofold change in the air; a change from clear sky to cloudy, and a change from cloudy to clear. First, therefore, he presents the first change. Second, the second change, where he says, at the brightness that was before him. He does three things with respect to the first. First, he shows the obscurity of the cloudy season. Secundo adhibet similitudinem. Tertio ponit obscuritatis causam. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: posuit tenebras latibulum suum. Dicitur quod Deus habitat in caelo. Unde quando nubes occultant caelum, videtur Deus habitare in occulto: Ezech. 32: Caelum nube tegam. Et posuit similitudinem de tabernaculo: et ideo dicit, in circuitu ejus tabernaculum ejus. Tabernaculum enim ponitur et deponitur sicut nubes. Dicit, tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Consequenter agit de secunda. Prae fulgore etc. et utitur tali similitudine: quando venit lux, expelluntur tenebrae; et sic Deo ostendente lumen suum, fugit obscuritas nebularum. Second, he uses a likeness. Third, he presents the cause of the obscurity. Therefore he says with regard to the first: he made the darkness his covert. It is said that God dwells in heaven. Hence when the clouds cover heaven, God seems to dwell in a hidden place: Ezech. 32: I will cover the heaven with cloud. And he presents a comparison with a tent: and therefore he says, his tent around him. A tent is set up and taken down like the clouds. He says, the dark water in the clouds of the air. Following this, he treats the second. At the brightness etc., and he uses a likeness: when the light comes, the darkness is cast out; and so when God shows his light, the obscurity of the clouds flees. Et ideo dicit: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus nubes transierunt, prae fulgore luminis a facie tua nubes transierunt, sicut fulgore sive splendore solis, nubes fugiunt et liquefiunt, ut in Lib. Meteo. dicitur. Dali vel titiones ponuntur in transitu nubium: quia similem causam generationis habet grando et fulgur, sive ignis. Antiqui vero dicunt, quod generantur in loco supremo; quod ostendit fortiorem congelationem a forti frigore causari. Unde plus requirit de frigore nix quam aqua: pluviae et grando plus quam nix: et tantum potest esse frigus, quod statim condensat in grandinem: aliquando prius in aquam, et postea in grandinem. Et dicunt, quod vapores superius elevati congelantur multum, et ideo generantur grossi grandines. And thus he says: at the brightness in your sight the clouds pass, at the brightness of the light from your face the clouds pass, as at the brightness or splendor of the sun, the clouds flee and are dissolved, as we read in the Book of Meteorology. Torches or sparks are made in the passing of the clouds, because hail and lightning, or fire, have a similar cause of generation. The ancients said that they are generated in the highest place: which shows that they are causes by a stronger freezing from a stronger cold. Hence snow requires more cold than water: rain and hail require more than snow: and the cold can be so great that it at ounce condenses into hail: sometimes first into water, and then into hail. And they say, that vapors that are raised higher are frozen greatly, and therefore larger hailstones are made. Sed philosophus e contra dicit, quod grossiores essent in montibus, et in hyeme: cujus contrarium videmus, quia grossiores sunt in valle, et fiunt in vere et autumno, et generantur in loco propinquo. Item secundum philosophum, aliquando veniunt angulares, quod est signum quod veniunt de propinquo: anguli enim citius liquefiunt. Unde sciendum, quod naturale est quod oppositum fortius agat in oppositum. Constat autem quod in nubibus admiscetur frigidum et calidum; ergo quando calor aeris circumstans constringit frigidum quod non potest consumere, tunc frigidum agit interius circumdante extra calore. But the philosopher says on the contrary, if this were so they would be thicker in the mountains and in the winter: but we see the opposite, that hailstones are thicker in the valley, and they happen in the spring and autumn, and they are generated in a place nearby. Again, according to the philosopher, sometimes they come at an angle, which is a sign that they come from nearby: for when they come at an angle they melt more quickly. Hence we should know, that it is natural that one opposite acts more strongly upon the other opposite. It is well known that that in the clouds, heat and cold are mixed; therefore when the heat of the air surrounds and constricts the cold that it cannot consume, then the cold acts inside the heat that surrounds it on the outside. Titiones autem cadentes habent duplicem causam generationis: unam per fumum superius ascendentem usque ad locum inflammationis, qui inflammatur; et sic secundum inflammationem descendit quousque invenit materiam combustibilem. Et hoc tetigit quando dixit, carbones succensi sunt ab eo. Et hic tangit alium modum, qui est per contrariam resistentiam. In nube autem aliquando est aliquid calidum, et istud a frigido exteriori constringitur interius et multiplicatur, ita quod materiam grossam adducit et cadit: et ideo carbones, ignis et grando habent similem generationem, scilicet constrictionem frigoris vel caloris, ut dictum est. Dicit ergo, prae fulgore in conspectu ejus etc.. Et haec transierunt simul cum carbone et grandine, quae generantur ex nubibus, ut dictum est. Falling firebrands have a double cause of generation: one by smoke that rises to the place of inflammation, which is inflamed; and thus according to inflammation it descends until it finds combustible material. He touched upon this when he said, coals are lit by it. And here he touches upon another way, which is by contrary resistance. Sometimes in a cloud there is something hot, and this is constrained within by heat outside of it and it is multiplied, so that it draws to itself thick material and falls: and thus coals, fire and hail have a similar generation, namely, the constriction of cold or heat, as was said. He says therefore, at the brightness in his sight etc.. And these pass at the same time as the coal and hail which are generated from the clouds, as was said. (i) Hic agit de tertia permutatione. Et primo de tonitruo. Secundo de fulgoribus, ibi, Misit sagittas. Sciendum quod psalmista loquitur hic secundum hanc similitudinem, quod quicquid fit in caelo, attribuatur Deo. Unde sonum auditum in caelo accipit, quasi vox Dei esset. Est autem duplex sonus in caelo. Unus qui est in tonitruo; et hic, licet aliqui dicant extinctionem ignis in nube, psalmista reprobat, et dicit quod fit per concussionem ventorum: ita et nubes. Et ideo psalmista dicit, intonuit de caelo Dominus. (i) Here he speaks of the third change. First, about thunder. Second, about strokes of lightning, where he says, He sent his arrows. We should know that the psalmist is speaking here according to a likeness, that whatever happens in the sky is attributed to God. Hence he regards a sound in the sky as if it were the voice of God. There are two kinds of sounds in the sky. One is the sound in thunder; and here, although some say it is the extinguishing of fire in a cloud, the psalmist disagrees, and he says that it happens by winds striking together: and the same with clouds. And therefore the psalmist says, The Lord thundered from heaven. Item aliquando nubes grossae ex quibus grandines generantur quandoque cum sonitu: unde philosophus dicit, quod aliquando ante grandinem est fragor nubium, aliquando non: sicut enim vapor calidus et siccus expulsus a frigido, scindens nubem facit sonum, ut patet in fulgure, sic vapor humidus congelatus in grandinem, et expulsus a calido, scindit aliqualiter et facit sonum. Et ideo dicit, Altissimus dedit vocem suam, idest manifestavit potentiam suam et sequitur, grando et carbones ignis, quae ex his nubibus generantur, ut dictum est. Vel sic, intonuit de caelo. Nota quod aliquando ad locum superiorem ascendit vapor humidus: et quia est de natura aquae, fiunt ex eo impressiones humidae, quae sunt nebula, ros, caligo, pluvia, grando, et nix, et hujusmodi. Again, sometimes (there are) thick clouds from which hailstones are generated, occasionally with sound: hence the philosopher says, that sometimes before hail there is a break (or loud sound) in the clouds, sometimes not: for just as warm and dry vapor that is pushed out by cold, makes a sound when it breaks apart a cloud, as we see in lightning, so humid vapor that freezes into hail, and is pushed out by the warm, breaks the cloud apart to some degree and makes a sound. And therefore he says, and the Highest gave his voice, that is, he manifested his power and there follow hail and coals of fire from which these clouds are generated, as was said. Or thus, he thundered from heaven. Not that sometimes a humid vapor rises to a higher place: and because it is of the nature of water, from this come the impressions of water, which are cloud, frost, darkness, rains, hail, snow and the like. Diversificantur autem ista aliquando diversitate quantum ad caloris et frigoris tenuitatem et spissitudinem. Aliquando enim ascendit vapor siccus; et si solus ascendit, facit ventos; si autem sit comprehensus ille vapor siccus in vapore humido, tunc quando vapor humidus sursum ascendit, et incipit inspissari propter frigus, vapor siccus in vapore illo humido inclusus facit agitationem magnam et inflammatur: talis enim vapor cito inflammatur, ut est videre in vapore qui egreditur de ventre hominis: et haec inflammatio causa est fulguris et coruscationis. These are diversified, however, according to the diversity of the thinness or thickness of heat and cold. For sometimes a dry vapor rises; and if it alone rises, it causes winds; if, however, the dry vapor is surrounded by a humid vapor, then the humid vapor rises, and it begins to thicken or condense because of the cold, and the dry vapor enclosed in the human vapor causes a great disturbance and catches fire: for such a vapor is quickly set on fire, as one may see in the gas that comes from the belly of a man: and the setting on fire is the cause of lightning and flashing. Agitatus autem vapor siccus in interioribus nubibus multiplicem sonum facit. Si etiam sic inflammatus percutiat latera nubis, et non scindat, tunc micat non clare; sicut si aliquis aliquem splendorem videret per pannum: est enim nubes aliquantulum pervia, unde aliqualiter videtur. Sonat autem sicut sonus flammae in medio incendio. Aliquando etiam sine inflammatione, et per consequens sine coruscatione fit sonus, quasi tumultuans: et hoc fit cum percutit, non inflammatus in lateribus nubis. Si autem percutiat latera et scindat, tamen cum difficultate quadam, et hoc in parte grossiori nubis, tunc est terribilis sonus, quasi aliquis pannum immensae latitudinis scinderet, et tunc visus fulguris vel coruscationis est curvus: quia non recte egreditur de nube, ut dictum est. A dry vapor that is shaken in the inner parts of clouds makes a multiple sound. If it is on fire and strikes the sides of a cloud and it does not break the cloud, then it does not flash clearly; it is as if someone would see something bright through a piece of cloth; for a cloud is somewhat transparent, hence the light is seen to some degree. It makes a sound like the sound of the flame in the middle of a blaze. Sometimes as well it is without being set on fire, and consequently there is a sound of tumult without any flashing; and this happens when it strikes in the sides of the cloud but has not been set aflame. If it strikes the sides and breaks them, but only with some difficulty, and this is the thicker part of the cloud, then there is a terrible sound, as if a piece of cloth of immense width was being torn, and then visible thunder or flash is curved: because it does not come straight out of the cloud, as was said. Aliquando scindit nubem virtute magna et quasi subito, et totus vapor simul egreditur; et tunc sonat sicut vesica inflammata, vel si uter inflatus frangeretur super caput alicujus: et percutit aerem percussione fortissima. Aliquando vapor ille siccus ex inflatione crescit, et quaerens majorem locum facit dissolvere nubem subito, et sonare ad modum viridium lignorum crepidantium in igne, vel ovorum maxime; et hoc maxime apparet in castaneis, quibus in igne positis cum humidum incipit resolvi, et majorem locum quaerere, frangit testam resistentem, et cum impetu et sono magno exit. Sometimes it breaks the cloud with great power and suddenly, and all the vapor leaves at the same time; and then it sounds like a bladder on fire, or if an inflated bag were broken over someone’s head: and it strikes the air with a loud bang. Sometimes this dry vapor grows from inflation, and as it seeks more space it cause the cloud to dissolve suddenly, and to sound like green wood rattling in fire, or most greatly of eggs; and this appears most readily in chestnuts when they are placed in fire, when the wetness begins to be broken down and to seek more room, and it breaks the resisting shell and comes out with force and a great sound. Aliquando etiam non valens exire extinguitur; et sonat ad modum ferri candentis in aqua extincti; quem sonum vocat philosophus sisinum, vel stridorem. Aliquando etiam ille vapor facit diversa foramina in locis nubis minus spissis, et tunc facit quasi sonum sibili, sicut ventus quando exit per foramina. Aliquando antequam incendatur erumpit de nube, et tunc sonat sicut folles fabriles cum sufflant. Sometimes as well it is not able to come out and is extinguished; and it sounds like a piece of glowing hot iron put out in water; and the philosopher calls this sound sisinum, or hissing. Sometimes also the vapor makes various holes in the less thick places in the cloud, and then it makes something like a whistling sound, as when the wind passes through holes. Sometimes before it is set on fire it bursts out of the cloud, and then it sounds like a craftman’s bellows when they inflate. (k) Fulgura. Hic describit motum fulgurum, et comparat ea sagittae propter vehementiam venti a quo moventur. Et dissipavit eos, scilicet peccatores, qui aliquando ex eis moventur: secundum diversitatem enim ventorum est diversitas motus fulguris: nam sicut superius cum de modo ventorum agebatur dixit, volavit volavit etc. ut ostenderet diversum modum ventorum, ita hic dicit, fulgura etc. ut ostendat diversum motum fulgurum. Dicit, conturbavit eos, quia dicit Plinius (lib. 2, c. 12), quod secundum fulgura sunt augurationes; quia quandoque est bonum signum, scilicet quando fiunt ab oriente: aliquando non est bonum; et ideo homines augurantes conturbantur propter praesagia futurorum. (k) Lightning. Here he describes the motion of lightning bolts, and he compares them to arrows on account of the force of the wind by which they are moved. And he scattered them (he troubled them – Douay Rheims), that is, sinners, who are sometimes moved by these things: the motion of lightning varies depending on the diversity of winds: for just as he said above when he was treating the mode of winds, he flew, he flew etc., to show the diverse mode of winds, here he says, lightning etc., to show the diverse motion of lightning bolts. He says, he troubled them, because Pliny says (book 2, c. 12), that auguries depend on lightning; because it is sometimes a good sign, namely, when it comes from the east: sometimes it is not good; and therefore the men who perform auguries are disturbed by the presages of future events. (l) Et apparuerunt. Hic agit de generatione aquarum, quae ex aliquibus principiis emanant, quae fontes dicuntur, ex quibus est omnis generatio aquarum. Hi autem dupliciter generantur. Aliquando ex causa consueta et naturali: sicut cum vapores super terram elevantur, et ex hac elevatione infrigidantur superius, et descendunt et fiunt pluviae: ita etiam ex calore terrae interius, et quando vapores non exeunt, congregantur et resolvuntur in aquam, et fiunt fontes aquarum. Sicut pluviae generantur in aere, ita fontes in terra; et ideo circa montes a quibus vapores non exeunt, fiunt fontes. (l) And the fountains of water appeared. Here he discusses the generation of water, which flows from certain beginnings what are called fountains, from which is all the generation of waters. Fountains are generated in two ways. Sometimes they are generated by the usual and natural cause: just as when vapors are raised above the earth, and they are made cold from being raised to a higher place, and they fall and become rain: so also from the heat within the earth, when vapors do not come out, they are gathered together and resolve into water, and they become fountains of water. Just as rains are generated in the air, so fountains in the water; and so fountains appear around mountains from which vapors do not come out. Et hoc est quod dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Aliquando generantur fontes ex subversione terrae ex terraemotu, ex cujus commotione apparent venae aquae in profundo terrae submersae; et ideo dicit, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis terrarum. Philosophus. Subversio est a vento intus incluso, sicut ventus in aere commovet aerem. Sed quando retinetur ventus fit terraemotus: et uterque ventus videtur ira Dei. And this is what he says, the fountains of water appeared. Sometimes fountains are generated by the upsetting of the earth by earthquake, from which commotion the veins of water submersed in the depth of the earth appear; and therefore he says, and the foundations of the earth were revealed. The Philosopher: the upset is from wind that is enclosed within the earth, just as wind in the air moves the air. But when it is kept back, the wind becomes becomes an earthquake: and either kind of wind seems to be the anger of God. Et ideo dicit facta per terram, sicut terraemotum. Mystice secundum spirituales effectus: et sicut supra ostensum est mysterium incarnationis signans ipsam incarnationem per quam descendit, et ascensionem; ita hic designantur ea quae secuta sunt post. Primo ergo ostendit ejus occultationem. Secundo ecclesiae congregationem, ibi, in circuitu ejus. Tertio apostolorum praedicationem, ibi, tenebrosa aqua. Quantum ad primum dicit, posuit tenebras. And therefore he says, made by the earth, like an earthquake. In a mystical sense, this concerns spiritual effects: and as the mystery of the incarnation was shown above, presenting a sign of the incarnation by which he descended, and the ascension, so here are designated the events that followed. First he shows the hiding away of Our Lord. Second, the congregation of the Church, where he writes, around him. Third, he shows the preaching of the apostles, where he writes, dark water. With respect to the first, he presents the darkness. Glossa distinguit quadrupliciter tenebras. Primo humanitatem: Ezech. 32: solem nube tegam. Isa. 45: Vere tu es Deus absconditus. Secundo species sacramentales, sicut baptismus, et alia sacramenta, in quibus divina virtus operatur secrete. Tertio latuit in fide fidelium: 2 Cor. 5: Quamdiu sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino. The gloss distinguishes four kinds of darkness. First, the humanity (of Christ): Ezech. 32: I will cover the sun with a cloud. Isa. 45: Truly you are the hidden God. Second, sacramental species, such as baptism and other sacraments, in which the divine power works secretly. Third, he was hidden in the faith of the believers: 2 Cor. 5: As long as we are in the body, we are away from the Lord. Quarto latenter operatur aliquid per malos, qui sunt tenebrae: Jo. 1: Lux in tenebris lucet, et tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt. Aliquando mali permittuntur aliquid facere contra sanctos; sed his tenebris existentibus, tabernaculum ejus, idest ecclesia, est in circuitu ejus: Ps. 45: Sanctificavit tabernaculum suum Altissimus: Apo. 21: Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus etc. Per fidem et caritatem, inquantum sibi inhaerent tamquam medio, qui eis aequaliter favet, ut dicit glossa. Fourth, he works something in a hidden way through evil people, who are darkness: John 1: The light shone in the darkness, and the darkness could not comprehend it. Sometimes, evil people are allowed to do something against holy people; but although these darknesses exist, his tabernacle, that is, the church, is around him: Ps. 45: The Most High has made holy his tabernacle: Apoc. 21: Behold the tabernacle of God with men, etc. By faith and charity, insofar as these inhere in him as in a medium, he who treats all equally, as the gloss says. Tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Hic agit de praedicatione apostolorum. Et primo ponit qualitatem praedicationis. Secundo conditionem praedicantium, ibi, nubes. Tertio praedicationis effectum, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Dicit ergo, tenebrosa aqua, idest doctrina, in nubibus, idest in prophetis et praedicatoribus. Hos vocat nubes, quia a terrenis elevati in nubibus compluunt verbum Dei: Isa. 60: Qui sunt isti qui ut nubes volant etc.. et 45: Rorate caeli desuper, et nubes pluant justum. Dark water in the clouds of the air. Here he is discussing the apostles’ preaching. And first, he presents the quality of the preaching. Second, the condition of those who preach, where he says, clouds. Third, the effect of the preaching, where he says, the fountains of water appears. He says therefore, dark water, that is, doctrine, in the clouds, that is, in the prophets and preachers. He calls them clouds, because they are raised from earthly things in the clouds and fulfil the word of God: Isa. 60: Who are these who fly like clouds etc.. and 45: Drop down dew, you heavens, from above, and let the clouds rain the just. Vel dicit, in nubibus aeris, idest apostolis elevatis a terra: Isa. 5: Mandabo nubibus ne pluant super eam imbrem. Et dicuntur apostoli aqua tenebrosa in comparatione ad fulgorem, idest Christum, qui apparebit videntibus eum; 1 Cor. 13: Videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate, tunc autem facie ad faciem. Vel aliter, et sic punctetur: tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus nubes transierunt: postea sequitur, grando et carbones ignis etc.. Or he says, in the clouds of the air, that is, in the apostles raised from the earth: Isa. 5: And I will command the clouds to rain no rain on it (the vineyard). And the apostles are called dark water in comparison with lightning, that is, Christ, who shall appear to those who see him; 1 Cor. 13: We see now through a mirror unclearly, then we will see face to face. Or otherwise, and in way it is punctuated: dark water in the clouds of the air: at the brightness in his sight the clouds passed: after that it follows, hail and coals of fire etc.. Et distinguitur duplex doctrina: scilicet prophetarum, et haec est obscura, quia velamen habet, ut dicitur 2 Cor. 3: usque in hodiernum diem idipsum velamen in lectione veteris testamenti manet non revelatum, quoniam in Christo evacuatur. Ideo dicitur, tenebrosa aqua in prophetis, idest doctrina. Sed doctrina novi testamenti est clara; et ideo dicit, Prae fulgore; tota est una dictio, idest fulgida quia, ut dicitur Eph. 3: aliis in generationibus non est agnitum: Ps. 147: Non fecit taliter omni nationi. And he distinguishes two kinds of doctrine: namely, that of the prophets, and this doctrine is obscure, because it has a veil, as is said in 2 Cor. 3: the selfsame veil remains, not being lifted to disclose the Christ in whom it is made void. Therefore is says, dark water in the prophets, that is, doctrine. But the doctrine of the New Testament is clear; and therefore he says, At the brightness; all of this is one saying, that is, bright because as it says in Eph. 3: this was not known in other generations: Ps. 147: He has not acted such toward every nation. Consequenter agit de ipsis doctoribus, et comparantur nubibus, sagittis et fulgoribus: nubibus pro praedicatoribus. Et dicit tria. Primo eorum transitum; nubes. Qualitatem praedicationis, grando et carbones ignis. Auctoritatem praedicandi, intonuit. Nubes, idest apostoli, transierunt, de Judaeis ad gentes: Job. 37: Nubes spargunt lumen suum, quae lustrant per circuitum. Act. 13: Vobis oportebat primum loqui verbum Dei; sed quia etc.. Grando nocet multum fructibus et floribus, et eorum praedicatio fuit quasi grando comminationis. Consequently, he talks about the teachers themselves, and they are compared to clouds, arrows and lightning flashes: clouds for preachers. And he says three things. First, their passing: clouds. The quality of the preaching: hail and coals of fire. The authority of the preaching: he thundered. Clouds, that is, the apostles, passed, from the Jews to the Nations: Job 37: Clouds spread his light, which go round about. Act 13: You must first speak the word of God; but because etc.. Hail causes much damage to fruits and flowers, and their preaching was like a hail of threatening. Et carbones ignis, idest verba inflammantia; et auctoritas, quia Dominus per eos loquebatur. Unde, intonuit de caelo Dominus, idest ipsis apostolis intonuit verba comminationis, Matth. 10: Non enim vos estis qui loquimini sed spiritus patris vestri qui loquitur in vobis etc.. Et altissimus dedit vocem suam, scilicet mansuetudinis inflammando: Jac. 1: in mansuetudine suscipite insitum verbum etc.. And coals of fire, that is verbs that set on fire; and authority, because the Lord was speaking through them. Hence, the Lord thundered from heaven, that is, he thundered the words of threatening by (or to) the apostles themselves, Matth. 10: For it is not you who are speaking but the spirit of your father who speaks in you.. And the Most High gave his voice, that is a voice of meekness, by setting on fire: James 1: in meekness receive the ingrafted word etc.. Et primo sequitur verbum, grando, ex secundo, carbones ignis. Vel aliter, intonuit, super Christum: Joan. 12: Venit vox de caelo dicens: et clarificavi, et iterum clarificabo; dicebat turba quae audiebat tonitruum factum esse. Et Altissimus dedit vocem suam, in transfiguratione. Luc. 3: Hic est filius meus dilectus. Misit sagittas. Comparantur hic isti doctores sagittis propter fervorem Spiritus Sancti in eis: Isa. 49: Posuit me quasi sagittam electam. Et 27: Qui egredientur impetu a jacob, et implebunt faciem orbis semine. And first the word is followed by hail, and from the second there follow coals of fire. Or otherwise, he thundered, over Christ: John 12: There came a voice from heaven saying: I have glorified him, and I will glorify him again; the crowd who heard this said that there was thunder. And the Most High gave his voice, in the transfiguration. Luke 3: This is my beloved son. He sent arrows. These teachers are compared to arrows on account of the fervor of the Holy Spirit in them: He has made me like a chosen arrow. And 27: They shall rush in unto Jacob…and they shall fill the face of the world with seed. Et dissipavit eos, quia aliis odor vitae in vitam, aliis fuerunt odor mortis in mortem. 2 Cor. 2: Fulgura multiplicavit. Haec dicit propter claritatem miraculorum: Job. 38: Numquid mittes fulgura et ibunt et reverentia dicent tibi, adsumus. Et conturbavit eos, idest fecit eos obstupescere Act. 3, dicitur de miraculo petri, quod repleti sunt omnes stupore et extasi in eo quod contigerat. And he scattered them, because for some they were the odor of life unto life, for others they were the odor of death unto death. 2 Cor. 2: He multiplied lightning flashes. He says this on account of the clarity of miracles: Job 38: Can you send lightnings and will they go, and will they return and say to you, here we are? And he disturbed them, that is, he made them silent in wonderment – Act 3, it speaks of the miracle of the rock, that all were filled with wonder and awe at what happened. Apparuerunt fontes. Hic ponitur effectus praedicationis. Et primo ponitur effectus. Secundo principium, ab increpatione. Et est duplex effectus. Unus ostenditur cum dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum, idest documenta sapientiae: Isa. 41: Aperiam in supinis collibus flumina, et in medio camporum fontes: ponam desertum in stagna aquarum, et terram inviam in rivos aquarum. Item 12: Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris. The fountains appeared. Here is presented the effect of preaching. And first is presented the effect. Second the principle, from thy rebuke. And there is two effects. One is shown web he says, the fountains of water appeared, that is, the teachings of wisdom: Isa. 41: I will open rivers in the high hills, and fountains in the middle of the fields: I will make the desert into pools of water, and the impassable land into rivers of water. Again, chapter 12: You will draw water in joy from the fountains of the Savior. Vel dona Spiritus Sancti: Zach. 13: Erit fons patens domui david et habitatoribus Hierusalem, in ablutionem peccatoris et menstruatae. Alius effectus ponitur cum dicit, Revelata sunt fundamenta: scilicet sancti patriarchae, supra quos fides nostra fundata est; quia quod in eis dictum vel factum est figuraliter, revelatum est per apostolos. Principium autem horum est, quando Christus incoepit increpare Matth. 4: poenitentiam agite; appropinquavit etc.. Luc. 13: nisi poenitentiam egeritis, omnes simul peribitis. Ab inspiratione spiritus irae tuae, quando inspiravit quod omnes turbaremur contra peccata. Or the gifts of the Holy Spirit: Zach. 13: In that day there shall be a fountain open to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for the washing of the sinner and of the unclean woman. Another effect is presented when he says, the foundations were revealed: that is, the holy patriarchs, upon whom our faith is founded; because what was said or happened in them in figurative sense, is revealed by the apostles. The first of these effects is when Christ began to rebuke, Matth. 4: Repent and approach etc. Luke 13: Unless you do penance, you will all perish together. From the inspiration of the spirit of your anger, when he inspired all to be stirred up against sins. (m) Misit. Supra egit psalmista de potentia liberantis; hic prosequitur per ordinem beneficium liberationis: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo agit gratias de liberatione quantum ad praeterita. Secundo quantum ad futura quae sperat, ibi, et ero immaculatus cum eo. (m) He sent. Above the psalmist discussed the power of the one who sets free; here he continues in order about the benefit of liberation: and in this regard he does two things. First, he gives thanks for liberation with regard to things past. Second, with regard to future things for which he hopes, where he writes, and I will be immaculate with him. Circa primum tria ponit. Primo narrat a quibus sit liberatus. Secundo liberationem, ibi, et factus est. Tertio liberationis causam, ibi, salvum me fecit. circa primum duo facit. Primo se ostendit liberatum a magnis tribulationibus. Secundo exponit quomodo tribulationes sint magnae, ibi, eripuit me. As to the first, he presents three things. First he tells who it is from whom he was set free. Second, the liberation itself, where he says, and the Lord became my protector. Third, the cause of liberation, where he says, and he saved me. As to the first, he does two things. First, he shows that he himself has been freed from great trials. Second, he shows how the trials were great, where he says, he delivered me. Dicit glossa secundum litteram, misit de summo; quasi dicat: Deus potens est, quia omnia praedicta facit, scilicet commovere etc. Intonuit etc. Habens summam potestatem. Et hoc, de summo, scilicet potestate accepit me, eripiendo; et assumpsit me, idest elevavit me: protegendo de aquis multis, idest de multis tribulationibus. The gloss says literally, he sent from the highest; as if to say: God is powerful, because he does all that is foretold, namely, to move things etc. He thundered etc., having the highest power. And the phrase, from the highest, namely by power he received me in delivering me; and he took me up, that is, he raised me, in protecting me from many waters, that is, from many trials. Ps. 33: Multae tribulationes justorum, et de omnibus etc.. Eccl. 51: Liberasti me de portis tribulationum quae circumdederunt me, et a pressura flammae quae circumdedit me. Mystice misit Deus proprium filium suum de summo, idest de caelo: Joan. 8: Descendi de caelo, non ut faciam voluntatem meam etc.. Hoc est quod petebat: Psal. 143: Emitte manum tuam de alto. Ps. 33: Many are the trials of the just, and from all of them etc.. Eccl. 55: He set me free from the gates of the trials that surrounded me, and from the pressing of the flame that surrounded me. Mystically, God sent his own son from the highest, that is, from heaven: John 8: I came down from heaven, not to do my own will etc.. That is what he requested: Psal. 143: I will send my hand from on high. Et liberavit me de aquis multis. Ps. 18: a summo caelo egressio ejus etc.. Vel Spiritum Sanctum: Thren. 1: De excelso misit ignem. Et accepit me, infirmum ad sanandum. Et assumpsit me de aquis multis, scilicet baptismi, vel de multitudine peccatorum. Vel, misit de summo, idest viris justis gratiam suam: Jac. 1: omne datum etc.. Et accepit me, ad poenitentiam: Isa. 40: Sicut pastor gregem suum pascet, in brachio suo congregabit agnos etc.. Oseae 11: Ego quasi nutritius Ephraim, portabam eum in brachiis meis. Vel populorum: quia fideles de multitudine gentium sunt assumpti. And he set me free from many waters. Ps. 18: from the highest heaven his going forth etc.. Or the Holy Spirit: Lamentations 1: He sent fire from on high. And he received me when I was infirm to heal me. And he took me up from the many waters, namely baptism, of from a multitude of sins. Or, he sent from on high, that is, he sent his grace to just men: James I: every gift etc.. And he received me, to penance: Isa. 40: Like a shepherd feeds his flock, I will gather my sheep in my arm etc.. Hos 11: And I like a foster father carried Ephraim in my arms. Or of the peoples: because the faithful were raised from among the multitude of the nations. (n) Eripuit. Hic probat quomodo tribulationes sunt multae. Et primo ex conditione inimicorum. Secundo ex persecutione eorum, ibi, quoniam confortati sunt. Conditio inimicorum nociva est valde, quia potentes et odientes; unde, eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis, et ab his qui oderunt me. (n) He delivered me. Here he shows how the tribulations are many in number. First, from the condition of the enemies. Second, from their persecution, where he writes, for they were too strong. The condition of the enemies is that of being very harmful, because they are powerful and hateful; hence he writes, He has delivered me from my enemies most strong, and from those who hated me. Potentes mystice sunt peccata carnalia: Eccl. 18: Si praestes animae tuae concupiscentias ejus, faciet te in gaudium inimicis tuis: Isa. 49: Numquid tollitur a forti praeda? odientes sunt daemones. Exod. 1: oderunt aegyptii filios israel: psal. 88: Concidam a facie ipsius inimicos ejus etc.. Consequenter ponitur persecutio. The powerful ones in a mystical sense are sins of the flesh: Eccl. 18: If you give to your soul her desire, she will make you a joy to your enemies. Isa. 49: Shall the pray be taken from the strong? The hateful ones are the demons. Exod. 1: The Egyptians hated the sons of Israel: ps. 88: I will cut off his enemies from before his face etc.. Then persecution is presented. Dupliciter potest quis liberari ab inimicis: vel quod non permittat se vinci, vel quod fugiat. Utrumque autem excludit a se. Primo, quia fortes et confortati, idest multiplicati, vicerunt eum, nec potuit fugere: et hoc est quod dicit, praevenerunt me, praecludentes modo viam ad fugiendum: Thren. 4: velociores fuerunt persecutores nostri aquilis caeli, super montes persecuti sunt nos; et hoc, in die afflictionis, quia tunc homo debilior est quando est afflictus: Thren. 1: omnes persecutores ejus apprehenderunt eam inter angustias. Someone may be freed from his enemies in two ways: either he does not allow himself to be defeated, or he flees. The writer excludes both possibilities in his own case. First, because they are strong and have been made very strong, that is, they have grown great in number, they have defeated him, nor could he flee: and this is what he says, they came before me, shutting off the path to escape: Lamentations 4: My persecutors were faster than the eagles of the sky, they have pursued over over the mountains; and this phrase, in the day of affliction, because when a man is afflicted he is weaker: Lamentations 1: all his persecutors caught in the midst of his troubles. Auxilium liberatoris ponit duplex. Primo contra invalescentes hostes; unde dicit et factus est Dominus protector meus, ut non noceant: Psal. 63: Protexisti me a conventu malignantium etc.. Secundo, contra prudentes; unde sequitur, eduxit me in latitudinem, de angusto in quo eram positus nesciens quid facerem, dans vias quid facerem. Vel in latitudinem caritatis: Psal. 118: Latum mandatum tuum nimis. He presents two kinds of help from the liberator. First, against enemies who are increasing in strength; hence he says, and the Lord has become my protector, so they do not harm: Psal. 63: He protected me from the gathering of evil-doers etc. Second, against those who are prudent; hence it follows, he led me into a wide place, from the narrow place in which I was put knowing not what I should do, giving me ways for what I would do. Or in the wideness of charity: Ps. 118: Very wide is his command. Causa liberationis est duplex: scilicet divina gratia, et meritum humanum. Unde dicit, salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Haec est potentissima causa liberationis, scilicet voluntas sua: Eph. 1: qui operatur omnia cum consilio voluntatis suae; et tamen subsequenter operatur ibi aliquid meritum humanum: 1 Cor. 15: gratia Dei in me vacua non fuit. There are two causes of liberation: namely, divine grace and human merit. Hence he says, he saved me, because he was well pleased with me. This is the most powerful cause of liberation, namely his will: Eph. 1: who works all things with the counsel of his will; and yet some human merit also works following this: 1 Cor. 15: The grace of God has not been empty in me. Et ideo subdit, retribuet mihi Dominus etc.. Ubi tria facit. Primo proponit meritum. Secundo in quo consistit. Tertio ponit viam perveniendi ad hoc meritum. Secunda, ibi, quia custodivi etc.. Tertia, ibi, quoniam omnia judicia. Meritum hominis consistit in duobus: scilicet in operatione boni, et in evitatione mali: ps. 33: Declina a malo, et fac bonum. And thus he adds, the Lord will reward me etc. Here he does three things. First he sets forth the merit. Second, he sets forth in what the merit consists. Third, he shows the way to approach this merit. The second point, where he says, because I have kept etc. The third point, where he says, because all judgements. A man’s merit consists in two things: namely, in the working of good, and in the avoidance of evil: Ps. 33: Turn away from evil, and do good. Et ideo quantum ad primum dicit, retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam, quam ipse in me operatus est: Sap. 3: justorum animae in manu Dei sunt et non tanget illos tormentum malitiae etc.. Prov. 11: seminanti justitiam merces fidelis. Quantum ad secundum dicit, secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi, idest innocentiam: Job 22: Salvabitur innocens, salvabitur autem in munditia manuum suarum. non privabitur bonis etc.. Ps. 83: Haec autem justitia consistit in observatione viarum Dei: Ps. 118: Viam mandatorum tuorum cucurri. And thus regarding the first he says, the Lord has rewarded me according to my justice, which he as worked in me: Wisdom 3: the souls of the just are in God’s hand and the torment of malice will not touch them etc.. Prov. 11: A faithful reward for he who sows justice. As regards the second he says, he has rewarded me according to the purity of my hands, that is, the innocence: Job 22: The innocent will be saved, but he will have saved in the cleanliness of his hand, he will not be deprived of good things etc.. Ps. 83: But this justice consists in observing the ways of God: Ps. 118: I have run the way of your commands. Et ideo dicit, quia custodivi vias Domini: Job 23: Vestigia ejus secutus est pes meus: Viam ejus custodivi, et non declinavi ex ea, et quia non impie gessi, recedendo a Deo, quia per peccatum homo recedit a Deo, et inquinatur: Ps. 43: non recessit retro cor nostrum. Quomodo pervenit ad hoc? Quia, omnia judicia ejus in conspectu meo. And therefore he says, because I have kept the ways of the Lord. Job 23: My foot has followed his tracks. I have kept his way, and I have not departed from it, I because I have not acted impiously by going away from God, because through sin a man goes away from God and is soiled: Ps. 43: My heart has not drawn back. How does he arrive at this? Because, all his judgements are in my view. Valet valde ad operandum bona et evitanda mala cogitare divina judicia: Job 19: Fugite a facie gladii, quoniam ultor iniquitatum est gladius. Et custodivi hoc, quia justitias ejus repuli a me, de industria peccando: Job 21: Dixerunt Deo, recede a nobis. Et sequitur, perveniet eis inundatio. Qui ex infirmitate vel ignorantia peccat, faciliter veniam consequitur. Thinking upon the divine judgements is very helpful for doing good and avoiding evil: Job 19: Flee from the face of the sword, because the avenger of iniquities is the sword. And I have kept this, because I have not pushed his justices away from me, out of industry in sinning: Job 21: They said to God, go away from us. And it followed that waves washed over them. He who sins from weakness or ignorance easily finds forgiveness. (o) Et ero. Supra commemoravit psalmista beneficium liberationis de praeterito; hic de futuro quantum ad spem. Et primo commemorat beneficia in generali. Secundo in speciali, quae accepit, et quae sperat, ibi, Deus meus impolluta via ejus. Tertio commendat justitiam divinam. (o) And I shall be. Above the psalmist called to mind the benefit of being set free in the past; here he thinks of the future with regard to hope. First he calls to minds benefits in general. Second, in a special sense, the things he has received, and those for which he hopes, where he says, my God, his way is undefiled. Third, he commends the divine justice. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit orationem ad deum. Secundo commendat spem exauditionis, ibi, quoniam tu illuminas. Tria proponit. Primo propositum perseverandi in innocentia. Secundo meritum retributionis. Tertio rationem assignat. Secunda, ibi, retribuet. Tertia ibi, cum sancto sanctus eris. As to the first, he does two things. First, he proposes prayer to God. Second, he commends the hope of being heard, where he writes, because you light. He proposes three things. First, the proposal of perseverance in innocence. Second, the merit of retribution. Third, he gives the reason. The second, where he says, and he will reward me. The third, where he says, with the holy you will be holy. Dicit ergo, et ero immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo, quia loquitur ex persona sui et aliorum, quorum quidam innocentes sunt: et ideo dicit, et ero, idest stabo et perseverabo in innocentia: Eccl. 31: Beatus vir qui inventus est sine macula; vel, Ero immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo: 1 Cor. 6: qui autem adhaeret Deo, unus est spiritus etc., conservans te ab omni macula: Job 27: donec deficiam, non recedam ab innocentia mea. He says therefore, and I shall be spotless with him, that is, I will cling to God, because he is speaking in his own person and in the persons of others, in whose number the innocent are included: and thus he says, and I will be, that is, I will stand and I will persevere in innocence: Eccl. 31: Blessed the man who is found without stain; or, I will be spotless with him, that is, I will cling to God. 1 Cor. 6: He who clings to God is one in spirit etc., keeping him from all stain: Job 27: until I die, I will not retreat from my innocence. Quidam sunt poenitentes: et ad hoc pertinet ne iterum in peccatum labantur (et ideo dicit, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea): sicut canis qui revertitur ad vomitum, et sus lota in volutabro luti, 2 Pet. 2 Eccl. 26: In duobus contristatum est cor meum, et in tertio iracundia mihi advenit. Vir bellator deficiens prae inopia, et vir sensatus contemptus, et qui transgreditur de justitia in peccatum, Deus paravit illum ad romphaeam. Some are those who are penitent; and to this it pertains that they should not lapse into sin (and therefore he says, and I shall keep myself from my iniquity): as a dog who returns to his vomit, and a sow that returns to wallow in the mire after she is washed, 2 Pet. 2. Eccl. 26: At two things my heart is grieved, and the third bringeth anger upon me: a man of war fainting through poverty, and a man of sense despised, and he that passes over from justice to sin, God has prepared such a one for the sword. Consequenter ponit spem retributionis cum dicit, et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Et est duplex retributio. Una, quae datur pro bonis impletis: et propter hoc dicit, retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Anselmus: justitia est rectitudo voluntatis propter se servata. Vel secundum opera hominis reddet ei: Ps. 62: reddet unicuique secundum opera sua. Following this, he presents the hope of reward when he says, and the Lord will reward me according to my justice. There are two kinds of reward. One. which is given for good things that have been completed: and on this account he says, the Lord has rewarded me according to my justice. Anselm: justice is the rectitude of the will observed for the sake of rectitude itself. Or according to a man’s works he renders unto him: Ps. 62: He renders unto each according to his works. Dicit, observabo, et, retribuet, quia si homo aliquando fuit justus et fecit opera justitiae, et non observat se a peccatis, vel non conservat se in operibus justitiae, ideo mortificatur, nec meretur retributionem: Ezech. 18: Omnes justitiae ejus non recordabuntur. Alia est quae datur pro beneficiis; unde dicit; retribuet secundum puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum ejus. He says, I will keep myself, and, he will reward, because if a man was just at one time and did works of justice, and did not keep himself from sins, or did not keep himself in works of justice, he will suffer death, nor will he merit a reward: Ezech. 18: All his justices will not be remembers. Another reward is given for benefits; hence he says; he will reward me according to the purity of my hands in the sight of his eyes. Aliquando habent exterius tantum manus, idest operationes puras, et illis Deus non retribuet: sed quando habent puras in corde operationes, tunc retribuet. Et hoc est, in conspectu oculorum ejus, non illis bonis quae sunt in conspectu nostro, sed in conspectu Dei: Isa. 64: oculus non vidit deus absque te. et quid retribuet? jucunditatem ineffabilem, et augmentum gratiae, quae proveniunt ex mandatis Dei servatis: Psal. 18: in custodiendis illis retributio multa. Et retribuet secundum puritatem manuum mearum, idest operum. Sometimes they have hands only outwardly, that is, pure works, and God does not reward such men: but when they have pure works in their heart, then he rewards. And this is, in the sight of his eyes, not for the works that are in our sight, but the works that are in God’s sight: Isa. 64: the eye has not seen, O God, besides thee. And what does he give as reward? Ineffable joy, and increase of grace, which come from the keeping of God’s commands: Psal. 18: in keeping them there is great reward. And he shall reward me according to the purity of my hands, that is, of my works. Dicitur autem opus impurum, ratione carnalis affectus: Isa. 1: manus vestrae sanguine plenae sunt. Item ratione inanis gloriae: Matth. 6: Attendite ne justitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus, ut videamini ab eis; alioquin mercedem non habebitis. Gregorius: vecordia est magna agere, et laudi inhiare, quae unde caelum mercari potuit, inde vanum et transitorium sermonem quaerit. A work is said to be impure by reason of carnal feeling: Isa. 1: Your hands are full of blood. Again, by reason of empty glory: Matth. 6: See that you do not perform your justice before men so as to be seen by them, otherwise you will not have any reward. Gregory: It is foolishness to do great things, and to look with longing for praise. The works could have been used to purchase heaven, but instead he seeks from them vain and passing words. (p) Consequenter ponitur ratio retributionis; ideo sequitur, cum sancto. Circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit rationem retributionis. Secundo exponit eam, ibi, quoniam tu populum. Primi duo versus dupliciter possunt intelligi. Uno modo, ut intelligatur ad Deum loqui; et sic est literalis sensus; quasi dicat, tu Dominus, cum sancto sanctus eris. (p) Following this, he presents the reason for the reward; thus it follows, with the holy. Regarding this, he does two things. First he presents the reason for the reward. Second, he explains it, where he says, you will save the humble people. The first two verses can be understood in two ways. In one way, the words are understood as being spoken to God; and this is the literal sense; as if he is saying, you Lord, are holy with the holy. Et sic dicit duo: scilicet quod Deus sit remunerator et adprobator bonorum. Secundo, quomodo est reprobator malorum; unde sequitur, et cum innocente etc.. Et cum perverso perverteris. Est autem sciendum quod nominat scilicet sanctum, innocentem, et electum. Electus autem potest dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo a Deo; hoc est commune omnibus sanctis: Ephes. 1: Elegit nos Deus ante mundi constitutionem etc.. Alio modo dicitur electus qui habet excellentiam innocentiae et sanctitatis: Cant. 5: Dilectus meus candidus et rubicundus, electus ex millibus. And thus he says two things: namely that it is God who is the one rewards and tests the good. Second, how God is the one who reproves the evil; hence it follows, with the innocent etc.. And with the perverse you will be perverted. We should know what he names, namely, holy, innocent and elect. Elect or chosen can be understood in two ways. One way, by God; this is common to all the saints: Ephes. 1: God has chosen us before the constitution of the world etc.. In another way, one who has the excellence of innocence and holiness is called elect: Songs 5: My beloved is white and ruddy, chosen from among thousands. Si primo modo sumatur electus, tunc secundum ponit ex parte nostra, et tertium ex parte Dei. Si secundo modo, sic proponit duo, quae ex parte nostra sunt. Primum est operatio boni quae fit propter Deum; et quae proprie habet rationem sanctitatis: quia omnia quae ordinantur ad Deum, dicuntur sancta: et hoc est quod dicit, Domine, tu eris sanctus cum sancto, sanctitatem in eo causando: Lev. 21: ego Deus qui sanctifico vos. If elect or chosen is understand in the first way, then he presents the second on our part, and the third on the part of God. If in the second way, he proposes two things that are on our part. The first is the operation of good which happens for the sake of God; and these things properly have the meaning of sanctity: because all the things that are ordered to God are called holy: and this is what he says, Lord, you will be holy with the holy, by causing holiness in him: Lev. 21: I am God who makes you holy. Vel sic. Tu eris sanctus effective, idest ostendens te amare et adprobare sanctitatem: non enim ostendit se nisi per opera; substantiam enim ejus non videmus. Nec aliter est sanctus cum sancto, nisi ostendendo sanctitatem: non est enim visibilis nunc nobis, ut dicamus quod conformat se sancto in motibus exterioribus, sicut de homine qui diversis diversimode se conformat, maxime amicis: quia omne animal diligit sibi simile; et quod diligit quis, illud remunerat. Or thus. You will be holy effectively, that is, showing that you love and approve of holiness: for he does not show himself except through works; for we do not see his substance. Not otherwise is he holy with the holy, except by showing holiness: for he is not now visible to us, so that we say that he conforms himself to the holy in exterior motions, just as of a man who conforms himself to diverse people in diverse ways, especially to friends: because every animal loves what is similar to it; and that which someone loves he remunerates. Unde ostendens te sanctum, quando remunerabis, inquit, sanctitatis opera? Et cum viro innocente innocens eris, effective et remunerando. Et cum electo, quem tu diligis, electus eris, quia facies quod ipse te eliget: Joan. 15: Non vos me elegistis, sed ego elegi vos primordialiter: Deut. 4: dilexit patres tuos, et elegit semen eorum post eos. Et 26: Deum elegisti hodie, ut sit tibi Deus, et obedias ejus imperio: et Dominus elegit te hodie, ut sis ei populus peculiaris, et faciet te excelsiorem cunctis gentibus, ut sis populus sanctus. Whence showing that you are holy, when you will remunerate, he says, the works of holiness? And with the innocent you will be innocent, effectively also by remunerating. And with the elect, whom you love, you will be elect, because you cause him to choose you: John 15: You did not choose me, but I chose you in the beginning: Deut. 4: He has loved your fathers, and chooses their seed after them. And 26: You have chosen God today, that he will be God for you, and you will obey his rule: and God has chosen you today, that you will be to him a peculiar people, and he will make you higher than all other nations, so that you will be a holy people. Vel, electus, idest excellenter separatus. Et cum perverso perverteris, idest permittes eum esse perversum. Vel perversi sunt illi qui non sequuntur illos quos debent sequi. Qui ergo non sequitur voluntatem Dei, videtur perversus. Ergo tu contra voluntatem Dei, et Deus contra voluntatem tuam; quasi dicat: tu vis habere beatitudinem, et Deus dabit miseriam: Lev. 26: Si ambulaveritis mihi ex adverso, et ego contra vos adversus incedam, et percutiam vos septies propter peccata vestra. Or elect, that is, separated in an excellent way. And you will be perverse with the perverse, that is, you will permit him to be perverse. Or the perverse are those who do not follow the ones they should follow. Therefore he who does not follow the will of God seems perverse. Therefore if you are opposed to God’s will, God also is opposed to your will; as if to say: you want to have happiness, and God will give misery: Lev. 26: If you defy me … I will also defy you and will smite you sevenfold for your sins. Et ideo dicit, cum perverso perverteris, idest agens contra voluntatem perversorum. Alio modo potest legi, ut referat sermonem ad aliquem hominem: et sic homo cum sancto homine, vel cum christo sanctus eris: quia non audies de Deo nisi sanctitatem. And therefore he says, with the perverse you will be perverted, that is, acting against the will of perverse people. It may be read in another way, as referring the words to some man: and so a man with a holy man, or with Christ you will be holy: because you do not hear of God anything except holiness. Exod. 37: Cum viro religioso tracta de sanctitate: et cum innocente innocens eris, quia secundum conversationem informantur mores: 1 Cor. 15: corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia mala. et cum perverso perverteris. Eccl. 13: qui tetigerit picem, inquinabitur ab ea, et qui communicat superbo etc.. Exod. 37: With a religious man discuss holiness: (note: This text is found with varying words in Eccl. 37, not in Exodus 37) and with the innocent you will be innocent, because mores take form according to how time is spent together with others: 1 Cor. 15: Bad conversations corrupt good mores. And with the perverse you will be perverse. Eccl. 13: He who touches pitch will be soiled by it, and he who spends time with the proud etc. Consequenter exponit praemissa secundum primam lecturam. Quare eris Domine cum sancto? quia, tu populum humilem salvum facies, idest in hoc quod humilem salvum facies, ostendit te cum sancto sanctum esse: Jacobi 4: Humilibus dat gratiam: Matth. 19: Sinite parvulos venire ad me, talium enim est regnum caelorum: Psalm. 137: Excelsus Dominus, et humilia respicit. In what follows he presents the premises according to the first reading. How will you be, or Lord, with the holy? Because, you save the humble people, that is, in the fact that you do save the humble you show that you are holy with the holy: James 4: He gives grace to the humble: Matth. 19: Allow the little ones to come to me, for of such is the kingdom of heaven: Psalm 137: High is the Lord, and he looks upon the humble. Quare cum perverso perverteris? Quia oculos superborum humiliabis: Luc. 14: Omnis qui se exaltat humiliabitur: Isa. 2: Oculi sublimes humiliati sunt, et incurvabitur altitudo virorum. Et dicit, oculos, quia superbia in hoc consistit, quod homo aspectum suum ad majora quam sit sua proportio, erigit: Isa. 16: Superbia ejus et arrogantia ejus plusquam fortitudo ejus. Et ideo Psalm. 130: Domine non est exaltatum cor meum, neque elati sunt oculi mei. Why are you perverse with the perverse? Because you will humble the eyes of those who are proud: Luke 14: Everyone who exalts himself will be humbled: Isa. 2: The proud eyes are humbled, and the tallness of men is bent down. And he says, eyes, because pride consists in this, that a man raises his gaze to things that are greater than his proportion: Isa. 16: His pride and arrogance are greater than his strength. And therefore we read in Psalm 130: Lord, my heart is not exalted, nor are my eyes lifted up. (q) Quoniam. Hic convertit se ad orationem; quasi dicat: ita justus es. Quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam. Et duo facit. Primo refert gratiarum actionem de beneficio suscepto. Secundo ponit petitionem de suscipiendo, ibi, Deus meus, illumina tenebras meas. Dicit ergo, tu illuminas etc.. (q) For. Here he turns himself to prayer; as if to say: yes, you are just. For you light my lamp. And he does two things. First he gives thanks for the benefit received. Second, he presents a petition for something to receive, where he says, my God, enlighten my darkness. He says there, you light etc.. Hoc totum potest secundum litteram dupliciter exponi: ut per lucernam intelligatur prosperitas, per tenebras intelligatur adversitas. Sicut quando homo est laetus, videntur sibi clara omnia; quando est tristis, videntur sibi omnia obscurari. Hoc est ergo quod dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam domine, quia tu dedisti mihi prosperitatem, et continue das: illumina tenebras meas, idest si quid adversitatis remansit in me, expelle et remove a me. All this can be expounded literally: so that by the lamp we understand prosperity, by darkness we understand adversity. When a man is happy, all things seem clear to him; when he is said, all things seem to be obscured. Therefore this is what he says, for you light my lamp, Lord, for you have given me prosperity, and continue to give me prosperity: light my lamp, that is, if there is any adversity remaining in me, cast it out and remove it from me. Alio modo potest intelligi moraliter, ut per lucernam intelligatur mens sive anima hominis: Prov. 20: Lucerna Domini spiramentum hominis. Mens ergo hominis est quasi lucerna Dei accensa divino lumine: Psal. 4: Signatum est super nos etc.. Quamdiu sine peccato sumus, lucerna nostra accensa est, idest anima nostra splendet lumine gratiae; sed quando aliquid tenebrae corruptibilis carnis remanet, est extincta: Rom. 7: Ego ipse mente servio legi Dei, carne autem legi peccati. In another way it may be understood in a moral sense, so that by the lamp we may understand the mind or soul of a man: Prov. 20: The spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord. Therefore a man’s mind is like the lamp of the Lord lit by divine light: Psal. 4: It is made as a sign over us etc. As long as we are without sin, our lamp is lit, that is, our soul shines with the light of grace; but when some of the darkness of corruptible flesh remains, it is extinguished: Rom. 7: I myself serve the law of the Lord with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sing. Et hoc est quod dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest quia anima mea illuminata est lumine gratiae. Illumina tenebras meas, idest remove a me defectus et corruptiones, per quae homo incidit in tenebras. Vel potest legi allegorice, ut dicantur verba quasi ex persona Christi, vel cujuscumque viri justi. In ecclesia sunt multi lucentes, sicut fideles et sancti: Philip. 2: inter quos lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo, verbum vitae continentes. And this is what he says, for you light my lamp, that is, for my soul is lit by the light of grace. Light my darkness, that is, remove from me defects and corruptions, by which a man falls into darkness. Or it may be read allegorically, so that the words are said as if in the person of Christ, or of any other just man. There are many who shine in the Church, such as the faithful and the saints: Philip. 2: among whom you shine like lamps in the world, containing the word of light. Item multi tenebrosi, sicut infideles et peccatores: Ephes. 5: eratis aliquando tenebrae etc.. Ergo homo orans pro ecclesia vel ecclesia pro se, dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest fideles qui lucent, illumina tenebras, idest peccatores. Again, there are many who are dark, such as the unfaithful and sinners: Ephes. 5: Once you were darkness etc.. Therefore when a man is praying for the Church, or when the Church is praying for itself, he says, for you light my lamp, that is, the faithful who shine light the darkness, that is, sinners. (r) Spem exauditionis ponit cum dicit, quoniam. Hic facit duo. Primo tangit liberationem a malo. Secundo victoriam super malo. Dicit ergo, oro quia spero, in te, idest in virtute tua, eripiar a tentatione, idest a quacumque tribulatione sive impugnatione: 1 Cor. 10: Fidelis Deus qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod potestis. (r) He presents the hope of being heard when he says, For. Here he does two things. First, he talks about liberation from evil. Second, victory over evil. He says therefore, I pray because I hope, in you, that is in your virtue, I will be rescued from temptation, that is, from any tribulation or attack: 1 Cor. 10: Faithful is God who does not suffer you to be tempted over what you are able. Et in Deo meo transgrediar murum, idest victoriam a peccato virtute Dei habebo. Tunc enim hostis habet victoriam civitatis, quando transgreditur murum. Murus iste est quaecumque difficultas quae impedit nos ad bene operandum, sive peccata quae provocant nos ad male faciendum. Hieronymus dicit, frangam murum, quia non possumus esse in mundo sine peccato: 1 Joan. 1: si dixerimus quia peccatum non habemus etc.. Sed transgredimur, quia superamus illud, dum non consentimus concupiscentiis ejus. And in my God I shall go over a wall, that is, I will have victory over sin by the power of God. For an enemy has victory over a city when he goes over its wall. This wall is any difficulty that prevents us from working well, or sins that provoke us to do evil. Jerome says, I will break the wall, because we cannot be in the world without sin: 1 John 1: If we shall say that we have no sin etc.. But we do go over, because we overcome it when we do not consent to its pleasures. (s) Sequitur, Deus. Supra commemoravit in generali beneficia quae in futurum expectat a Deo, quia, in te eripiar etc.: hic in speciali prosequitur ea. Et notandum, quod loquitur ad modum habentis adversitatem et adversarios de quibus sperat victoriam: in qua triplex est gradus. Primo, ut persequatur adversarios fugientes, et sicut captos destruat. Secundo ut in eis regnet, ibi, et praecinxisti me. tertia, ut exaltetur, ibi, et eripies me. (s) Then it says, God. Above, the psalmist called to mind in a general way the benefits that he expects from God in the future, because, in you I will be rescued etc.: Here he treats these benefits in a special way. We should not that he is speaking like one who has adversity and adversaries over whom he hopes for victory: in which there are three grades. First, that he may pursue the adversaries as they flee, capture them and destroy them. Second, that he may reign among them, where he says, and you have girt me. Third, that he may be raised, where he says, and you will deliver me. Circa primum tria facit. Primo commendat suum adjutorem, scilicet Deum. Secundo, ostendit quomodo a Deo iam data sunt ei quaedam, per quae idoneus est ad persequendum eos. Tertio agit de persecutione. Secunda, ibi, Deus qui praecinxisti. Tertia, ibi, persequar. Prima in duo. Primo commendat Deum. Secundo commendationem probat, ibi, quoniam quis etc.. Commendat ergo Deum de tribus: quod sit justus in opere, verax in sermone, et quod sit misericors in subventione. Quantum ad primum dicit, eripiar a tentatione, dum considero divinae justitiae puritatem, quia, Deus meus impolluta via ejus. He does three things with regard to the first. First, he praises his helper, namely God. Second, he shows how he has been given by God some things by which he is fit to pursue them. Third, he talks about the pursuit. Second, where he says, God who has girt. Third, where he says, I will pursue. The first is divided into two. First he praises God. Second he proves his praise, where he says, for who etc.. He praises God for three reasons: that God is just in his work, true in his word, and that he is merciful in helping. Regarding the first he says, I will be delivered from temptation, while I consider that purity of divine justice, because, My God – his way is undefiled. Iterum dum considero ejus dispositionem, quia nihil injustum est in eo: Ezech. 18: numquid via mea aequa non est, et non magis viae tuae pravae sunt? Vel via Dei per quam Deus vadit ad animam est impolluta. Et est: haec charitas: 1 Cor. 12: Adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro, idest ut securi eatis. Haec est impolluta, quia charitas non agit perperam, idest perverse. Again, when I consider his disposition, because there is nothing unjust in him: Ezech. 18: Is my way not just, and are your ways rather not more crooked? Or the way of God by which God comes to the soul is defiled. And this is: this charity: 1 Cor 12: I show to you a yet more perfect way, that is, so that you may go securely. This way is undefiled, because charity does not do anything falsely, that is, perversely. Vel via Dei est ipse christus, quia peccatum non fecit: Isa. 35: via sancta vocabitur, et non transibit per eam pollutus: et erit via recta, ita ut stultus non erret per eam. Vel via Christi est Virgo Beata: Psal. 76: In mari via tua haec est impolluta: Can. 4: Tota pulchra es, amica mea etc.. Is. 54: Dilata locum tentorii tui. Or the way of God is Christ himself, who did not do any sin: Isa. 35: and it shall be called the holy way, and the unclean shall not pass over it, and this shall be unto you a straight way, so that fools shall not err therein. Or the way of Christ is the Blessed Virgin: Psal. 76: In the sea this is your unsoiled way: Songs 4: You are entirely beautiful, my female friend etc.. Is. 54: Enlarge the place of thy tent. Quantum ad secundum dicit, eloquia Domini. Et loquitur ad similitudinem auri et argenti, quod si sit purum, probatur per ignem. Unde sicut aurum per ignem purgatum nihil habet impuritatis, ita sunt purgata verba Domini: Prov. 8: justi sunt omnes sermones mei, et non est in eis quidquam contrarium atque perversum etc.. Igne examinata: Psal. 11: Eloquia Domini eloquia casta, argentum etc.. As for the second he says, the words of the Lord. And he is speaking by a likeness of gold and silver, which if it is pure is tried by fired. Hence, as gold that is purged by fire has no impurity, so the words of the Lord are purified: Prov. 8: All of my words are just, and in them there is nothing that is contrary or perverse etc. Tried by fire: Psal. 11: The words of the Lord are pure words, silver etc.. Et dicuntur igne examinata, scilicet Spiritus Sancti: Job 12: auris verba dijudicat, et fauces comedentis saporem. Nullus potest examinare verba nisi habeat ignem Spiritus Sancti: 1 Cor. 2: Animalis homo non percipit quae sunt Spiritus Dei. Verum, quia est verax, implebit quod promisit. Et propter hoc dicit, protector est omnium sperantium in se: Eccl. 2: Quis speravit in Domino, et confusus est? And he says, examined by fire, namely, the fire of the Holy Spirit: Job 12: Does not the ear discern words, and the palate of him who eats, the taste? No one can test the words unless he has the fire of the Holy Spirit: 1 Cor. 2: The man who is like an animal does not perceive the things that are of the Spirit of God. True, because he is truthful, he carries out what he has promised. And on this account he says, he is the protector of all who hope in him: Eccl. 2: Who has hoped in the Lord and been confounded? Consequenter probat commendationem: quia hae sunt proprietates: quod sit justus, quod sit verax, et quod sit misericors. Si ergo ista bene conveniunt Deo meo, non quaeras alium. Sed nullus alius Deus est praeter ipsum. Et ideo dicit, quis Deus praeter Dominum? Quasi dicat, nullus: Isa. 42: Ego sum Dominus: hoc est nomen meum: Deut. 6: Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus unus est. Following this, he proves his praise: because these are the properties: that God is just, that he is truthful, and that he is merciful. If therefore these things are well fitted to my God, do not seek another. But there is no other God besides him. And therefore he says, who is God except the Lord? As if to say: none. Isa. 42: I am the Lord: this is my name: Deut. 6: Hear, Israel, the Lord your God is one. In hoc differebant Judaei ab aliis. Et quia alii colebant elementa mundi, vel homines vel angelos, hi vero dicebantur factores eorum; sed Judaei colebant verum deum factorem eorum. Dicit ergo quod ipse est Deus totius creaturae. Secundo, quod ipse colebatur specialiter a Judaeis. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, quis Deus praeter Dominum, scilicet totius creaturae factorem? In this the Jews differ from others. And because others worshiped the elements of the world, or men, or angles, these were called their makers; but the Jews worshiped the true God as their maker. He says therefore that he is the God of every creature. Second, that he is worshipped especially by the Jews. He says therefore with regard to the first, who is God except the Lord, namely, the maker of every creature. Judith 16: Tibi serviat omnis creatura tua. Aut quis Deus praeter Deum nostrum, specialiter. 1 Reg. 2: non est sanctus ut Dominus: neque enim est alius extra te, et non est fortis sicut Deus noster: Psal. 75: Notus in Judaea Deus etc.. Qui dicitur noster specialiter pietate, et cultura, et unione naturae, et carnis assumptione, et redemptione. In hoc confunduntur manichaei: quia hic est Deus et Dominus visibilium, et quod Deus veteris testamenti est verus Deus, quia nullus Deus praeter eum. Judith 16: Let all your creatures serve you. Or, who is God except our God, in a special way. 1 Kings 2: None is holy as the Lord: for neither is there another apart from you, and there is none strong as our God: Psal. 75: God is known in Judea etc.. He who is called ours in a special way by piety, and worship, and the union of nature, and the taking on of flesh, and the redemption. In this point the Manicheans are confused: because the is the God and Lord of visible things, and that the God of the Old Testament is the true God, because there is no God apart from him.
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