Hebrew Glossary And Terminology

Expository Glossary of Hebraic Terms used in Messianic Teaching

By Johann van Rooyen and Dennis Humphrey

“Behold, the Lord cometh forth out of his place, and will come down.. And the mountains shall be molten under him, and the valleys shall be as wax before the fire, and as the waters that are poured down a steep place”
(Micah i. 3, 4)


Entries followed by the symbol are Greek terms. [G]

Entries followed by the symbol are Latin terms. [L]

Entries followed by the symbol are Aramaic terms. [A]

Almost all other foreign-language entries are transliterated Hebrew.


Abomination of Desolation

Hebrew: Wordplay on shiqutz shomem. Desolating sacrilege; mute abomination. “Ba’al samem” ba’al —”Ba’al of heaven,” indicating that this idol is not (master) and not ruler of heaven, but in fact a mute abomination that lays waste and brings desolation. Hebrew term for an idolatrous image, specifically one set up in the of the haQodesh Beit haMiqdash (Temple) in Yerushalayim, proclaimed to be “master of heaven” and worshiped as such. Historically, the mentioned in the book of desolating sacrilege Dani’el, was a statue of the pagan Greek idol, Zeus, bearing the facial image of Antiochus IV “Epiphanes.” This image was set up on the golden altar of incense by the insane Greek-Seleucid king, who attempted to outlaw the worship of Almighty YHWH and replace it by the worship of the Greek pantheon and the worship of himself as “god manifest.” Scripture is clear that an eschatological shiqutz shomem will be set up in the time immediately preceding the second coming of the Son of ManAllusions and intimations lead the student of Scripture to expect the of the shiqutz shomem acharityamim (end of days) to be a Roman Catholic crucifix bearing the image of the False messiah, who will demand worship as “Christ” and “God.” The eschatological shiqutz shomem is described in Yeshayahu 40-46. The False Prophet will erect it in the haQodesh Beit haMiqdash (Set-Apart Place) of the (Temple). In its eschatological intent, the book of Yirmeyahu intimates that an image of a Madonna (“Holy Virgin;” “Queen of Heaven”) may in all likelyhood also be set up in the Temple compound.


Destruction. Angel of the bottomless pit, mentioned in Revelation 9:11. A name in the Tanakh for the grave, the netherworld.

Iyov 26:6

She’ol is naked before Elohim; Abaddon lies uncovered.

Iyov 28:22

Abaddon and She’ol say, `Only a rumour of it has reached our ears.’

Iyov 31:12

It is a fire that burns to Abaddon; it would have uprooted my harvest.

Proverbs 15:11

She’ol and Abaddon lie open before YHWH— how much more the hearts of men!


“Daddy.” We are related to Almighty YHWH not only as subjects are related to a King, but also as children to a loving Father, having been adopted on the basis of the broken body, the shed sacrificial blood and the resurrection of Messiah Yahushua.


The end-of-days; the latter days; the last days. A Hebrew term for the time of the consummation of all things. The days are pictured as an army marching past. The reshith acharit is the part that has already passed, while the is the part that is still approaching. Events said to happen (at the end of days) often ba’ha-acharit ha-yamim had one or even more partial fulfillments in history, which serves as a or pattern tavnit that foreshadows events that will happen in Yom YHWH.

The other Hebrew term for eschatology is (Footsteps of the ‘Iqqvot haMashiach Messiah). Scriptural history is a carefully woven prophetic that tavnit (pattern) teaches—to those who have ears to hear—the Footsteps of the Messiah.


The latter rabbinic authorities; in contradistinction to the (“early ones”). Latter- rishonim day authorities within Judaism.


Master, ruler. Expresses a relationship of rulership, headship, royalty and authority, and not necessarily one of ownership. The antonym of Adon is —servant. eved

The itinerant, aggadic proto-rabbi, Yahushua ben-Yosef mi Natzeret, was addressed by the title Adon, as was other sages.


An intensive form of Adon or Adoni; “great master” or “my great master.” A title used to address kings and royalty. The name Adonai is most often used of the Almighty in the writings of the prophets—they were the messengers of the King, and therefore used the terminology of a messenger of a king.

The term is a plural of majesty. It is not the unique name of the Almighty; in Adonai Scripture it is also used of mighty men, e.g. Yosef as vice-regent of Mitzrayim under Pharaoh, and of King David.

In Orthodox Jewish worship, the name is used as an evasive synonym or circum- Adonai locution for YHWH, the Name of HaQadosh, baruch Hu (“the Holy One, blessed be He”).


“My Adon,” i.e. “my master.” A term for the Messiah in Tehillim 110:1.


Nose. See: (“my nose”). api

Afikoman (Afikoman) [G]

This word comes from Greek and means “that which comes after” or “after-dish.” The last morsel of eaten at the meal. During the Passover Seder meal, matzah Pesach Seder three pieces of matzah are placed inside a During an early stage of the matzah-tash.   Seder meal, the children are sent out of the room. Then half of the central piece of matzah is broken off, wrapped in linen and hidden away. This is evidently symbolical of burial. The broken, wrapped and hidden piece of matzah is called the Afikoman.

Toward the end of the Seder meal, the children are given the opportunity to search for the The children search for it with fervour and great expectation; shouts of Afikoman.  joy are heard when it is found. The child who finds the Afikoman can bargain with the father for a gift. The father promises to buy a gift, but must make an immediate downpayment, which serves as a proof and pledge of the gift that is to come—the “Promise of the Father.”

The Messiah came. His body was broken and He was buried, hidden away. He who finds the Messiah, shouts with joy. Our Father in Heaven gives us the promise of a share in the abundant life of the World to Come, to be in the resurrection of the righteous. The Promise of the Father is His Ruach—His life-giving Breath, Power, Presence, Personin-action. —the firstfruits of We now receive the firstfruits of the Promise of the Father the impartation of the That is a downpayment, a seal, a pledge of the Ruach HaQodesh. great gift that will be given to us in the fulness of time, at the final redemption, the geulah shelemah. , When King Messiah comes in esteem all who have found the living Afikoman Promise of the Father. will receive the fullness of the


It is a fact that Africa has played an important role in YHWH’s programme throughout history. In Scripture, we see that Africans have taken responsibility during some of the most difficult and dark times when the Qahal needed leadership and protection. When Mosheh fled from Pharaoh, refuge and place of preparation for his ministry was provided by Yitro the Midyanite (an African) Exodus 18:1-2. When was thrown — Yirmeyahu into the well and condemned for preaching the word of YHWH, he was rescued by an Ethiopian eunuch an African. When Yahushua was just an infant and his parents had — to flee to protect him from the wrath of Herod, they took refuge in Egypt, Africa. The first disciple who were added to the Messianic Qahal outside of after the Yerushalayim outpouring of the was an African an Ethiopian eunuch. The leader- Ruach HaQodesh — ship of the first Qahal in Antioch included two Africans. These, and other examples, demonstrate that the Qahal in Africa has a specific responsibility in YHWH’s programme, most times relating to crises when leadership, directive and protection are most needed.

Ages of salvation-history

The sages understood that salvation-history would unfold as a cosmic week with “days” of 1000 years each. Chronology starts with the impartation of the nishmat chayim (breath of life; to Adam. The preceding 6 days of creation are seen as being neshamah) separate from chronology, and to contain all the secrets and ages of the universe. Adam and Chawwah were in the and in the fulness of the image of Elohim. Malkut Shamayim, They transgressed and were diminished to the shell of the image of Elohim. The fall of man precipitated the (desolation), which endured for 2000 years. This was Age of Tohu followed by the (instruction) and the (Days of the Age of Torah Yemot haMashiach Messiah), each lasting 2000 years. Together, these three periods constitute the Olam hazeh —the present age or “this world.” These 6 days will be followed by Yom YHWH, the sabbatical millennium, the 1000 year reign of King Messiah. Just as king David first ruled over Yahudah from for 7 years, and then over all Israel from Chevron Yerushalayim, we expect Yahushua to rule from heaven for 7 years, and then on earth from Yerushalayim for the balance of the Millennium. The Messianic Kingdom is also called the —the age to come. It is followed by the Great White Throne Atid Lavo Judgement, and the —the World to Come. Olam ha-bah

Age of Tohu

The age of desolation. The first 2000 years of the (present age), i.e. from Olam Ha-zeh the fall of Adam until the calling of Avraham. Less than 10 chapters in all of Scripture deals with this 2000 year period, whereas hundreds upon hundreds of pages deal with the next 2000 year period—the Age of Torah.

Age of Torah

The age of instruction. The middle 2000 years of the (the present age). Olam Ha-zeh The was preceded by the Age of Desolation, and followed by the Yemot Age of Torah ha-Mashiach—the Days of the Messiah. The began with the calling of Age of Torah Avraham and ended at the first coming of the Messiah, when the Yemot haMashiach (Days of the Messiah) arrived.


A story that serves as an object-lesson. A parable. The ethical sayings and scriptural expositions of the sages, in contrast to their (legal) statements. The nonlegal halakhic part of rabbinic literature.


A term applied to sayings of Rabbi Yahushua from Natzeret not recorded in the Gospels.

An important Agrapha is the “Logia” or “Sayings” discovered 200 km south of Cairo in 1896. Logion 2 states:

[Yahushua said] “Unless you fast to the world, you shall in no way find the Kingdom of Elohim, and unless you keep the Sabbath you shall not see the Father.”

Logion 3 states:

[Yahushua said] “I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I seen by them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I thirsty among them; and 1 my being griefs over the sons of men, because they are blind in their heart…”

Aiyin Ra’ah

Literally: bad eye. To have an “evil” or “bad” eye is simply a Hebrew metaphor for a stingy person.2

Aiyin Tovah

Literally: good eye. A Hebrew metaphor for a generous person . In the King James 3 Version (KJV), this term is inaccurately translated as, “If your eye be single…”

Thirsty for saving truth, which leads to right conduct.

Afrikaans: ‘n Suinige mens.

Afrikaans: ‘n Vrygewige persoon.


Binding an animal for sacrifice; specifically, Abraham’s binding of Yitzchaq for sacrifice to the Almighty (this sacrifice was, of course never consummated.) A sacrifice had to be bound in order to be valid.


Non-Israelites who do not observe the Noachide commandments.

Al Chet

Literally: “for the sin;” an important prayer, listing sins for which we beg Yom Kippur forgiveness.

Aleinu Leshabe’ach

According to many early sources, the Aleinu prayer—a declaration of faith and dedication—was composed by Yehoshua after he led Yisra’el through the river Yarden.

During the Talmudic era it formed part of the Mussaf service, and at Rosh HaShanah some point during medieval times it began to find its way into the daily service.

The Aleinu was probably added to the daily prayers to implant faith in YHWH’s Oneness, the Oneness of His Kingship, and the conviction that He will one day “remove detestable idolatry from the earth,” thus preventing the Yehudim from being tempted to follow the beliefs and lifestyles of the nations among whom they dwelt in the galut. The is recited at the conclusion of every service. Its first paragraph proclaims the Aleinu difference between Israel’s monotheism and the polytheism of other nations. The second paragraph expresses confidence that all humanity will eventually recognise YHWH’s sovereignty and declare their obedience to His commandments. The Artscroll Siddur (Sherman, page 159) continues It should be clear, however, that this does not imply a belief or even a hope that they will convert to Judaism. Rather, they will accept Him as the only Elohim and obey the universal Noachide laws that are incumbent upon all nations (Rabbi Hirsch).

The inclusion of the sentence, “For they bow to vanity and emptiness and pray to a god which helps not” is quoted from Yeshayahu 45:20. Around the year 1400 a Roman Catholic Jew, no doubt seeking to prove his loyalty to the Church, spread the slander that this passage was meant to slur Christianity. This charge was refuted time and again, particularly by Menasheh ben Israel, a 17th century scholar. However, repeated persecutions and the insistence of the Roman Catholic Church, caused this line to be censored from most Siddurim (prayer books).

Eschatological perspective: The Aleinu is an ancient prayer of thanksgiving for being separated from the heathendom. This prayer quotes a passage from Yeshayahu 45. Yeshayahu 40-53 are prophecies spoken in the spirit and power of Eliyahu haNavi—the prophet Eliyah. Malakhi 3 states that the role of Eliyahu is to prepare the way before YHWH. In Messiah’s first coming, Yochanan haMatbil (John the Baptist) prophesied in the spirit and power of Eliyahu, pointing to the true Anointed One and proclaiming “Behold: the Lamb of Elohim who takes away the sins of the world.” In doing so, he prepared the way for YHWH. In the second coming of the Messiah, the two witnesses will prophesy in the spirit and power of Eliyahu—Revelation 11. They will prophesy in the streets of Yerushalayim for 1260 days. They will prophesy the songs of the of Eved YHWH. They will proclaim that Yahushua is the unique Messiah of Almighty YHWH.

They will see the being set up in the ha-Qodesh of the shiqutz shomem Beit haMiqdash.

All their future prophesies are embryonically contained in Yeshayahu 40-55—this second section of the book Yeshayahu begins with the statement that the time of redemption has come and that a path will be prepared for YHWH in the wilderness. This identifies the passage as an Eliyahu-prophecy. An idol is described in Yeshayahu 40-46.

Historically, it describes an asherah-type idol. Eschatologically, it is a description of the shiqutz shomem (abomination of desolation), i.e. the idolatrous image of the False messiah that will be set up in the HaQodesh of the rebuilt in Beit haMiqdash Yerushalayim by the False prophet. During the time of the Spanish Inquisition, the beautiful Aleinu prayer was censored by the Roman Catholic Church because it was identified as an attack on the Indirectly, this confirms the intimations of crucifix.

Scripture that the eschatological will be a Roman Catholic crucifix shiqutz shomem bearing the face of the Antichrist, i.e. the face of Antiochus IV “Epiphanes,” i.e. the popularly accepted face of “Jesus.”

Al HaNissim

Thanksgiving to YHWH for the miracles of, especially, saving Israel from overwhelmingly strong enemies; added to prayer and grace after the meal on the festivals of Chanukah and Purim.


Plural: Aliyot

Literally: “going up.” To “have an aliyah” refers to the honour of being called up to the bimah Torah. to recite or chant the blessings over the To “make aliyah” or “go on aliyah” means to immigrate to Eretz Yisra’el.


The personal name of the Almighty is YHWH. Hebraic names by which He is addressed, include (the Set-apart One, blessed be He), HaQadosh Baruch Hu Ribono shel Olam, HaRachamam, Adoshem, Adon Olam Avinu Sheba- (Master of All) and Shamayim (our Father who is in Heaven).

Greek: Pantokrator.

Al Miqra Megillah

The blessing before the reading of the megillah (scroll).

Al Netilat Yadayim

The blessing over the washing of hands before the meal.

Am ha’aretz

Peasantry. Used in the Talmud and thereafter as a derogatory reference to ignorant people of the land. A country bumpkin. (Afrikaans: “plaasjapie”; “bekvelder.”)


Standing prayer; a group of prayers, quietly murmured, thrice daily as part of each daily service, while standing up. Also called the or the Tefillah Shemoneh Esreh (Eighteen Benedictions).


Plural: Amora’im.

Also see: Tanna’im.

Literally: Speaker, interpreter. Term used for an expounder of Talmudic (Mishnaic) law from the time of the completion of the Mishnah to the redaction of entire Talmud.

Rabbis who contributed to the Gemarah—the lengthier sections of the Talmud that expounds the Mishnah. In Babylon the Amora’im were given the title Mar or Rav. In Israel they were called Rabbi. Their discussions and teachings span the period 220 YM 550 YM, and form the Gemara lengthier sections of the Talmud that – —the follow each Mishnah.

Am Qadosh

Set-apart covenant people. A term for Israel, specifically the faithful remnant of Israel in the eschaton. They are commissioned to be —wholly different; set-apart to qadosh Almighty YHWH and His purposes.

Ana Adonai hoshi’ah na, Ana Adonai hatzlichah na

“Please, O Adonai, save us! Please, O Adonai, make us succeed!” A prayer from Psalm 118:25, recited on the last great day of . This salvation Hoshana Rabbah, Chag Sukkot was understood to come through the Messiah. This prayer was chanted at the triumphant entry of Messiah Yahushua on Aviv 10, less than a week before His execution.

Ancient of Days

A title for YHWH in Dani’el 7:9. Called in the book of the Before-Time Chanoch (Enoch).

Ani ma’amin

Literally: “I believe;” a song that is often sung at the Seder and at Pesach Yom Hashoah observances in memory of Holocaust victims who sang this song of faith on their way to their deaths at the hand of the Fascists during WW2.

Anshei K’neset Hagdolah

Sages of the Great Assembly during the first part of the Second Temple Period.


The belief that faith frees a believer from all obligations to observe the Law of the Almighty. Also an attitude of hostility towards the of YHWH. Torah

A careful reading of Yirmeyahu 31 shows that the Renewed Covenant so changes people that knowledge of, and observance of, the Torah becomes our new nature, by the indwelling of and regeneration through the Ruach HaQodesh. We are not saved by keeping the Torah; Torah Scriptural -observance is the lifestyle of the redeemed.

Messianic Yehudim should be -observent; faithful Gentiles should keep the Torah Noachide mitzvot as entrance requirements, and should then begin to grow in knowledge of the without converting to Judaism, except in special circumstances, e.g. Torah, marriage to a Yehudi.


My nose.”

The literal translation of Yeshayahu 13:3:

I have commanded my dedicated ones;

I have also summoned my mighty ones to my nose (l’api)

To be exuberant over my grandeur.

The first verses of Yeshayahu 13 may therefore be read as a promise that YHWH will, before the destruction of eschatological Babylon, gather those dedicated to Him, to His very presence. A deep study of the fall of Bavel in Yom YHWH further shows that it will happen on Tishri 8, 7 days after 1 day before the False messiah comes Yom Teruah, to power and 2 days before he makes a strong covenant (military treaty) with many fore one “seven” i.e. yearweek, i.e. 7-year period. We also note that, in most prophecies of the fall of Bavel, there are promises of saving the faithful and bringing them into the very presence of YHWH (Yeshayahu 13:3), of the resurrection of the dead (Yeshayahu 18:3) and of the coronation of the Messiah (Yeshayahu 21:5 Tehillim 84:9). For this and „± remez other reasons, a pre-tribulation is not an unscriptural position to hold. natzal


Ideas and teachings pertaining to the revelation (apocalypse uncovering, unveiling) of the last days and the end of the present age. Examples are Dani’el 7-12, Zekharyah 1-6 and the book of Revelation.

Apocrypha [G]

A Greek adjective that means “things concealed.” Old Testament Apocrypha, specifically the fourteen books written after the canon of the Hebrew Scriptures was closed and which, being the least remote from the canonical books, laid strongest claim to canonicity…The body of Jewish literature written between the second century BM and the second century YM, not included in the canon of the Hebrew Scriptures.




Plural: Aravot.

A willow branch taken as one of the four species on Sukkot. The four species are the aravah, etrog, hadas and lulav—the willow, citron, myrtle and palm branch.

Arva kosot

The four glasses of wine drunk at the Pesach Seder.

Arva minim

The 4 plant species used at Chag Sukkot.


In rabbinic literature, the name of the Antichrist or False messiah of the latter days. The name was apparently derived from the name Romulus, the legendary founder of the city of Rome. The sages saw that Scripture intimates that the False messiah will initially rule the revived Roman Empire, i.e. united Europe, possibly (initially) from Rome.

Aron Qodesh

The Ark of the Covenant. Also used as a term for the large wooden cabinet in which the Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue. Today called in Sephardic synagogues. Hekhal

Arva’ah minim

The used during four species Chag Sukkot:

„¿ a palm branch (lulav)

„¿ myrtle twig (hadas)

„¿ willow twig (aravah)

„¿ citron (etrog).


Evening prayer.


To gather.

Ascetic ideal

A wholly unscriptural, pagan tradition of renouncing social life and comfort for solitude and self-mortification. Crept into Christianity before and during the Middle Ages.

Aseret Yemei Teshuvah

The ten days of penitence and return. The “High Holy Days.” The Days of Awe.

Tishrei 1 – Tishrei 10, i.e. to Seven days of awe are framed in- Yom Teruah Yom Kippur. 

between the 2 days of and the day of . Yom Teruah Yom Kippur


A trespass or guilt offering made by one who has trespassed against his fellow man.

Qorban asham.


An upright idolatrous image. A crucifix may be classified as an idol of class asherah.


Plural: Ashkenazim.

Referring to Jews coming from Central and Eastern Europe.


Psalm 145 recited thrice daily.


Historical Assyria. Ashshur under king Sancheriv is a foreshadowing picture of eschatological Gog of the land of Magog who will invade in Yom YHWH. Eretz Yisra’el


Forbidden. The opposite of mutar, which means permitted.

Atah Chonantanu

A passage added to the evening prayer after the Shabbat to note the difference between the and the (ordinary, mundane). qadosh chol

Atid Lavo

The age to come. A term for the Messianic era. The Millennium or Messianic Kingdom.

The Day of YHWH. Literally: “the future to come.”


A festive gathering for the conclusion of a festival or a festival season. Concluding observance of an appointed time or festival. The word is derived from atzeret “gathering.” is the concluding day of is a Talmudic term Shemini Atzeret Sukkot; Atzeret for because that festival concludes the spring festival season as well as Chag Shavuot, the counting of the Omer.


Father. Also the eleventh month of the scriptural year.

We are related to HaShem not only as subjects to a King, but also as children to a Father.

Av Beit Din

Father of the house of judgement.” Today: The Chief Justice of Israel.


Someone who is in mourning.


Those who have recently lost a next of kin, find expression for their avelut by observing 7 days of confinement at home—”sitting sheva”—foregoing new clothes and musical entertainment, and reciting the qaddish prayer.


Third period of mourning; the first year after death.


An infringement of the Torah; mitzvah the opposite of a (commandment).

Av HaRachamim

A prayer to “Father of compassion mercies” for the persecuted communities.”


Prefix or suffix meaning “my father.”


“My father rejoices.” The beautiful and intelligent wife of the fool Naval who was later married by Dawid after Naval’s death—see 1 Samuel 25.

Avinu Malkenu

Our Father, our King;” a prayer of supplication. Specifically prayed during the Ten Days of Awe (Days of Penitence; Days of Return and fast days. (teshuvah))

Avinu ShebaShamayim

Our Father Who is in Heaven.


“Father of salvation.” Son of Pinchas and fourth High Priest of Yisra’el (1 Chronicles 6).


First month of the religious calender of scripture, instituted in Exodus 12. and Pesach Chag haMatzah fall in Aviv. Aviv marks the beginning of the barley harvest; the wheat harvest begins about 50 days later, with Chag Shavuot.


“My Father is YHWH.” Mother of king Chizkiyahu.


The Temple service, specifically that performed by the High Priest.

Since the destruction of the Temple, modified versions of the services have been Beit haMiqdash moved to the synagogues and homes; these consist of Scripture readings, teachings, songs, liturgical poems, etc.

Often a specific reference to the Yom Kippur service.

Chasidic concept of life dedicated to Almighty YHWH.


“Fathers.” Avraham, Yitzchaq and Ya’aqov.

Ayin ha-ra

An evil eye. Being stingy, jealous or envious; having a bad attitude. In Talmudic times, a superstitious dread of the “evil eye” developed.


Plural: Azarot.

Generic term for a courtyard in the compound. Beit haMiqdash


In the service, lots were drawn over two goats. The one lot read, Yom Kippur l’YHWH (“to YHWH”) and the other lot (“to Azazel”). The goat was led from l’Azazel l’Azazel

the Miqdash (Temple) by a chosen priest who is called an (a “timeless man,” i.e. a ish iti man without any sense of time or season, rain, snow or inconvenience) and taken to Har Azal (Mount Azal) where it was pushed off backwards from a high, steep, jagged cliff to be torn to shreds and fall to his death.

In the Me’am Lo’es Torah Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan, 1982: 17), the teachings of the sages about the meaning of the word is summarised: Azazel

The etymology of the word is as follows: it is derived from the word Azazel az or azuz, strong. which denotes The word Azazel refers to a powerful, strong rock or cliff. The word means strong… el

Some say the word refers to the cliff over which the goat was pushed. Azazel

The word Azazel could also be broken up into ” which means az azel,” “the goat who goes.”

Rabbi Kaplan (1982: 17-18; 54) describes the manner in which goat was killed: l’Azazel

The High Priest would then come to the goat upon which there was the lot “to Azazel.” He would place both his hands on it and make confession for all Israel.

He would say, “O YHWH, Your people have erred, sinned and rebelled before you…”

He would then call the priest who had been designated from the day before Yom Kippur, and would give him the goat to bring to the desert. On the day before Yom Kippur, people would go to huts that had been put up previously, to accompany the person leading the goat. Those in the last hut would stand at the edge of the area where one can go…to see from a distance what the person in charge of the goat does.

The priest to whom the goat is given over, brings it to the cliff that we have mentioned and leads it to the top of the cliff. Half of the hank of scarlet cloth he would tie to the rock, and half he would tie between the goat’s horns. Then with his hands he pushes the goat down so that it tumbles down the cliff. It would not reach halfway down before it was broken into pieces, totally dismembered. The cliff over which the goat was thrown consisted of sharp, jagged rocks that would tear the goat into shreds. He would then say, “This is the way the sins of the House of Israel should be destroyed.”

The sages taught that the command to slay the goat in this particular manner is a l’Azazel chukah—a decree, which cannot be fully comprehended with the intellect. The reasons are known to YHWH, and Israel should obey it although they do not understand it fully.

The sages grappled with the meaning of the concerning goat chukah l’Azazel. The Torah Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan, 1982: 20-21) relates one explanation:

When comes, HaShem sends Satan Sama’el his portion in the form Yom Kippur of the goat sent to Azazel. This is sent by the Israelites to the desert, which is a place of demons This is where Satan Sama’el has power…When (shedim).

Sama’el sees the goat sent to the desert, he also goes to the desert…and he no longer speaks evil against Israel.

Therefore a hank of scarlet wool was tied between the horns of the scapegoat…When the goat was pushed off the cliff, that skein of scarlet wool would become white. This teaches that this act atoned for the sins of the Israelites and whitened them: “If your sins are like scarlet they shall become white as snow” (Yeshayahu 1:18).

Through this repentance and confession, all the unclean spirits and denouncing forces that were created out of the sins are placed on the goat’s head. They are destroyed with him in the desert, since this is the abode of these denouncing forces.

Scripture intimates that the glorious second coming of King Messiah will climax on a Yom Kippur, when He will enter Yerushalayim and destroy all the armed forces that has come up to fight against Him. We know that the False messiah will be captured and slain on this very day. It is therefore a distinct possibility that the to slay goat chukah l’Azazel in this most unusual manner could, besides other possible symbolical meanings, be a prophetic rehearsal for this joyous future event. Scripture teaches that the False messiah will be cast into the “lake of fire.” This is a term for the Dead Sea—until roughly 1850, petroleum gas and combustible oil trapped beneath this lake often leaked out to catch fire, giving it, especially at night-time, the appearance of a lake of fire. It is believed that the earthquake that will coincide with Messiah’s coming to the Mount of Olives (Zekharyahu 14) will enlarge the Dead Sea (“Lake of Fire”) to reach the bottom of Mount Azazel. The earthquake will also cause huge amounts of petroleum gas and kerosene to surface through fissures in the earth’s crust, and to ignite. On that day we will understand the full significance of the to cast goat off the steep cliff chukah l’Azazel on Mount Azal on . Yom Kippur

Azazel is a prominent character in the pseudepigraphic book of Chanoch (Enoch). In Chapter 54 of 1 Chanoch, a great judgement scene is described. A question is posed:  “For whom are these imprisonment chains prepared for?” to which the answer is given,

“They are prepared for the armies of Azazel.” The pronouncements of extra-scriptural sources about Azazel does, of course, not carry much weight; these sources give us the commonly held ideas of people, but not the of YHWH. Devar

There is a difficult theological problem with asserting that goat is a prophetic l’Azazel tavnit l’Azazel of the coming Anti-messiah. According to Leviticus 16:20-22, goat carries the sins of the people of Israel upon him. The theological problem is: how can the Anti-messiah, the man of lawlessness, carry the sins of others upon him? How can an evil monster be a sin-bearer? Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs) have been exposed to very harsh criticism for following Mrs Ellen White, who taught that goat l’Azazel represents Satan. To this, SDAs reply that there is no forgiveness of sin without the shedding of blood, so that sending goat into the wilderness could not have an l’Azazel atoning efficacy. Dr Walter Martin, author of has defended the Kingdom of the Cults, SDA Church against its harsher critics on the issue of the eschatological significance of goat in the (service). l’Azazel Yom Kippur avodah


Ba’al kore

Reader of the in a synagogue. Torah

Ba’al tekia

The shofar blower in a synagogue.


Traditional formal veiling of the bride by the groom before the wedding ceremony.


See: Immersion.


Lightning. See Lappidoth.

Bar-Anash [A]

See: Son of Man.


A call upon the congregation to bless the Almighty.


“Blessing.” The part of the Pesach Seder when the blessing after the meal is recited.

Bar Kochba

Leader of a Jewish revolt (132-135 YM) against the Roman Empire. This revolt was cruelly put down by emperor Hadrian. Rabbi Akiva made the grave error of proclaiming Bar Kochba to be the Messiah. At that point, Yehudim who were followers of Messiah Yahushua deserted the Jewish army. This led to a souring of the relations between Messianic and rabbinical Judaism. The Bar Kochba Revolt also fed the de-Judiaising of Christianity—powerful Gentile Christian leaders began doing everything possible to distance themselves and their faith from the “troublesome Jews” in order to escape persecution by the Roman Empire.

Bar Mitzvah

Literally: son of the commandment; ceremony marking a youngster’s reaching the age of religious majority, traditionally thirteen for boys and twelve for girls; in many congregations, thirteen for girls as well. The young man or woman is considered old enough to be responsible for performing the commandments of the Torah. Bar Mitzvah is a ritual of acceptance by the community.

Baruch Dayan Ha’emet

A blessing of acceptance of the Almighty’s judgements. “Blessed be the true Judge.”

Said on news of a bereavement. One must say a blessing to Almighty YHWH for the bad as well as the good.

Baruch ha-ba

Blessed is the person that comes in. Welcome.

Baruch ha-ba b’shem YHWH

Blessed is the person that comes in the name of YHWH. Believing Israel will say this when the Messiah comes in the acharit-yamim.

Baruch Hu u-varuch Shemo

“Bless Him and Bless His Name.” A phrase of blessing of the Almighty’s Name upon hearing it uttered.


To be fresh, cheerful; to announce glad news. To preach, publish, show forth, bear, bring, carry, tell glad tidings, good news. Flesh; meat.

(The word “gospel” is a contracted form of the old English term “good spell” which means “good news.”)

Batel be-shishim

Of no significance. If less than volume/volume of non-kasher food falls into food that ƒp  ƒuƒo  complies with kashrut, it is batel be-shishim.

Anything undesirable that pales into unimportance.

Batey Midrashot

See: Plural of Beit Midrash. Beit Midrash.

Houses of Study.

Bat Kol

Literally: “daughter of a voice.” An “echo” of the voice of Elohim. The sages taught that during the 400 silent years YHWH did not speak through the prophets, but only occasionally through a bat-kol.


Scholarly Jewish teachers who, in ancient days, were either independently wealthy or on some type of financial support to enable him to provide the congregation with accurate and scholarly teachings and answers to difficult questions. The Pharisee and member of the Beit Din, Nicodemus, whose Hebrew name was Nakdimon ben-Gurion, was a Batlan.

Bat Mitzvah

Literally: Daughter of the commandment; ceremony marking a girl’s reaching the age of being responsible for her own sins, traditionally 12 or 13 years.


The woman whom King David seduced and later married. She became the mother of King Sh’lomo. Literal meaning: “Daughter of the Oath.”


Hebrew word usually rendered as Babylon.



Ba’Yamim ha-hu

“In those days…” A phrase understood by the sages to signify that something will come to pass at the time that the Messiah will come and accomplish the final redemption.

Ba-yom ha-hu

“In thát day.” A phrase that signifies that something will happen in the Day of YHWH.

The sages identified several phrases which tells us that a passage will have its final fulfilment in the time when King Messiah would come. Some of these phrases are summarised in Table G.1 below:

Table G.1

Table of some phrases which signify that the events in a passage will have its final consummation at the time when King Messiah will come.

Hebrew English

ba-yom ha-hu

ba-yamim ha-hu

In thát day (i.e

In those days

In those days and at that time

The days are coming


Sing to YHWH a new song


Free will. That every human being has a fundamental bechirah between good and evil, is never in doubt.

Bechiya le-dorot

A cause for eternal regret. Literally: “A moaning for generations.”


Birthright. Ephrayim is the tribe of (birthright), whereas Yahudah is the tribe of bechor

the (ruling staff). shevet

1 Chronicles 5:1-2

1The sons of Reuven the firstborn of Israel (he was the firstborn, but when he defiled his father’s marriage bed, his rights as firstborn were given to the sons of Yosef son of Israel; so he could not be listed in the genealogical record in accordance with his birthright, and though Judah was the strongest of his 2 brothers and a ruler came from him, the rights of the firstborn belonged to Yosef)…

Yirmeyahu 31:9

They will come with weeping; they will pray as I bring them back. I will lead them beside streams of water on a level path where they will not stumble, because I am Israel’s father, and Ephraim is my firstborn son.

Devarim 33:13-17

13About he said: “May YHWH bless his land with the precious dew from Yoseph heaven above and with the deep waters that lie below; with the best the sun 14 brings forth and the finest the moon can yield; with the choicest gifts of the 15 ancient mountains and the fruitfulness of the everlasting hills; with the best 16 gifts of the earth and its fulness and the favour of him who dwelt in the burning bush. Let all these rest on the head of Yoseph, on the brow of the prince among his brothers.

17In majesty he is like a bull; his horns are the horns of a wild ox. With firstborn

them he will gore the nations, even those at the ends of the earth. Such are the ten thousands of such are the thousands of Ephraim; Menashsheh.”

Bediqat Chametz

The search for, and cleansing & casting out of the leaven, which was performed just before Yahushua cleaned out his Father’s House from leaven (greedy dealers) Pesach.

before He became our Lamb. (The cleansing of His Father’s house is also based Pesach on the last verse of Zekharyah 14.)

Be-ezrat HaShem

With the help of Almighty YHWH.


Plural: Behemot.

Beast. General term for animals. As a simple plural, means beasts; as a plural behemot

of intensity, it signifies a large beast, similar to the liv’yatan.


Plural: Beinonim.

People of median (intermediate) piety; the sinners; the average people. In Hebrew thought, mankind consists of 3 classes on the day of Judgement: the Tzadeqim (righteous), the (sinners, intermediates, average people) and the (the Beinoni Resha’im perversely wrong; the wicked).


House. The Temple in Yerushalayim.

Beit Din

plural: batei din.

“House of Judgement;” “House of Law.” The court system was established by beit din Mosheh in (Bereshith 18), which operated under the aegis of the Parashat Yitro Beit Din HaGadol. Beit Din HaGadol, Beit Din Beside the well known the system comprised, under the aegis of the district and, under the aegis of the Beit Din HaGadol, Batei Din

district local representing the various communities recognised as Batei Din, Batei Din

legitimate by the higher A “must read” article is Batei Din. Bet Din and Judges in the Encyclopedia Judaica. beit din It is only with the Judaic phrase that the uninterrupted chain is obvious between the established by Mosheh, the Batei Din Beit Din HaGadol, which operated in the with the many under its supervision, Beit haMiqdash Batei Din and the which continue to operate today. Batei Din

Beit haMiqdash

House that is set-apart…The in . Beit haMiqdash (Temple) Yerushalayim

Beit HaShoevah

House of the Waterpouring. A joyous ceremony of water libation held during Sukkot.

The sages taught that those who have never observed the joy of the House of the Waterpouring, have never seen joy in all their life. During the Chag Sukkot, Beit HaShoevah Simchat Beit HaShoevah ceremony was held during the day, while the (“Rejoicing in the house of the waterpouring”) ceremony was celebrated in the Temple compound during nighttime. Four gigantic torches lit up the Beit haMiqdash compound at Sukkot during the nights; these were called “the light of the world.”

Beit Hillel

The School of Hillel. Pharisees who stressed YHWH’s (loyal love) towards all chesed people who turn to Him.

Beit Midrash

House of Study that was a part of or adjacent to ancient synagogues. The sages taught “if you meet the Evil Inclination along the road, drag him off to the Beit Midrash; there you will conquer him.”

Beit Shammai

The School of Shammai. Pharisees who stressed a particularly strict adherence to the Torah, and tended to hate Gentiles. They gained control over Judean society at the time of the birth of Yahushua, but lost their grip on the religious life of the nation with the destruction of the second in 70 YM. Beit haMiqdash


Aramaic: Bar-Anash.

See: Son of Man.


Literally: a son of Noach. Plural: Bnei Noach. A non-Israelite who worships YHWH,

observing the Noachide commandments. All people descend from Noach, so that we are all sons and daughters of Noach. In Acts 15, the Noachide are stipulated as mitzvot entrance requirements for Gentiles into the empowered eschatological qahal—the Messianic Assembly of the Yemot haMashiach.


A blessing.


The first book of the named after its first words, “In the beginning of/when.” Torah,



In order. OK.


“In the name of” i.e. “according to the teaching received from” and “in the authority of”

a teacher of Torah.

Be-shem omro

It is Jewish ettiquette to state teachings be-shem omro—”in the name of the person who

said it.” Example:

Said Rabbi Chanina: “Anyone who says an idea be-shem omro ge’ulah brings

(redemption) into the world, for it is written, ‘And Esther said to the king, in the

name of Mordechai…'”

[Talmud, Megilah]


Roasted egg, a symbol for the second sacrifice of . Pesach

Bigdey ha-lavan

White vestments of the High Priest.

Bigdey ha-zahav

Golden vestments of the High Priest.

Bikat ha-Yarden

The Jordan Valley.


Examining or investigating.

Bikkur Cholim

Visiting the sick a pious duty, carried out in the past by — Chevra Kadisha.


The offering of the firstfruits of the harvest.


The raised platform in the beit knesset (synagogue; shul) from which the is read Torah

and from which worship services are usually conducted; the platform is called in tevah

Sephardic synagogues. The reader’s stand in a synagogue.

Page 20

Binding and loosing

The terms “bind” and “loose” are two Semitic idioms used in Rabbinic literature as

technical terms referring to authority. To “bind” means to an activity halakhic forbid

and to “loose” means to an activity. Clear examples in the Apostolic Writings permit

(“New Testament”) are 16:19 and 18:18: Mattityahu

Mattityahu 16:19

And I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind

on earth will be bound in heaven and whatever you on earth will be loosed loose

in heaven.

Mattityahu 18:18

Truly I say to you, and whatever you on earth will be bound in heaven and bind

whatever you on earth will be loosed in heaven. loose

In Yochanan 7:22-23, Yahushua refers to a decision handed down by the Beit halakhic

Din and recorded in the Mishnah (Shabbat 18:3 19:2 Talmud Bavli Shabbat 128a). – „M

Here the Greek text reads:

Yochanan 7:23a

If a man on the Sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should

not be broken…

However the Aramaic reads

…that the Torah of Moses should not be loosed.

In Yochanan 5:18 we read in the Greek:

Yochanan 5:18

“Therefore the Judeans sought the more to kill him, because…he had broken the


However the Aramaic text reads

“…he had the Sabbath…” loosed

This is important because the Aramaic text does not have Yahushua breaking the

Sabbath, but instead has him permitting certain activities on the Sabbath (loosing it).

A final example of an important Aramaic reading is in

Ephesians 2:14:

He is, therefore, our who made the two of them one and the shalom loosed

hedge which stood between us.

The phrase “and loosed the hedge” in the Aramaic reads and was used as a sh’ra s’yaga

technical halakhic term in Judaism. was used to mean “loose” or “permit” (as in Sh’ra

Mattityahu 18:18 and in various places in Rabbinic literature) The term appears s’yaga

in Mishnah Avot 1:1 “make a hedge about the Torah.” To “loose the hedge” would

mean to permit activities that these hedge rules had effectually discouraged, so as to truly

love thy neighbour.

Page 21

In Mattityahu 16:18-19, Yahushua states “…I will build my assembly…I will give you

the keys of the Kingdom…” It is easier to understand this passage if we first understand

its sister passage in Mattityahu 18:15-18. Both passages discuss an which has assembly

the power to “bind” or “loose.” As we have seen, the terms “bind” and “loose” are

Hebrew/Aramaic idiomatic expressions meaning to “permit” or “prohibit” in a court of

religious law. These technical terms are employed many times in the Talmud. halakhic

Table G.2 summarises a number of notable occurrences of these terms.

Table G.2:

Table of some passages in the Talmud where the halakhic terms “bind” and “loose” are

used in the sense of forbidding and permitting in a religious court of law—a Beit Din.

Version Order Tractate

Yerushalmi Zera’im Berakhot 5b; 6c

Yerushalmi Nashim Sanhedrin 28a

Bavli Nashim Avodah Zarah 37a

Bavli Nashim N



edarim 62a

Bavli Nashim Yevamot 106a

Bavli Mo’ed Beitsah 2b; 22a

Bavli Zera’im Berakhot 35a

Bavli Mo’ed Chagigah 3b


Mattityahu 18:15-18

15″If your brother sins against you, go and show him his fault, just between the

two of you. If he listens to you, you have won your brother over.

16But if he will not listen, take one or two others along, so that `every matter may

be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.’

17If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the and if he refuses qahal (assembly);

to listen even to the treat him as you would a pagan or a tax qahal (assembly),

collector. Amein.

18″Whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you

loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

This text bears an implicit reference to

Devarim 19:15

One witness is not enough to convict a man accused of any crime or offence he

may have committed. A matter must be established by the testimony of two or

three witnesses.

regarding witnesses before the court (Devarim 19:15-21). Mattityahu 18 relates to the

authority to administer (right-ruling) in courts. These courts permitted or mishpat

prohibited, as enacted in e.g. Acts 15. The word “church” here in the Greek is

That is, seeds.

That is, women.

That is, appointed times.

Page 22

“ekklesia;” in Hebrew it is or All of these words simply mean “qahol” “qahal.”

“assembly.” In fact, “ekklesia” is the word used for “assembly” throughout the

Septuagint; the Septuagint talks repeatedly of the “Ekklesia of Israel.” (The founders of

dispensationalism overlooked this and therefore portrays “the church” as being an

exclusively New Covenant phenomenon; they developed their theology from English

translations of Scripture, where the term “Church” suddenly appears in the “New

Testament.” This oversight fuelled their conceptual fragmentation of salvation history,

as well as antinomian tendencies.)

The word does not always refer to the Body of Messiah; sometimes it refers to a ekklesia

mob (Acts 19:41), sometimes the “assembly” of Israel (Acts 7:38) and sometimes it can

refer to a court, i.e. a (as in Acts 19:39). Since Mattityahu 18:16 quotes Beit Din

Devarim 19:15, it follows that the spoken of in Mattityahu 18:17 must be “…the ekklesia

judges who serve in those days…” which are mentioned in Devarim 19:17. Now if the

“qahal” which “binds” and “looses” in Mattityahu 18:15-18 is a “court” or judicial

council (a such as in Acts 7:38) then it is this same “church” that is mentioned Beit Din

in Mattityahu 16:18-19. The “keys of the Kingdom” refers to this authority to make

mishpat halakhah. (right-rulings) and udicial rulings should be solidly based on Such j


Let us now look at

Revelation 3:7

To the messenger of the in Philadelphia write: These are the words of him qahal

who is set-apart and true, who holds the key of David. What he opens no-one

can shut, and what he shuts no-one can open.

which quotes

Yeshayahu 22:21-22

21I will clothe him with your robe and fasten your sash around him and hand your

authority over to him. He will be a father to those who live in Yerushalayim and to

the house of Yehudah.

22I will place on his shoulder the key to the house of David; what he opens noone

can shut, and what he shuts no-one can open.

This “church” which has the keys of the Kingdom, then, is the of the ruling council

Messianic Assemblies which is seen meeting in Acts 15. Ya’aqov presided as the Nasi

(President) of the of the Messianic Assembly. Beit Din

The Roman Catholic Church claims to have inherited this authority through apostolic

succession. However, their ” ” is a messy and often pagan perversion of, and halakhah

addition to, Scriptural truth, and therefore carries no weight whatsoever— may halakhah

never contradict Scripture.

The Body of Messiah still has the authority of courts. Local congregations may make

locally applicable rulings on many issues. (A Bible-school may, e.g. forbid halakhic

students to smoke or consume alcohol.) Sadly, we have become so ignorant and divided

that any large-scale application of this authority of courts may lead to incessant quarrels

and possibly even a cruel inquisition. Therefore it is the best to apply this authority only

Page 23

within local assemblies and within denominations (e.g. at general synods), and not on a

greater scale. Let us wait for King Messiah to come and restore right-ruling to the earth,

to magnify the so that the will of YHWH be done on earth, as it is done in Torah,


Groups such as the Assemblies of Yahweh and Netzarim Judaism have tackled the

problem of the sometimes chaotic division within Christianity by distancing themselves

from Christianity, and by proclaiming themselves the eschatological remnant of the

apostolic assembly of the first century. Netzarim Judaism acknowledges and submits to

the Beit Din system operating in Orthodox Judaism, and adds to this a Netzarim Beit Din

to decide on matters internal to Netzarim Judaism. The Assemblies of Yahweh views

themselves as the reconstituted Apostolic Assembly, reformed after 19 centuries or error

and darkness. They do not submit to the Beit Din system operating in Orthodox

Judaism, but seek to make their own rulings based on written Scripture.

„M „M „M „M „M „M „M

Next, we quote an article (pirated from the World Wide Web), “Binding and Loosing”

in Hebraic Thought by Dr Joseph B. Fuiten:

Mattityahu 16:19

I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will

be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

Mattityahu 18:18-20

I tell you the truth, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and

whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. Again, I tell you that if two

of you on earth agree about anything you ask for, it will be done for you by my

Father in heaven. For where two or three come together in my name, there am I

with them.

The which YHWH gave on Mount Sinay formed the constitution of the nation Torah

Israel. It was both a simple and complex relationship. On the one hand the was Torah

simple. Yet in daily life it often became complex. In the earliest days, Mosheh himself

both instructed the people in the and decided complicated matters of law for them. Torah

Mosheh said, “Whenever they have a dispute, it is brought to me, and I decide between

the parties and inform them of YHWH’s decrees and laws.” In time this became too

much for Mosheh alone and he appointed assistants. His father-in-law, Yithro, gave this


Exodus 18:21-22

But select capable men from all the people—men who fear Elohim, trustworthy

men who hate dishonest gain—and appoint them as officials over thousands,

hundreds, fifties and tens. Have them serve as judges for the people at all

times, but have them bring every difficult case to you; the simple cases they can

decide themselves. That will make your load lighter, because they will share it

with you.

In time, this group of assistants in the became an institution in their own right. Torah

Authority soon rested among the sages to interpret the meaning of the They Torah.

would consider the principles of the and decide issues. The decisions which they Torah,

Page 24

made carried great weight. Over the centuries, Rabbinical expansion of the principles of

the took place in all areas of community life. Torah

The Rabbis were constantly called upon by their community to interpret scriptural

commands. Was such-and-such an action permitted? Was such-and such a thing or

person ritually clean? Scripture, for example, forbids working on the Shabbat, but it

does not define “work.” As a result, the sages were called upon to declare what an

individual was and was not permitted to do on the Sabbath. They “bound” (prohibited)

certain activities, and “loosed” (allowed) other activities.

In the Hebrew way of thinking, binding and loosing is the interpretation of the by Torah

a Beit Din that performs and makes based on the written and mishpat halakhah, Torah

the oral Anyone who acted in this capacity was sitting in the seat of Mosheh. It Torah.

is easy to see why they used that term. Since Mosheh had acted in this way when he was

alive, interpreting the and since they were carrying on that tradition, they were Torah,

sitting in his seat.

Yahushua himself acknowledged the authority that resided in the teachers of the Torah

and among the Pharisees:

Mattityahu 23:1-2

Then Yahushua said to the crowds and to his disciples: “The teachers of the

Torah and the Pharisees sit in Mosheh’s seat. So you must obey them and do

everything they tell you. But do not do what they do, for they do not practice

what they preach…”

The early Church recognised this authority and what it meant. Writing in the mid-fourth

century, Cyril of Yerushalayim said,

“The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat; for it signifies not his wooden

seat, but the authority of his teaching.”

This authority found its highest expression in the Beit Din. Yet it existed down to the

local town and synagogue level. Outside the gates of the excavated ruins of ancient Dan,

there is a seat where once such decisions were made. There, the city elders gathered to

“sit in Mosheh’s seat.” Proverbs 31:23 gives us a sense for this:

Proverbs 31:23

“Her husband is respected at the city gate, where he takes his seat among the

elders of the land.”

It is in this context, and with this meaning, that Yahushua spoke the words which

Mattityahu records:

Mattityahu 16:19

“I will give you the keys of the kingdom of Heaven; whatever you bind on earth

will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in


This is an important moment in the history of non-Messianic and Nazarene (Messianic)

Judaism. Here is Yahushua, the Anointed One of YHWH, investing the power of

Mosheh into the hands of his talmidim, who now become His sh’liachim—apostles, sent

Page 25

ones, emissaries. They now become the ones responsible for interpreting the Torah.

This is decisive for it represents the imposition of authority. It places the authority held

by those who sit in the seat of Mosheh within the context of the Messianic Assembly.

Within the Messianic Assembly established by Yahushua, we find that this authority

continued on. In the beginning, it was the Apostles themselves who sat in the Seat of

Mosheh. The Apostles stepped into their role and took leadership of the Qahal.

We see Apostolic authority being exercised at the Yerushalayim Council Acts 15. —

The Messianic Beit Din met to discuss the entrance requirements for Gentiles. The

question was, how was the to be applied to them. What was necessary for their Torah

entry into the assemblies? After hearing various sides of the question, Ya’aqov said,

“It is my judgement, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles

who are turning to YHWH.”

Ya’aqov was exercising the authority of the seat of Mosheh. Indeed, this was clearly

more than just their opinions, for when they sent the letter out it was under the authority

of what “seemed good to the and to us…” They were laying claim to Ruach HaQodesh

divine authority as well as their own. In making the Acts 15 decision, the Apostles and

elders were sitting in the seat of Mosheh, using the power of binding and loosing. Again

and again, we find the Apostles and elders acting in the authority of Mosheh. In effect,

the New Testament is the Apostolic application of the principles found in the Torah.

Has this authority ceased in the Messianic Qahal? The Qahal today has the right to apply

Scripture to issues not mentioned directly in Scripture, following the practices of

“binding and loosing”, and sitting in the seat of Mosheh. That this power can be abused

is evident in twenty centuries of Church history. The term “ex cathedra” means “from

the chair.” Using this expression is an attempt by Roman Catholics to claim that the

Roman Catholic Church is infallible when it speaks “ex cathedra” because it is speaking

from the “Seat of Mosheh.” But the “Seat of Mosheh” was not for purposes of adding to

the Scripture, but to give an official interpretation on areas that were not clearly spelled


Scripture’s texts on binding and loosing has been drawn into the Charismatic chaos

chiefly exported from the USA. The popular understanding in large sectors of the

Charismatic movement is that these texts are mandates for spiritual warfare. In the Faith

Movement we regularly hear authoritative proclamations such as “Satan we bind you;

angels we loose you…” This error in thinking springs from a fundamental error in

understanding about the Basar (Gospel) according to . What many today do Mattityahu

not understand is that the Gospel of Mattityahu was written in Hebrew.

That Mattityahu was originally written in Hebrew is the unanimous view of the Church

Fathers. Papias said,

Matthew put together the oral teachings of the Master in the Hebrew language.

Irenaeus said Mattityahu was written to the Jews:

The Gospel according to Matthew was written to the Yehudim. For they laid

particular stress upon the fact that Messiah (should be) of the seed of David.

Cyril of Jerusalem also noted:

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Matthew, who wrote the gospel, wrote it in the Hebrew tongue.

These men are not obscure figures, but formed the mainstream of the early Christian

assemblies; their views carry weight.

At present, no original copy of Mattityahu has ever been found in the Hebrew. However,

if these early fathers are correct, what exists in Greek is a translation of the Hebrew. As

such, it is subject to certain weaknesses. Translations of this period often did not

translate the sense of a passage, rather they tended to follow the actual or literal words.

In particular, Hebrew idioms did not always make the transition intact. We know when

someone says “his eyes fell to the floor,” not to take that literally. But consider the

problem of a translator. What is an idiom, and what should be taken literally? We see

this weakness reflected in the translation of the term “good eye” in Mattityahu. This is a

Hebrew idiom for a generous person. But that is not particularly clear in the Greek.

What about “binding and loosing” as spiritual warfare?

The idea of “binding” and “loosing” has risen to the forefront in some current teaching

on spiritual warfare. What is interesting is the absence of these two ideas in the spiritual

warfare that is mentioned in Scripture. If it were to be such an important part of warfare,

one would expect to find it more prominently mentioned in the Scriptures. In fact, it is

most noticeable for its absence. Far more emphasis is given to this idea than is

warranted from the Scripture. More likely, it doesn’t even exist as a weapon of spiritual


Why do some believe that “binding and loosing” are aspects of spiritual warfare? This is

a new concept that has almost no history in the Church.

The Belief that demons can be “bound” or that angels can be “loosed” is based upon a

novel interpretation of Mattityahu 16:10 and Mattityahu 18:18. These passages are

interpreted to apply to spirit beings because of the phrases “bound in heaven” or “loosed

in heaven.” As the logic goes, since spirit beings exist in heaven, this passage must

apply to them. (It is not clear how the passage could apply to demons, which are not

generally associated with heaven.)

The “bind-loose theology” is heavily based upon a special interpretation of the “strong

man” passages in Mattityahu 12:29Mark 3:27, and Luke 11. In these passages,

Yahushua is showing that only a superior power can drive out demons. He then uses the

example of a well armed strong man who defends his house until someone stronger

“attacks and overpowers” him, robbing him of his goods. The point of the passage,

however, is not about “binding,” but about the effect of superior power. This is the

emphasis which Tertullian gave to it.

Unfortunately, “binding the strongman” has become dogma in some circles. One book

builds it’s whole spiritual warfare concept around an improper interpretation of this

passage. A better understanding is found in the historic interpretation of “binding.”

No group or denomination in Christianity has ever interpreted these passages in this way

before the last part of the 20th century. Of course, being a new doctrine or

understanding does not necessarily mean the new doctrine in untrue. However, new

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doctrines need to be examined very carefully to see how they fit with the whole counsel

of Scripture, and with the interpretation of that same Scripture over the centuries.

Second, over the centuries, the “binding” and “loosing” passages have been interpreted

along the lines of the authority of the Apostles to “sit in the seat of Mosheh.” This

means interpreting Scripture and conducting the affairs of the Assembly. The Catholic

Encyclopedia expresses this idea when it says,

“These powers, consisting of a “binding” and a “loosing” in the spiritual order on

earth, that is, all powers necessary to the well-being of the kingdom, were

recognised by the apostles from the rabbinical terms for “binding,” that is, of

granting or forbidding, as contained in the Torah.”

The Catholic view, which is shared by the other branches of the historic Christian

Church, has always been that binding and loosing were part of the authority granted to

the Church, and are expressed in the idea of the “power of the keys.”

Third, only Mattityahu records this idea, probably because he was the only one,

according to Eusebius and the others we have cited, to write his original text of the

Gospel in Hebrew. The passage regarding “binding” and “loosing” is a Jewish idiom

translated word for word from the Hebrew into the Greek. Unfortunately, even though

the words of the idiom were translated correctly, the meaning was clouded in such a

literal translation.

Dr Roy Blizzard takes the historic view held by Catholics and Orthodox, but for a

different reason. He cites Jewish texts to show that “binding” and “loosing” were the

terms applied to the work of the rabbis in interpreting Scripture, allowing some things

but denying other based on their interpretation of the meaning of the So if the Torah.

rabbi said you were not allowed to walk more than a few hundred yards on the Sabbath,

he was “binding” certain behaviour. Although Yahushua criticised the Pharisees for

their hypocrisy, he did require his disciples to obey their interpretations. We have

already shown Yahushua saying, “The teachers of the and the Pharisees sit in Torah

Mosheh’s seat. So you must obey them and do everything they tell you.”

Fourth, of the many passages dealing with spiritual warfare, there is a noticeable absence

of any teaching regarding “binding and loosing.” There is a great deal in Scripture about

spiritual warfare. In light of these many passages, why does Sha’ul omit “binding and

loosing” in his passage on spiritual warfare in Ephesians 6? Why does Ya’aqov only talk

about the devil, stopping far short of the idea of “binding”? Why only resisting resist,

when you could “bind”? Indeed, why is there no plain statement linking “binding” and

“loosing” with any part of spiritual warfare?

The answer is that “binding and loosing,” the way it is being taught in some quarters of

the Church, is not adequately rooted in Biblical teachings on spiritual warfare.

Scripture does say that Satan will be “bound” and “loosed.” This, however, will be done

in the future (Revelation 20). No one is binding him today.

“And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless

pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old

serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years. And

cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that

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he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be

fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season.”

This future tense is the only proper application of this concept to spiritual warfare.

If Satan is being “bound” as often as people are saying the words, their “binding”

certainly does not last very long. If the “bind the devil” people are indeed “binding” the

devil” somebody needs to figure out how long their “binding” of the devil lasts. Then,

they could line up people all over the world on a “24-hour Bind Chain” to keep

“binding” Satan, so he never gets loose again.

Some might suggest that only demons are being bound, not Satan himself. Is it possible,

then, that we might eventually come to a point where all the demons are bound in chains

of darkness and none are free to roam the earth? Would this leave only Satan alone to do

all the evil work?

The further one probes this new idea of “binding,” the more questions are raised. The

reason all this becomes so imprecise when the details are exposed, is because the whole

notion is without Biblical foundation. Yahushua had many contacts with the devil and

demons, but He is never described as “binding” the demons. No New Testament writer

ever describes anyone ever “binding” the devil.

If there is no authority in the Scripture for this “binding,” it is better to stop now than to

continue building on sand. It is better to get back to scriptural warfare than to continue

eating soup with a fork. Firing blanks doesn’t kill the enemy. We need effective warfare

with live ammunition.


Benjamin. “Son of my Right Hand.”

When a Jewish household had a meal, the youngest son would always sit at the right

hand of the father. Binyamin was Ya’aqov’s youngest son, and also the last son of his

beloved wife, Rachel.

When a rabbi and his talmidim (taught ones; disciples) enjoyed a meal, the talmidim

would also be arranged around the table in order of their age, with the oldest talmid

sitting at the left hand of the rabbi and the youngest at his right hand. At the Pesach

Seder meal, everyone would recline to the left, so that the head of the youngest talmid

would be the closest to the chest of the rabbi. Based on information in the Gospels, we

infer that Yochanan was Yahushua’s youngest talmid, whereas Yahudah the betrayer was

the oldest.

Birkhat HaChodesh

The blessing of the New Moon.

Birkhat haMazon

A Blessing to YHWH said after meals.

Birkhat Kohenim

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Ba’Midbar 6:24 – 26

YHWH bless you and guard you;

YHWH make his face shine upon you, and show favour to you;

YHWH lift up his face upon you, and give you shalom.

This blessing should be said by Aharon and his sons, i.e. the (priests) of kohanim

Yisra’el, over the forever. b’nei Yisra’el (Children of Yisra’el),

Note that the very next verse says:

Ba’Midbar 6:27

Thus you shall put My Name on the b’nei Yisra’el (Children of Yisra’el), and I

Myself shall bless them.

The Tetragrammaton should be used, and no circumlocution or substitute.


An attitude of trust in and reliance on YHWH. It is the security of sensing and knowing

that He has not left us nor will he ever forsake us…no matter what the present

predicament may be.

Bittahon brings a confidence that YHWH will never “drop” us, that He knows the end

from the beginning and does all for the ultimate benefit of those who are His. Emunah

(faith) allows us to rest in bittahon.

Bitul Torah

The neglect of the study of the Torah.

Bi’ur chametz

Destroying of the leaven.

Blood Covenant

To the ancient Hebrews, a blood covenant was the most binding agreement one could

enter into. The making of blood covenants seems to be a universal concept found among

all peoples in even the most remote parts of the world. The custom of making blood

covenants can be found among American Indians as well as in the deepest most remote

parts of Africa. The origin of the blood covenant custom looms somewhere beyond the

horizon of history.

The customs surrounding the making of a blood covenant among the Hebrews involved:

1. Exchanging garments and swords (1 Sh’muel 18:4)

2. A blood sacrifice (Genesis 15:9-1731:43-54Yirmeyahu 34:18-19)

3. A memorial covenant meal (Genesis 31:54)

There are several examples of covenants in Scripture. Lavan entered into a covenant

with Ya’aqov (Genesis 31:43-55). And David made a covenant with Jonathan (1 Samuel


When two men were in a covenant relationship everything they owned and their very

lives were offered to each other. Moreover a person with a covenant relationship held

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heirship rights with the one he is in covenant with. For this reason David was the legal

heir to the throne when Yehonatan and King Sha’ul were killed. One of the best pictures

we have of the power of the blood covenant is given in Samuel 18-20. Because of 1

their covenant, Jonathan pleaded with his father the king on David’s behalf ( Samuel 1

19:4-7). And because of the covenant David sought out Jonathan’s son Mefiboshet so as

to show kindness to him and make him as one of his own sons (2 Samuel 9).

Now our covenants with YHWH are patterned after the Hebrew blood covenant customs.

In the same way we:

1. Exchanging garments and swords (Ephesians 6:11-17)

2. Have a blood sacrifice (Hebrews 9:12-22)

3. Have a memorial covenant meal (Mattityahu 26:26-29)

We also have an inheritance

Romans 8:15-17

15For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you

received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, “Abba, Father.”

16The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are YHWH’s children.

17Now if we are children, then we are heirs—heirs of Elohim and co-heirs with

Messiah, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in

his esteem.

Ephesians 1:111418

11In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of

him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will,

14who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those

who are God’s possession—to the praise of his glory.

18I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you

may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious

inheritance in the saints…

Hebrews 9:15-17

15For this reason Messiah is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are

called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a

ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant.

16In the case of a will, it is necessary to prove the death of the one who made it,

17because a will is in force only when somebody has died; it never takes effect

while the one who made it is living.

1 Peter 1:3-4.

3Praise be to the Elohim and Father of Adonu Yahushua the Messiah! In his

great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection

of Messiah Yahushua from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never 4

perish, spoil or fade- kept in heaven for you…

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This inheritance is a major topic of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The author shows that the

Messiah was “made heir of all things” (1:2, 4) and the “firstborn” (1:6; 12:23) (an

inheritance term). He shows that the oath which made Abraham’s seed the chosen people

was a covenant (6:13-14), and that the oath which makes the Messiah a priest after the

order of Malki-tzedeq (7:20-22) is the New Covenant (Hebrews 7:228:6-13). He also

shows that this is a blood covenant sealed with the Messiah’s blood (Hebrews 8 & 9).

The author argues that because of this covenant relationship we have an inheritance

(9:11-22). Since we are blood covenantors with the Messiah who is heir of all things

(i.e. the Kingdom (1:13; 2:5-9) we inherit with him (1:14; 2:10-18; 9:11-22; 12:23).

“Bnai Noach” and the “Netzarim Movement”

Generally speaking these groups are anti-Trinitarian, do not believe that the New

Testament is authoritative scripture, are vehemently anti-Christian in their writings,

believe in keeping both the Oral and Written do not believe that the Messiah was Torah,

born of a virgin and do not believe in that religious Jews need to accept Yahushua as the

Messiah. They deliberately distance themselves from anything “Christian.”

Many would view them as cults because they reject some of the historically orthodox

doctrines of Christianity.

Messianic Judaism should not be confused with and the Bnai Noach Netzarim Judaism

movement. The and movements consist mostly of non- Bnai Noah Netzarim Judaism

Jews. While they embrace the true roots of the faith, they often do so in an unbalanced,

reactive, divisive way.


A religious party of the first century composed of wealthy and influential members of the

priesthood, similar in doctrine with the Tzadoqim (Sadducees).

Boneh Yerushalayim

The blessing over the rebuilding of . Yerushalayim

Born again

Some thoughts on Yochanan 3:1-12:

Yochanan 3:1

There was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews…

This was probably Nakdimon ben Gurion, one of the three leading Batlanim

(counsellors) in . According to the Talmud he was wealthy enough to feed Yerushalayim

the entire city for ten years (b. Gittin 56a). One rather lengthy Talmudic story tells us

that once, during a drought, Nakdimon made a deal with a Roman General so as to

procure twelve wells of water for the Jewish people. According to the story, Nakdimon

promised the General to repay him either twelve wells or twelve talents of silver (a large

sum of money) before the expiration of one year, had it not rained. On the last day of the

year it still had not rained, so Nakdimon went to the to pray. His prayer Beit haMiqdash

was answered and it began to rain and refill the wells. The Roman General, however,

demanded the silver, saying that the cloud-cover had caused the day, and thus the year,

to expire prematurely. Nakdimon returned to the and prayed again, this Beit haMiqdash

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time the clouds removed and the sun shined through, thus the General was satisfied. In

Ta’anit 19b-20a, the Talmud also recounts that “Nakdimon” was only his nickname and

that his real name was Buni. The Talmud also relates that a certain Buni was a talmid

(student) of Yahushua of Nazareth and was himself martyred some time after Yahushua’s

death (b. Sanhedrin 43a). The Talmud suggests that the nickname Nakdimon was taken

from which means “to shine” “because the sun shined out for him” (Ta’anit 20a). nakad

Another possible etymology for his name is “innocent of the blood” based naki dam

upon his actions recorded in Yochanan 7:45-5219:39. The Greek equivalent name

Nicodemus has a meaning all of its own: Nikos Demos means “victorious people.”

There would be no reason for Buni to have this Greek name as a nickname, but the

sound-alike Greek name may have been used by the Roman occupiers in their dealings

with this very wealthy man, as the Talmud does record that he had dealings with the

Roman General stationed at (Ta’anit 19b-20a). Yerushalayim

Yochanan 3:3

…born again…

The idea behind such an expression can be found in the Talmud (Yevamot 48b and 62a):

“…a proselyte is like a new-born infant…”

Yochanan 3:5-6

born of water and the spirit…born of the flesh…born of the spirit

Yahushua ties this in as an elaboration of the previous phrase “born again;” He is

apparently referring to two passages: Tanakh

Yechezq’el 36:24-28

For I will take you from among the nations,

gather you out of all countries

and bring you into your own Land

Then I will sprinkle clean on you, water

and you shall be clean;

I will cleanse you from all your filthiness

and from all your idols.

I will give you a new heart

and put a new within you; spirit

I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh

and give you a heart of . flesh

I will put My within you spirit

and cause you to walk in My statutes,

and you will keep My (right-rulings) and do them. mishpatim

Then you shall dwell in the land that I gave to you fathers;

you shall be my people,

and I will be your Elohim.

Yeshayahu 44:3

For I will pour upon him that is thirsty, water

and floods upon the dry ground.

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I will pour my upon your seed, Spirit

and my blessing upon your offspring…

It is easy to understand why the metaphor of a birthing process is used of receiving the

righteousness of YHWH. When one is unredeemed, you are a living corpse, (tzadeqah)

under the penalty of death. As far as the life in the World to Come is concerned, it is as

though you are dead, unborn. When one received redemption, one is born as a citizen of

the World to Come. There is a passing from guilt to righteousness, from imminent death

and punishment to (everlasting life). Also consider chaiyah l’olam va’ed

Yeshayahu 23:4

Be ashamed, O Sidon, and you, O fortress of the sea, for the sea has spoken: “I

have neither been in labour nor given birth; I have neither reared sons nor

brought up daughters.”

Yeshayahu 26:17-18

17As a woman with child and about to give birth writhes and cries out in her pain,

so were we in your presence, O YHWH.

18We were with child, we writhed in pain, but we gave birth to wind. We have not

brought salvation to the earth; we have not given birth to people of the world.

This is why one who turns away from idolatry and self-righteousness and worships

YHWH (in spirit and in truth), i.e. empowered and indwelt by the ba’ruach v’ba’emet

Ruach Mashiach, that was upon the in accordance with the covenantal promises of

YHWH, which centres in the atoning and redeeming work of Messiah Yahushua, is born

again, passing from death to life.

The following Scriptures should also be examined when studying the concept of rebirth:

Mattityahu 3:11

I baptise you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more

powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptise you with the

Ruach HaQodesh and with fire.

Mattityahu 3:16

As soon as Yahushua was baptised, he went up out of the water. At that

moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of YHWH descending like a

dove and lighting on him.

Luke 3:16

Yochanan answered them all, “I baptise you with water. But one more powerful

than I will come, the thongs of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie. He will

baptise you with the and with fire. Ruach HaQodesh

Yochanan 1:31-33

31I myself did not know him, but the reason I came baptising with water was that

he might be revealed to Israel.”

32Then Yochanan gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven

as a dove and remain on him.

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33I would not have known him, except that the one who sent me to baptise with

water told me, `The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is

he who will baptise with the Ruach HaQodesh.’

Yochanan 7:38-39

38Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will

flow from within him.”

39By this he meant the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were later to

receive. Up to that time the Spirit had not been given, since Yahushua had not

yet been glorified.

We now return to the book of Yochanan.

Yochanan 3:7

…enter the kingdom of Elohim…

As we have shown earlier, the “Kingdom of Elohim” is a euphemism for the Kingdom of

Israel (as in Chronicles 28:5; 2 Chronicles 13:8). Thus in order to enter the Kingdom 1

and be re-gathered to the Land, the Jewish people would have to be born of water (made

clean), born of flesh (receive a heart of flesh rather than stone) and receive the Spirit of

YHWH so as to walk in the statutes.

Yochanan 3:8

…the wind blows…

In the Aramaic this is a word play, as the word for spirit can also mean — — rucha

“wind” and is the word used for wind here. This gives the double meaning “The Spirit


Yochanan 3:10

…are you a Teacher of Israel, and do not know these things?

These are things Nakdimon should have known, being a Jewish teacher. This points

away from the idea that Nakdimon merely misunderstood an idiomatic expression.

Mem: The letter of transition

The (immersion bath) entails two basic concepts, namely, water and the number miqvah

40. Both of these concepts are contained in a single letter, namely, the Hebrew letter


The letter derives its name from the Hebrew word for water. Furthermore, mem mayim,

the numerical value of the letter is forty. Therefore it is not surprising to learn that mem

the letter is also said to represent the mem miqvah.

Another concept that we find associated wit the letter is the womb. The closed mem

mem mem sophit (final ) represents the womb closed during pregnancy, while the open

mem mem is the womb giving birth. The numerical value 40, associated with the then

also represents the 40 days during which the embryo is formed.

In order to understand the meaning of this letter on a deeper level and see how it relates

to the we must delve into a most interesting midrash. The prophet says miqvah,

Page 35

(Yirmeyahu 10:10): YHWH Elohim is (truth). The midrash then gives the emet

following explanation:

What is the seal of Elohim? Our rabbi said in the name of rabbi Reuven, “The seal of

Elohim is truth.”

Resh Lakish asked, “Why is the Hebrew word for truth?” emet

He replied, “Because it is spelled is the first letter of the Hebrew aleph mem taw. Aleph

alphabet, is the middle letter and is the last letter of the Alphabet. HaShem thus mem taw

says (Yeshayahu 44:6), ‘I am first and I am last.'”

From this, we see that the letter has a most interesting property. the first mem Aleph,

letter of the alphabet, represents the beginning. the last letter, represents the end. Taw,

Mem is the letter that represents transition.

We see this most clearly in the word itself. The first two letters, spell emet aleph mem

out the Hebrew word for mother. This is the beginning of man. The last two letters, em,

mem taw, met spell out the Hebrew word for death the end of man. — —

Most important here, represents the concept of transition and change. is the mem Aleph

past, and the future, so represents the transition from past to future. As such, it taw mem

represents the instant that we call the present.

The past is history and can not be changed. We have no way of even touching the

future. Therefore the arena of action, where all change takes place, is the present.

Symbolic of water, the essence of change as well as the number forty, the essence of

birth, the also represents the present the transition between past and future mem — —

which is the arena of all change.

On a deeper level, the transition from past to future also represents an aspect of birth.

Indeed, one word for “future” in Hebrew is which literally means, “that which HaNolad,

is being born.” The womb in which the future is born is the present. This is the letter


Thus, when a person enters the he is actually entering the concept of the miqvah,

ultimate present. Past and future cease to exist for him. What he was in the past no

longer counts. Even the 40 days of formation are no longer an expanse of time, but a

volume of water 40 Then, when he emerges from the he re-enters the — sa’ah. miqvah,

stream of time as if he were a new being.


Mountain in Edom (Saudi Arabia) from which direction the victorious, avenging

Messiah will come to Yisra’el, bringing the final redemption:

Yeshayahu 63:1

1Who is this coming from Edom, from Botzrah, with his garments stained

crimson? Who is this, robed in splendour, striding forward in the greatness of his

strength? “It is I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save.”

2Why are your garments red, like those of one treading the winepress?

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Plural: Berachot.

Blessing, benediction.

B’rachot haShachar

The blessings of awakening recited each morning.




Literally: “Covenant People.”

See: in the monograph “What about the Lost tribes of Israel?” The Coming of King


B’rit Milah

Covenantal circumcision of male Israelites.

B’rit Chadashah

New Covenant; Renewed Covenant.


“In the name of.”



Before the kohanim (priests) could begin the services, they had to take Beit haMiqdash

set-apart water and pour it over their hands and feet. This water was drawn from the

Byor or laver—a large copper basin in the courtyard of the Beit haMiqdash.

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Joseph Caiaphas had been appointed High Priest under the procuratorship of Valerius

Gratus in 18 CE. It is significant that he served in this capacity for 18 years until 36 CE.

when Pilate himself was recalled, coinciding with the downfall and trial of Sejanus. High

Priests came and went like the husbands of some movie stars, rarely serving more than 3

years. Caiaphas had probably worked out a good relationship with Valerius Gratus,

Pilate’s predecessor, who himself served for eleven years in contrast to the normal 3 year

terms of service. It is probably no coincidence that the unprecedented long terms of

Gratus, Pilatus and Caiaphas coincide with the career of Lucius Aelias Sejanus. Judea

may not have been considered a “plum” appointment because of the harsh surroundings

but the opportunity for accumulating fortunes from graft and corruption was high. It is

obvious that Caiaphas was “their man” in the Temple with access to the treasury as head

of the party of the Sadducees and to all of the ancillary trade and commercial enterprises

that surrounded the Temple. There were somewhere between 300 000 to 400 000

pilgrims in Yerushalayim and surrounding areas for the temple services of Passover,

each carrying a purse. Money changing, the selling of sacrificial animals, the money

coming to the treasury from Jews all over the Roman world and hundreds of enterprises

associated with the Temple were all being siphoned to enrich Sejanus, the Prefect as well

as to the High Priest and his Sadducean cronies. When Yahushua entered the Temple

early in the year 30 and condemned these practices, overturning money changers’ tables,

it sealed his death warrant. Joseph Caiaphas, as High Priest and head of the collaborating

Sadducees, who controlled these commercial enterprises, had a great thing going for

himself and his Roman cronies, Gratus and Sejanus in Rome and later Pilatus and



The initials of and ch b d okhmah, inah a’at—”wisdom, understanding and knowledge.”

Also the name taken by a Chassidic movement founded in Russia.


Plural: Chaggim.

Festival. Literally: circle. Every is an island in time set apart, made that chag qadosh,

had to be celebrated in a specific way at a specific place. Why? To communicate with

us in foreshadowing, prophetic which teach us about the Footsteps of the patterns

Messiah in a concrete way, so that we would not miss the real redemptive events when

they came to pass. Each chag Pesach also teaches about our walk before Elohim.

signifies redemption from slavery. It teaches us that we are redeemed by grace. Shavuot

signifies the giving of the and teaches us that we are not redeemed unto Torah,

lawlessness, but unto obedience. The forms the marriage contract between Torah

Almighty YHWH and Yisra’el; the sign of the contract is the keeping of the Shabbat.

Chag Sukkot teaches us that, in the present age, we should sojourn with the same

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dependence on the provision and guidance of YHWH that Israel had in the 40 years in

the wilderness.




Festival of ingathering—a term for Sukkot.

Chag haBikkurim

Literally: Festival of the First Fruits; another name for Shavuot.

Chag haGeulah

Festival of redemption. Pesach & . Chag haMatzah

Chag haKatzir

Festival of reaping. Shavuot.

Chag Same’ach

Literally: “joyous festival”; greeting used on the festivals.


Literally: life. When Yehudim drink, they wish each other (“to life”). l’Chayim


Flute. Literally: —a term for the Messiah. At a specific point in the pierced one Sukkot

celebrations, everything becomes quiet. Then a begins to play, and the man who chalil

plays it, leads the procession. Likewise, the pierced One leads us, and will be the leader

of Yisra’el in the Millennium.


Plural: Challot.

Bread baked with egg in dough, eaten on Shabbat and festivals; the used on challah Yom

Teruah is round, often containing raisins, symbolising a sweet year, distinguishing it

from the Shabbat that is braided. challah


Leaven; yeast. Food prepared with leaven, by extension referring to all foods and

utensils forbidden during . Leavened bread and anything Pesach and Chag haMatzah

made with wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, which has not been supervised to ensure that

it does not contain leaven.




Literally: dedication; name of the 8-day festival commemorating the Maccabean victory

over the Syrians under Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” in the year 165 BM, and the

subsequent rededication of the Beit haMiqdash (Temple).

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Chanukah, the Festival of Dedication, begins on Kislev 25. It looks back at the

rededication of the House of YHWH after the Maccabees had driven the forces of

Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” from Yerushalayim. Prophetically, looks forward Chanukah

towards the rededication of the Temple after the second coming of the Messiah—the

Temple that will be desecrated by the False Messiah, who will be of the spirit of

Antiochus IV “Epiphanes.” The fact that falls exactly 75 days after Chanukah Yom

Kippur, gives the only viable explanation for the 1335 days of Dani’el 12. The 1260

days of the Great Tribulation will begin on an Aviv 10, when the False messiah will

enter Yerushalayim, slay the 2 witnesses, goes up to the Temple and proclaim himself to

be “Christ and God.” The Tribulation will end on a 1260 days later, when Yom Kippur,

the False messiah is cast into the lake of fire. falls 75 days later, beginning on Chanukah

Kislev 25, and . ƒpƒqƒuƒo ƒð ƒvƒt „M ƒpƒrƒrƒt

The Institution of The consecration of the and dedication of Chanukah: Beit haMiqdash

the new altar were celebrated for eight days. At that stage, it was not yet called

Chanukah Sukkot but rather “The Feast of the Month of Kislev.” The Jews, who had not

been able to observe while the was still in the hands of the pagan Sukkot Beit haMiqdash

Syrian Greeks, were now able to gather within its walls for joyful assembly. As Sukkot

was observed for eight days, the feast of dedication was equally observed for eight days.

And there was an additional reason for regarding the feast as a second both the Sukkot:

First and the Second Temples had been dedicated on Kings 8, 2:2- Chag Sukkot—see 1

65 and Nechemyah 8:13-18.

The name Chanukah which this Feast eventually received, links it to the consecration of

the (altar) in the Tent of Meeting in the desert: mizbeach

Numbers 7:60

“zot chanukat ha-mizbe’ach.”

“This was the dedication of the altar.”

After the original celebration, an ordinance was issued and accepted by the people:

Maccabees 4:36-61

Then Yahudah [Maccabeus] and his brothers and the whole congregation of

Israel established that the days of the consecration of the altar be celebrated for

eight days at this period, namely beginning with the twenty-fifth of the month of

Kislev, in joy and happy renewal.

Maccabees 10:5-9

It came about that on the very same day (3 years later) on which the Miqdash

had been profaned by aliens, the purification of the Miqdash took place, and they

celebrated it for with gladness, like the festival since they had eight days Sukkot

missed it during the time of war…and declared that the whole Jewish nation

should observe these days every year as a remembrance of their victory…

Although this festival of is not officially instituted in canonised Scripture, the Chanukah

book of Daniel contains prophecies about the rededication of the after Beit haMiqdash

the reign of Antiochus IV “Epiphanes.” The prophecies of Chaggai also allude to

Chanukah. Torah, In the text of the there are coded messages about the Maccabees and

the festival of Chanukah.

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„M „M „M „M „M „M „M


Alexander the Great was a famous Greek King who conquered most of the known world

in his day. He dominated all of the Near East which included the land of Israel during the

4th Century BM After his death, his kingdom was divided into four parts. The land of

Israel was under the dynasty of the Seleucid dynasty that dominated the area of Syria. In

167 BM Antiochus IV Epiphanes tried to force the Hellenisation (accept the ways and

practices of the Greek Empire) of all his subjects. Jewish practices such as the keeping of

the Sabbath and circumcision were forbidden. They even commanded that the Jews

sacrifice the most unclean of animals, a pig, to Zeus instead of the animals that YHWH

required and instituted through the Levitical priesthood in the Some Beit haMiqdash.

Jews desired to assimilate and accept the Greek ways but other Jews refused and some

were brutally killed.

When the Seleucids arrived in Modi’in, a town about 27 km from Yerushalayim, they set

up an altar and commanded the Jews to come and sacrifice a pig. Mattathias, an old

priest, was enraged by this event. As priest, Mattathias was to be the first person

required to do this sacrifice. Mattathias boldly refused to offer a sacrifice to Zeus and

made a rousing speech against pagan worship and called the Jews to solidarity and faith.

When a renegade Jew went forward to sacrifice the pig in compliance with the demand

of the pagan invaders, Mattathias killed the weak-spirited Jewish infidel and attacked the

Seleucid soldiers. At that very moment, the revolt began.

Mattathias and his 5 sons engaged the Greeks in guerrilla warfare to win Israel’s

independence. The Yehudim miraculously won the war against the Syrian Seleucids and

regained their freedom to worship the one true Elohim of Israel. The Beit haMiqdash

which was desecrated when Antiochus IV Epiphanes sacrificed a pig on the altar, was

recaptured by the Maccabees, cleansed and rededicated to Almighty YHWH.

Chanukah is a well documented festival. It is recorded in the Apocrypha—in 1st and

2nd Maccabees. Concerning the story of the ancient Jewish historian Chanukah,

Josephus born in 37 YM wrote in his book, 12:7:7 The Antiquities of the Jews,

Now Yehudah [Maccabeus] celebrated the festivals of the restoration of the

sacrifices of the for eight days: and omitted no sort of pleasure Beit haMiqdash

thereon: but he feasted them upon every rich and splendid sacrifices; and he

honoured Elohim and delighted them, by hymns and psalms. Nay, they were so

very glad at the revival of their customs, when after a long time of intermission,

they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of their worship, that they made it a

law for their posterity, that they should keep a festival, on account of the

restoration of their temple worship, for eight days. And from that time to this we

celebrate this festival, and call it I suppose the reason was, because this lights.

liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to

that festival.

The story of in the book of Maccabees Chanukah

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1st Maccabees 1:41-64

Moreover king Antiochus wrote to his whole kingdom, that all should be one

people. And every one should leave his laws. So all the heathen agreed

according to the commandment of the king. Yea, many also of the Israelites

consented to his religion, and sacrificed unto idols and profaned the sabbath. For

the king had sent letters by messengers unto Yerushalayim and the cities of

Yahudah that they should follow the strange laws of the land. And forbid burnt

offerings, and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple; and that they should

profane the sabbaths and festival days. And pollute the sanctuary and set-apart

people. Set up altars, and groves, and chapels of idols, and sacrifice swine’s

flesh, and unclean beasts. That they should also leave their children

uncircumcised and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness

and profanation. To the end they might forget the and change all the Torah,

ordinances. And whosoever would not do according to the commandment of the

king, he said, he should die. In the selfsame manner wrote he to his whole

kingdom and appointed overseers over all the people, commanding the cities of

Yahudah to sacrifice, city by city.

The many of the people were gathered unto them, to wit every one that forsook

the and so they committed evils in the land. And drove the Israelites into Torah,

secret places, even wheresoever they could flee for succour. Now the fifteenth

day of the month Kislev, in the hundred forty and fifth year, they set up the

abomination of desolation upon the altar, and built idol altars throughout the

cities of Yahudah on every side; and burnt incense at the doors of their houses,

and in the streets. And when they had rent in pieces the books of the Torah

which they found, they burnt them with fire. And whosoever was found with any

committed to the , the king’s commandment was, that they would put him Torah

to death. Thus did they by their authority unto the Israelites every month, to as

many as were found in the cities. Now the five and twentieth day of the month

they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of Elohim. At

which time according to the commandment they put to death certain women, that

had caused their children to be circumcised. And they hanged their infants about

their necks, and destroyed their houses and slew them that had circumcised

them. However, many in Israel were fully resolved and confirmed in themselves

not to eat any unclean thing. Wherefore the rather to die, that they might not be

defiled with meats, and that they might not profane the covenant: so then they

died. And there was very great wrath upon Israel.

The Hasmonean dynasty

Before Mattathias died, he passed the leadership onto his son Yahudah ha-Makkabi,

which means “the hammer.” Under his respected leadership, the Jewish warriors

continued to drive the pagan invaders out of Israel. This was the beginning of the

Hasmonean dynasty. Against all odds, the Yehudim were victorious. Ultimately, they

liberated Yerushalayim and rededicated the back to YHWH. Later, the Beit haMiqdash

Hasmonean dynasty became quite Hellenised. They persecuted and opposed the rabbis.

The Hasmonean dynasty ruled into the 1st century.

The Talmudic rabbis and Chanukah

The ancient Rabbis taught about the holiday but even they don’t discuss the miracle of

the oil until the later Talmudic writings of the Gemara. The Mishnah is silent about the

Page 42

miracle of oil burning for 8 days after having only a one day supply of oil to burn in the

Beit haMiqdash Beit haMiqdash upon recapturing the back from the Greeks. This was

probably due to the Mishnah Rabbis living under Roman domination and their fear of the

Roman authorities.

Is Chanukah a Scriptural Festival? Hanukkah is included in the list of set-apart times

ordained in Leviticus 23. However, John 10:22 teaches us that Messiah Yahushua kept

and celebrated this festival.


Dreidels are the toys with Jewish children play to call to remembrance the story of the

rededication of the in ancient Israel. Can a toy tell a religious story? A Beit haMiqdash

sevivon (Hebrew for Dreidel) tells a marvellous story. A dreidel is a 4 sided top-like

spinning toy that has a letter painted on each side. The letters are a Hebrew acronym


A Great Miracle Happened Here!

What was this great miracle that the Dreidel and the holiday commemorate? It is

proclaimed that after the Maccabees won their stunning military victory over the Greek

invaders of Israel they cleansed the In so doing, they needed to light the Beit haMiqdash

Menorah (a candelabra in the Temple). The Maccabees only had enough proper olive oil

to burn for 1 day. The miracle that is remembered is the story of how the lights burned

for 8 days giving them sufficient time to complete their celebration and produce more oil

for the Beit haMiqdash

Chanukiah Candle Lighting Guide

1) First, set the number of candles ready to be lit to correspond with which of the 8 days

are being celebrated. The first candle is placed at our right, as we face the Chanukiah (9

candlestick menorah) subsequent candles are placed to the left of it, one additional

candle to each of the eight days. The first new candle is ALWAYS kindled first by the

LIT shamash candle.

2) Light the Shamash (servant) candle, which represents the Messiah Yahushua (He is

YHWH’s Servant sent to the earth to redeem us from our sins). While holding the

Shamash candle, recite the Berachah (blessing) saying, “He is the Light of the World”

and reading

Mark 10:44-45

Whoever wants to be first must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not

come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.

3) With the Shamash candle burning, take it in your hand and recite the following

blessing in Hebrew and English:

“Baruch atah Adonai Eloheynu Melekh ha-olam kidshanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu

l’hadlik ner shel Chanukiah.”

“Blessed are you, O YHWH our Elohim, King of the Universe, Who has set us

apart with His commandments and commanded us to kindle the light of the

Chanukah (and to let our light shine before others)”

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“Baruch atah Adonai Eloheynu Melekh ha-olam sheheyanu v’ke’manu

v’heegeeanu lazman ha-zeh”

“Blessed are you, YHWH our Elohim, King of the Universe, Who has performed

miracles for our forefathers in those days at this time”.

“Baruch atah Adonai Eloheynu Melekh ha-olam, she-hasah nisim la-atotainu bayamim

ha-ham bazman ha-zeh”

“Blessed are you, YHWH our Elohim, King of the Universe, Who has kept us

alive and sustained us and enabled us to reach this season”.

4) Then, light the other candles with the Shamash candle.

5) Each night of lighting, invite a different person to read the Scriptures designated for

each night of the 8 days.

6) Sing (“Rock of Ages”) and other Chanukah songs you might come Ma’oz Tzur

across, celebrating the coming of the Light of the World.

Candle Scripture(s)

1st Exodus 3:21-22

2nd Psalm 18:28Psalm 27:1

3rd Yeshayahu 60:1-3

4th John 8:12

5th Luke 2:30-32

6th Tehillim 119:105 & 130

7th 5:14-16

8th Revelation 21:22-27


„M „M „M „M „M „M „M

During , the Jewish people relive their military and ideological victory over Chanukah

ancient Greece. We still hear the echoes of this cultural clash today, as Winston

Churchill wrote in his History of the Second World War:

No other two races (but the Jews and Greeks) have set such a mark upon the

world. Each of them from angles so different have left us with the inheritance of

its genius and wisdom…the main guiding light in modern faith and culture.

Jewish historians label the period during which the Hellenists had influence over Israel

as the “Greek Exile.” Ironically, during the era, there was no attempt to drive the Jews

from Israel, our homeland.

This begs the question, who or what did they view as having been exiled?

Jewish sages provide an explanation by comparing our existence within the Greek nation

to the darkness at the very beginning of creation. The first two lines of Genesis read,

In the beginning…the earth was empty…and darkness was upon the face of the


The command “Let there be light” banished the darkness. However, according to the

sequence of events presented in the the luminous bodies including the sun and Torah,

stars did not come into existence until much later. This first “light” must be understood

Page 44

not as light in a conventional sense, but as a reference to raw spiritual energy. The Greek

exile is therefore seen through the eyes of the sages as comparable to a physical universe

wholly lacking any spiritual content.

While traditional Jewish sources compare Greek culture to primordial Darkness, they

simultaneously confirm that externally, ancient Greece was the most beautiful and

cultured of all civilisations. Many Jews during the historical period in which the

Chanukah miracle too place found in Hellenism the world’s first intellectually

stimulating alternative to Judaism. Consequently, the glamour of Greece, her arts and

comforts, enticed many Jews toward complete assimilation into secular Greek culture.

The Hellenistic world glorified the human mind and body. To the Greek philosopher, the

world was run by natural laws, entirely accessible to the human intellect. Phenomena and

concepts to which logic could be applied were exhausted, and those which lay beyond

the confines of pure reason were shunned as folly.

The foundation of our modern Western world-view developed directly from this

perspective. We see as an illustration of this point, the widespread modern-day

assumption that there exists nothing beyond the physical world. Such a view relegates

the notions of love and the soul to the realm of merely base biochemical phenomena.

Existentialism, the philosophy of life’s absurd futility and inherent meaninglessness is

also a natural outgrowth of Hellenistic thought.

Additionally, the commonly accepted notion of “relative morality” which denies the

existence any absolute right or wrong prevails. These disheartening conclusions, held by

so many today, emerge from the perspective of this world being just a circus of atomic

nuts and bolts lacking any overall purpose or intentional design.

Yet many thinking people consider ridiculous the view that life is utterly meaningless,

and balk at the claim that there is nothing wrong with cold-blooded murder other than

personal preference. Even Bertrand Russell, this century’s most eloquent atheistic

philosopher conceded, “I cannot see how to refute the arguments for the subjectivity of

ethical values, but I find myself incapable of believing all that is wrong with wanton

cruelty is that I don’t like it.” Those who posses the humility and courage to concede that

the human mind’s reasoning faculty has its limits are forced to re-examine such a

constricted view of reality.

The second century before the Common Era, at the time when Athens and Yerushalayim

intellectual locked horns, a core of Jews maintained that the mechanical laws of nature

are subordinate to a higher reality. They saw the glory that was Greece, certainly not as

a dimness of intellect, but as a bleak shackling of the human spirit by a disinterested and

lifeless world. The brilliant spiritual intensity of humankind was left overshadowed by

the superficiality of externals, only because the material aspects of the universe are more

readily grasped by simplistic logic and reasoning. This is the “darkness” of Greece. This

too explains what the sages saw Greek culture had exiled: the spark of the human soul

and spirit. Jews on the other hand recognised the intellect as the soul’s most powerful and

reliable tool, but nothing more. Just because our minds can’t easily package what our

soul “knows” need not mean that our souls’ are wrong. This very same struggle rages

today between secular thought and living by the (Word) of YHWH. Devar

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Chanukat Habayit

Literally: dedication of the home; the ceremony of affixing the mezuzah to the doorpost.


Eight-branched menorah, with a place for a ninth candle — Chanukah (shamash

“servant”) used to light the other candles, especially designed for use during the Festival

of Chanukah.


A mixture of fruits, nuts, and wine; one of the symbolic foods. Its colour and Pesach

consistency are reminders of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves.


A group of pious 1st Century YM Jewish sages who shared the Pharisees’ ethical and

religious values, but were also characterised by a close walk with the Almighty and their

emphasis on what you preach, putting your proclamation into practice. Choni the doing

Circle-Drawer was a famous 1st century chasid.

Since the 18th century, this title also designates a group within Judaism, consisting of

Ultra-Orthodox followers of the eighteenth-century leader, Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, who

is called the (literally: “the master with a good name.”) In Israel, the Ba’al Shem Tov

ultra-orthodox are referred to as the Charridim, which means the ones who tremble

before Almighty YHWH.



Religious revivalist movement of popular mysticism among German Jews in the

Middle Ages.


Religious movement founded by Israel ben Eliezer, the (“Master Ba’al Shem Tov

of a Good Name”) in the first half of the 18th century.


Sin-offering in A sin offering made by one who has sinned against the Beit haMiqdash

Almighty, i.e. transgressed against Torah.



Chatan Bereshith

Literally: “Bridegroom of Genesis;” the man called to recite or chant the blessings over

the first section of the on Torah Simchat Torah.

Chatan Torah

Literally: “Bridegroom of the the man called to recite or chant the blessings Torah;”

over the final section of the on Torah Simchat Torah.


A group of “subscribers” convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach sacrifice and

Page 46

eating of its meat. A group of like-minded people meeting together to worship by

studying Scripture with reverence and joy.


A Hebrew word meaning In ancient times, it denoted a scholar or pious companion.

person among those who loved and kept the faithfully. This concept was taken Torah

from the text of Psalm 119:63, “I am a companion of them who fear YHWH.”






A living creature. Singular of chayot.

Chayei chadash

New life.

Chayei olam

Everlasting life.


Living creatures. A type of angel mentioned in Yechezq’el 1-3 and Revelation 4-5.


The cantor, who intones the liturgy and leads the prayers in a synagogue.

Chazan Ha-keneset

Synagogue employee.


Heshbon. A town in ancient Moav (today: Jordan). A centre of enmity and conspiracy

against the Children of Yisra’el. At the time of the exodus from Mitzrayim and the entry

into the promised land, Sihon, king of the Amorites dwelt there. He refused to let the

Israelites pass through. The Israelites defeated them and destroyed Cheshbon. The tribe

of Reuven later rebuilt the city. It is highly likely that Cheshbon in Jordan will also

feature in an eschatological conspiracy to first put Israel at ease and then destroy them as

a nation. This may be inferred by doing between Yirmeyahu 48, Numbers 24:17remez

Tehillim 83 and Ovadyah 1:7.


Grace, mercy, loyal love.


Missing the mark, making a mistake; the Hebrew term translated as “sin.” Transgression

of Torah. avon pesha Related to (crookedness) and (rebellion).

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Chevlei Shel Mashiach

Birthpains of the Messiah. Hebrew term for the seven year tribulation period that will

precede the glorious second coming of King Messiah. The excruciating pain, profuse

shedding of blood, and subsequent joy of childbirth is a picture of the agony and the joy

that the believing remnant of Israel as well as gentile believers will experience when they

are born into the Messiah and His kingdom.

The metaphor of passing through labour pains to be born into the is yeshuat Elohim

found throughout the Tanakh.

Table G.3: Prophecies about the Chevlei Shel Mashiach—the Birthpains that will come

upon the earth at the threshold of the Messianic Age.

Book Verses

Genesis 3:1635:16-2038:27-2848:3

2 Kings 19:3

Psalms 48:3-6

Yeshayahu 13:8; 21:3; 23:4; 26:17; 37:3; 42: 14; 54:1; 66:7-9

Yirmeyahu 4:316:2413:2122:2330:631:848:4149:22-2450:43

Hoshea 9:11-1213:13

Micah 4:9-105:3

Mattityahu 24:8

Mark 13:8

Yochanan 16:21-24

1 Thessalonians 5:3

Revelation 12:2

Let us look at a few of these passages where the cataclysmic events that will come upon

the earth in the Day of YHWH are described as birthpains:

Yeshayahu 26:16-18

YHWH, they came to you in their distress;

when you disciplined them, they could barely whisper a prayer.

As a woman with child and about to give birth writhes and cries out in her

pain, so were we in your presence, O YHWH.

We were with child, we writhed in pain, but we gave birth to wind.

We have not brought salvation [Hebrew: yeshu’ah] to the earth;

we have not given birth to people of the world.

Yirmeyahu 30:6-7

Ask and see: Can a man bear children? Then why do I see every strong man

with his hands on his stomach like a , every face turned woman in labour

deathly pale? How awful that day will be! None will be like it. It will be a time of

trouble for Ya’aqov, but he will be saved out of it.

Page 48

Yeshayahu 66:7-10

“Before she goes into , she ; labour gives birth

before the . pains come upon her, she delivers a son

Who has ever heard of such a thing? Who has ever seen such things?

Can a country be born in a day

or a nation be brought forth in a moment?

Yet no sooner is Tziyon in labour

than she gives to her children. birth

Do I bring to the moment of and not give delivery?” says YHWH. birth

“Do I close up the womb when I bring to delivery?” says your Elohim.

“Rejoice with Yerushalayim and be glad for her, all you who love her;

rejoice greatly with her, all you who mourn over her.

To receive the is to pass from death to life, to be born anew, to receive yeshuat Elohim

the breath of new life—cf. Yechezq’el 37. The wicked are considered dead even when

they are alive, while the righteous are considered alive even when dead. That person

who heeds the call of the Spirit of the Almighty, and does finds shelter under teshuvah,

the wings of the Shekhinah and is born as a citizen of the the World to Olam Ha-ba,


The frequency and vividness of the metaphor of birthpangs in the could be the Tanakh

reason Yahushua found it distressing that the batlan, Nakdimon, a prominent teacher of

Israel, did not comprehend that one cannot enter the without being Malkut Shamayim

born again from above, by the (cf. Yochanan 3). In telling Nakdimon Ruach HaQodesh

that one needs to be born again from above to enter the Kingdom of YHWH, Yahushua

may have been challenging Nakdimon with prozelyte baptism. Three things were done

when a man became a prozelyte to Judaism: He was circumcised, he immersed „Í „Í ƒp ƒq

himself in a miqvah, and he and brought an offering in the In „̓r

Beit haMiqdash.

Talmud Yevamot 48b and 62a, it is said that

“…a proselyte is like a new-born infant…”

According to the principles of historical-grammatical exegesis, we should ask ourselves:

What was the conceptual life-world of the participants in the discussion in

Yochanan 3—the discussion about being “born again from above.” They lived in a time

when the expression “born anew” was used for the prozelyte coming up from the waters

of the miqvah. They saw the miqvah as a tomb or grave, and as a womb. By „Í „Í ƒp ƒq

immersion in the miqvah the prozelyte indelibly cast his past as a pagan behind him, and

was like a child of one day when he came up from the waters. His new life as a member

of the covenant community of Almighty YHWH—the nation of Yisra’el—lay ahead of

him. By saying to the prominent Pharisee, Nakdimon, that he needs to be born again,

Rabbi Yahushua the Mashiach is telling him that to join His movement and to become

His talmid, Nakdimon must undergo a transformation and change of direction that is as

radical as is prozelyte immersion. The Malkut Shamayim was breaking forth into the

world, and those in it were about to be empowered by the . To proceed Ruach HaQodesh

from the summit of pre-Messianic Judaism to Messianic Judaism, would be as radical a

change as it is for a pagan who becomes a prozelyte to Judaism.

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Chevlo Shel Mashiach

The pains suffered by the Messiah.

Chevrah Kadisha

A group of people entrusted with the of preparing a body for burial. mitzvah


Hebron. A town in the mountains of Yehudah, between Beer-sheva and 7 Yerushalayim,

about 30 km from each. The patriarchs Avraham, Yitzchaq and Ya’aqov and the

matriarchs Sarah, Rivkah and Leah are buried in the cave of Machpelah in Chevron. In

Judaism, Chevron is considered the second most holy city, after Yerushalayim.

King David ruled from Chevron for 7 years and from Yerushalayim for 33 years—a

total of 40 years. In later Jewish thought, Chevron is a synonym for the abode of the

dead, and was called “the bosom of Avraham.”


Style of Hebrew poetry and logical construction of an argument: A/B/C/B /A . An anti- ƒç ƒç

thetical parallelism constructed symmetrically about a central idea.

Chilul HaShem

Desecration of the Name of YHWH. According to an understanding of Sefer Yechezqel,

the excile of Am Yisra’el amounts to the desecration of the Name.


Renewed. Specifically the new moon, as the marker of a new monthly cycle. Note that

the moon is not a new moon, but a moon. Likewise, the “New Covenant” is a renewed

renewed not covenant, and an entirely new covenant that is discontinuous from the past.


Wisdom, specifically as a manifestation of the Ruach HaQodesh.

See Devar of Chokhmah.


Wise men; sages. Usually referring to respected, learned Pharisees.

The “magi” who came to bring presents to Yahushua at his birth were most probably

chokhhamim who came from the land of Babylon. (They were not kings, and there was

not three of them!) After the Babylonian captivity, the majority of Yahudim remained in

Babylon (“the land of the east”) and formed centres for study of the Scriptures. They

knew that the Scriptures teach that the Light of the World, the (Sun Shemesh Tzadekah

of Righteousness ), had to come into the world in the fourth day, i.e. —Malachi 4:2

before the year 4000, just as the sun was created on the fourth day to bring light to the

dark world (Genesis 1). The knew that He would be born in Beit Lechem chokhamim

(about 5 km from Yerushalayim) and also understood Numbers 24:17 messianically. In

the messianuc understanding of Numbers 24:17, it is the Messiah who is called a star

that will come out of Ya’aqov and a staff (sceptre of right-ruling) that will come forth

Afrikaans: Sewefontein.

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from Yisra’el. We find this messianic understanding in, e.g., Targum Onkelos. In

bringing Him presents, they fulfilled prophecy—cf. Tehillim 68:2972:10-1576:11;

Genesis 43:11. In these scriptures, Yosef and Sh’lomo foreshadows the Messiah. At the

level of the Psalm 72 speaks about Sh’lomo, the son of David. It is a prayer of p’shat,

thanksgiving to YHWH for a king who would be a saviour. But this Tehillah looks

beyond the immediate historical setting, and shows us King Messiah, our Saviour. The

splendour of the reign of Sh’lomo is a foreshadowing prophetic picture of His reign.

This Psalm says that will be brought to the king from far countries. This happened gifts

in His first coming, and will happen again in His second coming.


Not set-apart.

Chol haMo’ed

Ordinary part of the festival-days in the middle of or when work Chag haMatzah Sukkot

is allowed. The weekdays of the Festival.


Greek: Christos Anointed with oil. „M

A rough Greek equivalent of Mashiach (Messiah).

The modern usage of this term is often incorrect and even irritating, because it is used as

though it is a surname—”Jesus Christ.” Those who persist in using terms such as

“Jesus” and “Christ” should use terminology in as meaningful a way as possible. To

remind their audience what the term “Christ” really means, it is good practice to add the

explanation, “Jesus the anointed, empowered, commissioned One, sent forth by the

Father” after having said “Jesus Christ.”

It is not quite correct to speak about Yahushua as “our Messiah”—He is the anointed

One of YHWH. We can thank our Father in Heaven for sending to be His Messiah our

Go’el (kinsman-redeemer and blood-avenger).

Chuq chuqah „¡

Plural: Chuqim.

Decree, statute. A commandment of the that does not have a readily understood, Torah

logical, rational explanation. The sages saw the decrees concerning goat and the l’Azazel

parah adumah chukot. (red heifer) as Although baffling to the rational mind, the

Almighty does have a purpose with these decrees, and so Israel should faithfully observe

them. The slaying of goat on l’Azazel Yom Kippur is probable related to both the atoning

death of Messiah Yahushua and the casting of the False messiah into the Lake of Fire

(i.e. the Dead Sea, having erupted in flames) at the triumphant return of King Messiah.


The five books of Mosheh. Commonly called the Torah. The word is derived from the

Hebrew word for “five.”


A spread canopy under which the bride and groom stand during the wedding ceremony.

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The canopy represents the honeymoon chamber of the couple and symbolises the home

that is about to be established.


See Qahal.

The term “Church” is one of the most misused and misunderstood words in existence

today! Because our concepts are tied to our use of language, the misuse of language

breeds a conglomeration of quasi-concepts. I cringe at Dispensationalism’s misuse of

this term.

Church Fathers

The (Gentile) Christian scholars and leaders who preached and wrote between

approximately 135 to 450 YM. Besides the good things they did, they were also

responsible for the de-Judaising of Christianity, and the imposition of alien philosophical

schemes such as Neo-Platonism, on exegesis. With the wisdom of hindsight, we can say

that they were tragically ignorant of the communication principle of Hermeneutics,

which tells us that we should understand historical communication in the historicalconceptual

framework in which the communication took place originally.


Destruction, specifically of Yerushalayim end the Beit HaMiqdash.


Ceremony marking the completion of the religious school course of study, often held on



Ceremony marking the beginning of a child’s formal education in often held on Torah,

Simchat Torah.

Counting the Days

This is a period of time specified in Leviticus 23, falling between and Pesach Shavuot.

Covenantal Nomism

The Judaism of the time of Yahushua’s ministry in Israel is characterised by a unitary

“pattern of religion” namely covenantal nomism. The pattern or structure of covenantal

nomism is this: (1) YHWH has chosen Israel and (2) given the The Torah. Torah

implies both (3) YHWH’s promise to maintain the election and (4) the requirement to

obey. (5) YHWH rewards obedience and punishes transgression. (6) The provides Torah

for means of atonement, and atonement results in (7) maintenance or re-establishment of

the covenantal relationship. (8) All those who are maintained in the covenant by

obedience, atonement and YHWH’s mercy belong to the group which will be saved. An

important interpretation of the first and last points is that election and ultimately

salvation are considered to be by YHWH’s mercy rather than human achievement.

Passage after passage from Tannaitic literature, the Qumran documents, and intertestamental

literature may be cited to prove conclusively that the perception of late

Second Temple Period Judaism (or some branch thereof) as a religion of legalistic

Page 52

works-righteousness, wherein YHWH’s approbation must be earned by good works in a

system of strict justice, is completely wrong.

Jewish religion in the time period under discussion views the whole question of

obedience and disobedience on the basis of YHWH’s unfathomable mercy in choosing

Israel and of his merciful provision of means of restoration for sinners. In fact, this is

probably the constant perspective of Judaism in whatever period. Perhaps no one has

succeeded in conveying the centrality of this perspective in traditional Judaism more

eloquently than Solomon Schechter in A careful and Aspects of Rabbinic Theology.

unbiased reading of Jewish literature from any stratum, whether it be Old Testament,

Talmud, apocalyptic, wisdom literature, or modern Judaism, should be adequate to warn

against thinking of Judaism as a religion of strict justice in which YHWH’s lovingkindness

and mercy is obscured by the severity of the Law.


See: Kush.

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Inherited semi-pagan traditions, an excess of moralistic, sentimental, shallow preaching,

and the unscholarly “spirit of the age” have caused the level of of (knowledge da’at emet

of the truth) among large sections of believers to become dangerously low. “My people

perish because of a lack of Those who stand for nothing often fall for anything. da’at.”




To tread or frequent; usually to follow (for pursuit or search); by implication to seek or

ask; inquire; question, require, search, seek.


King Darius.

Day of the LORD

See Yom YHWH.


Literally: It would have been enough for us;” name of a pop ong. ular Pesach Seder s

Days of Awe

See: Yamim Nora’im.


See: Tamei.

Ritual impurity.


Hebrew words used in Scripture for demons:

„¿ (Leviticus 17:7). Literally: mighty ones, masters. Consistently translated Seirim

as demons in the Septuagint.

„¿ (Deuteronomy 32:17). Shedim

„¿ Lilith

„¿ Tsiim

„¿ Iim

Devar Davar „¡

The Word of YHWH. The sages taught that the should be thought of as Devar

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proceeding from the which dwelt where the gaze of the two met in Sh’khinah, keruvim

the expanse above the (seat of atonement) of the Ark of the Testimony in the kapporet

Qodesh haQodeshim. The Ark of the Testimony had the shape of Yechezq’el’s vision of

the throne , which was made of of YHWH This interpretation follows from a lapis lazuli.

midrashic linking of Numbers 7:89 and All of the teaches about Yechezq’el 10:1. Devar

the Messiah. The Messiah is the the who became flesh to make His Devar, Torah,

dwelling amongst us. and are closely related concepts Devar, Torah Ruach —speaking

of instruction, guidance, movement, life-giving person-in-action.

Devar of Chokhmah

Word of Wisdom. An unquestionably true answer to a seemingly impossibly difficult

ethical question. A manifestation of the Ruach HaQodesh.

Devar of Da’at

Word of Knowledge. Speaking forth a truth that is supernaturally revealed to you by the

Ruach HaQodesh Ruach HaQodesh . . A manifestation of the

Devar Torah

Literally: a word of follows the reading in a worship service, taking the Torah; Torah

form of a sermon, talk, explication, story, discussion, or program.


Deborah. Bee; congregation. See . Lappidoth


Jewish communities outside of Israel.


Judgement. To strive in judgement.


An approach to understanding Scripture that divides the Almighty’s dealings with

mankind into 8 distinct “dispensations .” Dispensationalism has served a purpose in 8

showing people the truth of the eschatological restoration of Israel and teaching us to

understand prophecy literally. However, classical dispensationalism stands in urgent

need of being brought into line with the results of a rigorous exegesis of Scripture and a

much more careful use of terminology. The teachings of the antinomian, no-law branch

of Dispensationalism is particularly deplorable.

John Nelson Darby was the founder of the Plymouth Brethren and creator of

Dispensationalism. He greatly popularised the Pre-Tribulation rapture of the Church.

During the 1820s to 1840s, Darby developed a new systematic theology called

“Dispensationalism.” Dispensationalist theology has since become very popular in many

branches of Christendom.

Like most 19th century theologians, John Darby was an antinomian he believed that —

the “Law of Moses” had passed away at the Cross. However, Darby was disturbed by

This use of the term is a misuse of language. dispensation

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specific problems created by this point of view. He noticed that during the seven years

of Daniel’s final week (Dani’el 9:24-27), the sacrifices and offerings are being made at

the Temple. Since the Law of Moses will clearly be kept during this seven year

tribulation, Darby concluded that the Law comes back into effect at the beginning of the

tribulation. This train of thought led Darby to segregate Scriptural and prophetic history

into compartmentalised ages, which he called He theorised an “Age of dispensations.

Law” that ended at the Cross and an “Age of Grace” or “Church Age” that began at the

Cross. Then, with the beginning of the seven-year tribulation, the “Age of the Law”

kicks back in and the or ends. This created a Church Age Dispensation of Grace

problem for Darby’s theory. How can the Age of Law return if the Church is still here?

Darby saw the Age of Law as an age in which YHWH dealt with Israel. He (correctly)

saw the tribulation as a return to YHWH’s dealing with Israel as a nation. So what

happens to the Church? Surely the Church will not exit from under the wings of Grace

and come under the Law of Moses, Darby theorised. As a result, he adopted the idea of

a PreTrib rapture of the Church. According to this view, the Church will leave the earth

right before the beginning of the 7-year tribulation, leaving Israel behind to enter the

tribulation and the return of the Age of the Law.

Darby now had another problem: If the Church is raptured leaving Israel behind, then

what about so-called “Jewish Christians?” Do they get raptured with the Church, or stay

behind with Israel. Darby had yet another solution: the Church/Israel dichotomy. This

theory taught that a Jew who becomes a believer in Messiah becomes part of the Church

and is no longer part of Israel. As a result no one can be both a part of the Church and

Israel. Jewish believers, according to this theory, stop being Jews and become part of the

Church, which, he taught, contained people who are not Jews or gentiles any more.

Thus the three pillars of Dispensationalism are:

1) The Law is not for today; it terminated at the Cross.

2) The PreTrib rapture of “the Church.”

3) The Church/Israel dichotomy. The Church was seen as a new entity, totally

discontinuous from Israel, which was created when Israel rejected the Messiah.

See the Glossary entry on page 165 for an analysis of Dispensationalism’s misuse Qahal

and misunderstanding of the term Church.

Messianic Jews do accept that is not for today; neither can they accept the not Torah

Church/Israel dichotomy page 165. Two of the three pillars which must be —see

present to support Dispensationalism are pillars of clay which are rejected by Messianic


This leads us to the important question: Is the pre-tribulation rapture an invention of

Dispensationalism, or does it have a Scriptural basis? See the Glossary entry, Rapture

on page 172 for a discussion.


Yahushua’s on Divorce is reported in 5:31-32; 19:3-9; Mark 10:2-9 halakhah Mattityahu

and Luke 16:18 and is based on the following commandment in the Torah:

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Devarim 24:1

When a man takes a wife and marries her, and it happens that she finds no

favour in his eyes because he has found some unclean matter in her, and he

writes her a bill of divorce, puts it in her hand, and sends her out of his house,…

Sha’ul’s on the matter of divorce is reported in Romans 7:2-3 and 1 Corinthians halakhah


Yahushua’s halakhah is a on Genesis 2:24 and Deuteronomy 24:1homiletic Midrash

Yahushua’s use of Genesis 1:27 to prove his position is paralleled in the Dead halakhic

Sea Scrolls : (Dam. Document Column 4, line 20 through Column 5, line 1)

…they are caught in two traps: fornication, by taking two wives in their lifetimes

although the principle of creation is: “male and female He created them.”

Even more significant is Yahushua’s interpretation of Deuteronomy 24:1. In the first

century a major debate was ongoing as to the meaning of the words for “unclean matter”

in this text. The debate is recorded in the as follows: Mishnah

Mishnah, Order Nashim, Tractate Gittin 9:10

The School of Shammai say, “A man should divorce his wife only because he

has found grounds for it in unchastity, since it is said, “Because he has found in

her an unclean matter in anything” (Devarim 24:1).

And the School of Hillel say, “Even if she spoiled his dish, since it is said,

‘Because he has found in her an unclean matter in anything'” (Devarim 24:1).

Rabbi Akiva says, “Even if he found someone else prettier than she, since it is

said, ‘And it shall be if she find no favour in his eyes’ (Devarim 24:1)”

The controversy surrounded the ambiguity of the phrase “matter of uncleanness.” This

phrase in Hebrew can be taken literally, or can be taken as an idiomatic expression for

fornication. Yahushua, who is usually a Hillelian teacher, here agrees with the strict

interpretation of the school of Shammai. The looser interpretation of Hillel prevailed in

later Rabbinic Judaism.

Let us examine Yahushua’s position closer. Yahushua uses Genesis 1:27 & 2:24 to argue

for the stricter interpretation of “unclean matter” in Deuteronomy 24:1. In

Mattityahu 19:8, Yahushua makes an important observation: Deuteronomy 24:1 is not

presented in the as being in the perfect will of YHWH. A careful reading of Torah

Deuteronomy 24:1-4 shows that 24:1 is an incidental statement in a larger Law which

deals with remarriage of the divorced. However 24:1 says:

When and it happens a man takes a wife… that she find no favour in his eyes…

Deuteronomy 24:1 simply says, “when [divorce] happens” and then discusses the issue

of the on remarriage. Yahushua points out that this is YHWH’s recognition of Torah

man’s will on the subject and not the Almighty’s will itself, which he finds in Genesis

1:27 & 2:24. All of this he uses to argue for the strictest interpretation of “unclean

matter” in Deuteronomy 24:1.

Now Yahushua draws two (rules on how to walk) from his reported in halakhot midrash

Mattityahu 19:9:

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„¿ Whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another,

commits adultery.

„¿ Whoever marries her who is divorced, commits adultery.

We should reach clarity on the Messiah’s position on divorce, because great damage has

been done by people who condemnd divorce a priori, and blindly instructs all married

couples to remain married, whatever the circumstances. Should a woman who worships

HaShem, e.g., remain married to a man who leads such an immoral life that he will

certainly pass AIDS to her?

We should always interpret the Messiah’s teachings in harmony with the Torah, and not

in contradistinction with the Hebrew Scriptures. To err in this regard, and understand the

Messiah’s words as abrogating the Torah, amounts to a form of Marcionism—a

destructive, ancient and pervasive heresy. Such a position clashes head-on with the

Messiah’s own words in 5:17ff where he states that the will never pass Mattityahu Torah

away until heaven and earth pass away. Yahushua does NOT teach that the Torah is

wrong in permitting divorce in Devarim 24. No, he is taking a strong, polemical position

against the teachers of his day, who taught the people that a husband may divorce his

wife for trivial reasons and then remarry without blinking an eye. He teaches that and

why divorce is outside the original and perfect plan of Almighty YHWH. It is permitted

in the Torah as a consent to human weakness and depravity. The Torah does not

condone divorce; it regulates it.

In the pastoral application of the Messiah’s halakhah, one should distinguish between the

principle and the pastoral response. In Yochanan 8, we read how the Messiah did not

condemn a woman caught in adultery. The Torah rules that the death sentence applies in

matters of marital unfaithfulness. Yet our Rabbi rules that he does not condemn her, and

that she should go forth and sin no more. The principial answer of the Torah to her sin is

that she should be stoned to death. The practical situation of the day was that the right to

pass the death sentence had been removed from Israel by the Roman rulers, and that a

Beit Din may not pass a death sentence any more. The pastoral response of the Messiah,

in the specific case at hand, was forgiveness and instruction not to sin any more.

Divre HaYamim

“The events of the days.” Hebrew name of the book Chronicles (Annals).


Literally: “my word.” Leviticus 24:10-23 paints a vivid -picture which Torah

prophetically foreshadows the blaspheming False messiah of the endtimes. His mother’s

name was , the daughter of the . The names and Shelomit Divri Danite Shelomit Divri

are very significant: means “peaceful,” while means “my word.” We Shelomit Divri

know that the False messiah will present himself as a herald of world (cf. the white peace

horse of Revelation 6), and that he will speak many great, pompous, blasphemous words

(cf. Dani’el 7). Historical Egypt is a picture of the revived Roman Empire of the endtimes.

Note that the blasphemer is the son of an Egyptian father and an Israelite woman

from the tribe of Dan. Dani’el 9:24-27 teaches that the Antichrist will be European, and

will rule the revived Roman Empire. Ancient Jewish sages taught that the evil world

Page 58

leader of the last days would be European and would initially rule from Rome. He was

expected to come from the tribe of Dan . —cf. Genesis 49:17


My beloved. The term by which the two loved ones addresses each other in Shir


Dor hemshekh

A next generation.

Page 59



By the second century, the faction of Jewish believers in Yahushua who came from the

School of Shammai, was called the Ebionites. In the course of time, they were rejected

by the increasingly gentilised Christianity.


The golden calf episode, which took place while Mosheh was receiving the on Torah

Har Sinai.


When Mosheh asked the Almighty His Name, He answered (Shemot 3:14), “Eh-yeh

asher Eh-yeh.” This indicates past, present and future dynamic, active existence, with

the emphasis very strongly on the future. The repetition indicates intensity, so that the

best rendering is not “I will be who I will be,” (which conveys arbitraryness) but rather

“I will be!” Often inaccurately translated as “I am” in Exodus 3:14.


Congregation; a gathering of any type; a body of people gathered around a witnessing

common purpose. Related to the word which means witness. See: eidut, qahal.


Witness; testimony; a sealed scroll handed to the kings of Yahudah and Israel at the

coronation ceremony. See 2 Kings 11:122 Chronicles 23:11 and Revelation 5. Based

on this, Revelation 4-5 may be interpreted as a vision of the of King Messiah coronation

in heaven.


‘Alas!’, written by Yirmeyahu; known today as the book of Lamentations.

Ein chadash tachat ha-shamesh

“There is nothing new under the sun.” Words spoken by King Shlomo in his old age—

he had seen everything, had studied everything, and had developed a sober cynicism.

El Elyon

El Most High.

El Erech Apa’im

A prayer mentioning the thirteen Attributes of the Almighty.

El Malei Rachamim

Literally: El, full of compassion; a prayer of remembrance.

Eloah Mahozim

The mighty one of fortified strongholds. Dani’el 11:21-12:13 intimates that the False

Page 60

messiah of the latter days will be of the same spirit as Antiochus IV “Epiphanes.” The

events are reported with an almost direct transition between the reign of Antiochus IV

“Epiphanes” the endtime reign of the Antichrist, with Dani’el 11:35 serving as the

transition verse between historical time and the eschaton. Dani’el 11:38 states that this

evil figure will not honour the —the Mighty One whom his fathers Elohim of his avot

worshipped—but will honour Eloah Mahozim. The Coming of King Messiah, In we

have linked this name with the religious system which developed from the apostasy in

ancient Babylon, a few generations after the Flood during the days of Noach. We saw

that there is a chilling link between the nature of that ancient pagan religious system, and

the apostate Rome-based paganised Christianity of today. Putting it all together, one

comes to the conclusion that the Antichrist will be a European Jewish man from the tribe

of Dan, an apostate and traitor of his people, who will arise from within paganised

Christianity, with the full backing of the leader the — False prophet of Revelation

13—of that idolatrous religious system.


Mighty one before whom one trembles in awe. Used of YHWH the Father, and also of

the Son, as a plural of intensity and majesty. Used of idols and judges as a normal plural

noun. Elohim is not the personal name of the Almighty, but a term. relational

Expressive of the majesty and attribute of strict justice of the Creator. In Tehillim 45:7,

the relationship between the prophetic poet and the Messiah is that the Messiah is the

Elohim of the human poet, while YHWH the Father is the Elohim of His anointed Son.

Throughout Scripture, the Messiah is, in His presence, YHWH Elohim manifest; yet in

His service, He is the servant of YHWH His Elohim, calling the Father “my Elohim” and

“the only true Elohim.”

El Shaddai

The All-Sufficient, All-bountiful One. Until the time of Mosheh, the Almighty made

Himself known to the patriarchs in the character expressed by the name El Shaddai.

Ever since Mosheh, He has also revealed Himself in the character expressed by the name

YHWH—everlasting, escalating, manifest existence expressed in loyal covenantal love.


Faith; the reinforcing triangular interaction between (1) knowledge of the truth (da’at)

(emet), emunah (2) trust in this revealed truth, and (3) obedience. The term is very rich

and also contains the concepts of love toward the Almighty, steadfastness, uprightness

and faithfulness. We are saved by the loyal love of the Father and the faithfulness of

Yahushua the Messiah. We accept this grace when we heed the call of the of the Ruach

Almighty and put our trust in the fundamental truth of Scripture: vicarious atonement

through the Messiah. Subsequently, we walk in Note that we are saved by emunah. not

our grace faithfulness faith, but by the of the Father and the of the Son—truths which

are sowed in our heart by the . Scripture teaches Ruach HaQodesh covenantal

nomism—YHWH draws us into the covenant by unmerited grace. Once saved, we have

covenantal obligations, to which we should be faithful with our entire being, not by

external ritual alone.

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When many Gentiles accepted the Messiah, there was a problem with communicating

Scriptural truth to them in their language—languages which were not the original

vehicle for the and which contained concepts which hindered the correct Devar,

communication of the The Greek word is somewhat poorer than the Devar. pistes

Hebraic concept of So the Almighty chose and sent —Messianic emunah. chokhamim

Jewish sages—to the Gentiles, to communicate the fulness of the to them in their Devar

own language, to fill out the (fulness) of the Hebraic concepts in the Greek pleroma

language. We have the essence of the inspired teachings of these in the chokhamim

epistles of the Sh’liachim.

Emunah is a glowing fire in the heart, not an intellectual confession of doctrine; it is

caught, not taught; it is a work of the Ruach HaQodesh.

Enthronement festival

Scholar Sigmund Mowinckel identified Rosh HaShanah as the enthronement festival

major and is the enthronement festival minor—refer to the articles Sukkot Day of the

Lord Sukkot Encyclopedia Judaica. and in The major enthronement psalms in Scripture

are Psalms 47, 93 and 96-99. Also study 2 Samuel 6-7, Psalm 132 and 1 Kings 8.


Literally: “fruitfulness.”

A tribe of Israel. The tribe of birthright. Yirmeyahu 31 as well as Hoshea contain rich

prophecies about Ephrayim.

Episkopos [G]

A superintendent, bishop, overseer.


A complete collection; a meeting (for worship). Assembling (gathering) together.


Land or world.

Eretz Yisrael

The Land Israel.

Erev Shabbat

Late Friday afternoon, just before Shabbat begins. Eschatologically, we are living in

Erev Shabbat, Olam Hazeh Yom YHWH. i.e. at the end of the and at the very threshold of


Dusk. The day before, the eve of.


A betrothed virgin.


The betrothal ceremony. The bridegroom paid a price—the —for the bride. The mohar

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bride accepted the bridegroom’s betrothal offer by drinking a cup of wine. In ancient

times, the formal betrothal ceremony, constituting the first phase of marriage.

Yahushua the Messiah laid down his own life for us to buy us as His bride, because our

sinfulness is incompatible with the qadosh-ness of the Almighty; without the Messiah

our righteousness is as filthy rags and we remain under the penalty of death. His mohar

(bride-price) was his own life; the currency was his own blood, his broken body. This is

the gate through which the righteous shall enter; there is no other gate (cf. Tehillim 118).

The cup of wine that we drink, and the bread that we eat during the meal dedicated to

YHWH, is a symbol, remembrance and seal of our covenant status as a (zekher)

betrothed bride who awaits the coming of our Bridegroom to take us to His Father’s



Technical term for rabbinical provision permitting the alleviation of certain restrictions.

Esheth ish

A married woman.


Servant. In the four prophetic songs about the in , the Eved of YHWH Yeshayahu 42-53

Messiah is announced to be the (student) of YHWH, the rejected and tortured Talmid

One who will be resurrected from the dead. By His vicarious death, healing and

salvation came to us. He is Yisra’el personified. Whereas the nation Yisra’el failed as

the elect covenant partner of YHWH, the Eved of YHWH is the empowered who One

will not fail, will become the representative Head of the redeemed, in whom the

represented many receive salvation.


Citron fruit; with the lulav, it is the symbol of Citron fruit taken as one of the Sukkot.

four species on the Feast of Tabernacles. Based on a coded message in a specific Psalm,

the sages taught that Adam and Chawwah trespassed in by eating an Gan Eden etrog.

Eytz Chayim

Tree of life.

YHWH wants to restore to mankind, but only to those who will do Chayim Olam

teshuvah (return to Him). Because He knew that the nature of mankind would be evil

after eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, YHWH prevented us

from eating of (the tree of life) by driving us out of Gan Eden. Eating of Eytz Chayim

that tree would have locked us up in a state of sinfulness.

Eusebes [G]

Well-revered, i.e. pious and devout.

Even Shetiyah

The Foundation Stone in the Miqdash.

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Ezra, ibn

Abraham ibn Ezra (1092-1164), poet, mathematician, astronomer, grammarian, and

Bible commentator, emerged as a philosopher through his major work, Sefer Yesod Mora

Ve-Sod HaTorah Torah), (Treatise on the Foundation of Awe and the Secret of the in

which he explains the commandments found in Scripture. is also one Sefer Yesod Mora

of the first philosophical treatises to be written in Hebrew.

Rabbi ibn Ezra opens the with an evaluation of the various branches of Yesod Mora

knowledge, noting that man’s rational soul separates human beings from the rest of the

animal kingdom. He then analyses the role of traditional learning in the development of

the soul. Ibn Ezra addresses the importance of the knowledge of grammar, stating that

one cannot fully understand the text of the without it. He also discusses the study Torah

of Scripture and the Talmud, arguing that one cannot properly comprehend the Talmud if

one does not know the sciences, for there are many passages in the and the Torah

Talmud that are either incomprehensible or given to misinterpretation by one who has no

prior knowledge of the sciences.

Rabbi Ibn Ezra believed that there is a reason for all the commandments of the Torah

and that all possess a coherent structure. He maintains that an individual is mitzvot

obligated to observe all the commandments, even if he does not understand their purpose

or function. He also explains that the are divided into positive and negative mitzvot

commandments, noting that the commandments are observed through belief, speech, and


Sefer Yesod Mora greatly influenced Maimonides and many of the concepts found in his

Guide for the Perplexed, Yesod Mora and traces of the can even be found in Rabbi

Shneur Zalman of Liadi’s Tanya.

Ezrat Nashim

The Hall of the Women in the compound; the outer Courtyard. Beit haMiqdash

Ezrath Yisra’el

The Hall of Israel in the Temple compound.

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Why do Israelites fast on ? Va’Yikrah (Leviticus) 23 and Ba’Midbar Yom Kippur

(Numbers) 29 both make it clear that Israelites are to “afflict” or “deny” their beings

(nefesh) on This has been interpreted to mean, amongst other things, Yom HaKippurim.

abstaining from food, bathing, sexual contact and other kinds of pleasurable activity—

Yom Kippur is a day of solemn assembly.

But how does fasting in particular accomplish afflicting your being? Fasting in the

Torah is done on certain occasions only, and permitted by the Rabbis for short periods

only, usually not for more than 25 hours for various events like the anniversary of the

death of someone, a communal catastrophe, when or books are dropped, Tefillin Torah

and on feast days like and minor fast days like and Yom Kippur Purim Katan, Tisha b’Av

two or three others.

Denying yourself food, from a Jewish point of view, is a mechanism of remembrance

which reminds us that YHWH alone is sovereign over all, and only He is to be served

and worshipped, instead of our own needs. It also instructs us that all things come from

the Set-Apart One of Israel, blessed be He, and not from our own efforts Devarim (see

8), as our pride would tend to dictate.

Fasting can be thought of as sending a message to YHWH that we recognise His Kingship

and provision. Fasting was never meant to be a method through which we coerce9

the Almighty into doing what want, or invoke His presence, or to get Him to listen to we

us; He hears us anyway, whether we fast or not. Those who practice fasting to achieve

these things are really practising a form of shamanism. Fasting in the in fact, is Tanakh,

not YHWH or even YHWH. It is about and our relationship YHWH. for about us, to

Scriptural fasting never has as its goal (as in paganism) to reach the heavenly powers and

please them by denying the physical needs of the body. It is not a mechanism of guiltremoval

to cleanse the conscience, nor is this concept found in Except for Torah.

personal grief or sorrow, Scriptural fasting is almost always communal, not individual

the faithful fast as a body.

Thus we afflict our beings, by going against the grain of our natural thoughts and

perceptions. Fasting is in essence a to help us get back on track, that the reality check

prayer of Psalmist might come to pass…

Tehillim 51:10

Lev tahor barah li Elohim, v’ruach nachon chadesh ba-kirbi.

Create in me a pure heart, O Elohim, and renew a correct spirit within me.

Yeshayahu 58 deals with fasting; unfortunately this passage is almost universally misunderstood

and misapplied within contemporary Christianity; it deals with communal

fasting on and is, in fact, the Scripture reading for Yom Kippur Haftarah Yom Kippur.

Afrikaans: Sy arm draai.

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Yeshayahu 58 teaches us to look at ourselves and measure us against the moral standards

of the Word, and then to repent and become doers of the word, specifically in being

generous and kind to poor brothers and sisters in the community.


An inferior person. One of low moral and intellectual stature, of inferior pedigree.

Opposite: Lion.

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Circle; wheel; heaven. Names like Galil and Gilgal contain this grammatical root.


The Galilee.


The Diaspora, exile or dispersion of Israel. The condition of Israel in the Dispersion.

Gan Eden

Literally: Garden of delight. The Garden of Eden. Paradise.


Plural: Ge’onim.

Excellency. Reverential title of heads of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita in

Babylonia, which flourished between the sixth and eleventh centuries, the Gaonic period.

The head of a learning centre in Babylonia in the post-Talmudic era. Torah


The office of Gaon.

Gaonic period

Period between the sixth and eleventh centuries, when Talmudic academies flourished in

Babylonia, and were led by the Ge’onim.


A collection of legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis of the third to the fifth

centuries, edited about 500 YM. Together with the Mishnah, it forms the Talmud. The

Hebrew word Gemarah means “completion.” It is the second and longer of the two

pieces of literature which comprise the Talmud. The Gemarah completed the Mishnah

by functioning as its commentary.

The word “talmud” means “studies”. The Talmud is essentially edited minutes of

meetings between sages who discussed the written the oral the Prophets, Torah, Torah,

the service, the Writings as well as (Jewish religious law). Beit haMiqdash halakhah

The Mishnah is the shorter, earlier part of the Talmud. It is quite cryptic and needed

explanation and elaboration. Accordingly, the Gemara was required to complement the

Mishnah. Although many things in the Talmud are untrue, it also contains very valuable



The calculation of the numerical values of Hebrew letters and words to find deep

meanings. Finding meanings in the numerical value of Hebrew letters and words.

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A depository for sacred books. The best-known was discovered in the synagogue of

Fostat in old Cairo.


Also: Geir. plural: geirim; feminine: geirah; connective plural: geirei-.

Resident-alien. As noted in the Encyclopedia Judaica, Acts 15 contains one of the

earliest extant references to laws applying to non-Jews:

This latter list [Acts 15:20] is the only one that bears any systematic relationship

to the set of religious laws which the Pentateuch makes obligatory upon resident


These resident aliens are the geirim. What some rabbis today are calling “B’nai Noah”

was first formally defined and stated by the Netzarim in Yerushalayim, under Beit Din

the first Paqid, Ya’aqov “ha-Tzadiq” Ben-David.

The quickest and easiest way to understand the concept ger is to relate the ger to the

modern definition of “Bnai Noah.” The ger differs in two ways:

Semantic: the name. Both and Talmud refer unambiguously to Benei Noach as all Torah

non-Jews, not just those who observe the Noachide Laws. As the widely acknowledged

expert in Hellenism, Louis H. Feldman, makes clear in his article in the Biblical

Archaeology Review (86.09-10, p. 58ff), in both Biblical and Talmudic times, these non-

Jews were unconverted proselytes to Judaism, called geirim.

Threshold condition versus end-goal. The earliest formal statement of the Noachide

Laws, stated explicitly in the same decision that these were a threshhold or Beit Din

minimum requirement for non-Jewish geirim, not an acceptable permanent goal for B’nai

Noach, because, then these non-Jews, otherwise not permitted to mingle with Jews

during that period, were permitted to attend synagogue, where they could learn the rest

of from those who recite the of Mosheh every Shabbat, in every city, from Torah Torah

ancient generations, the of Mosheh being recited every Shabbat in the Torah

synagogues. What some rabbis hail as the end-goal for “B’nai Noah” was considered the

minimum threshhold or entrance requirement for geirim interrelating with the Jewish

community in the 1st centuries BM and YM.

While the modern understanding of ger is “a convert to Judaism,” the Biblical definition

was slightly different. See the 1986-09-10 magazine Biblical Archaeology Review

(BAR) article by Louis H. Feldman. BAR states: “There is simply no one in the world

who has a better grasp of Hellenistic Jewish literature than Louis Feldman” p. (loc. cit.,

45). Feldman’s article on “God-fearers” (loc. cit., pp. 58-69) is a MUST read. Non-Jews

never came to Judaism already -observant and satisfying all of the requirements for Torah

being converted. When non-Jews became interested in learning about Judaism they

required a special status to distinguish them above the Upon coming Bnei Noach.

before, and being recognised by, the as 1) keeping the Noachide laws and Beit Din

2) committed to learning and practising the rest of -observance, these postulants to Torah

Judaism were granted the status of (feminine: These geir Toshav geirah toshevet).

remain unchanged the two requirements for being recognised by the Netzarim — — Beit

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Din geir Toshav Netzarim. geir Toshav as a Becoming a enables a non-Jew to be

counted within Israel; it is not the same as converting.

In Ancient Israel, most geirim converted, which is why geir eventually blurred with

“convert.” However, when the geir converts, Orthodox then recognises him or halakhah

her as a Jew(ess). The Jew(ess) whom Orthodox prohibits from even being — halakhah

reminded of their non-Jewish past is then no longer a geir(ah). There were also many —

geirim who, either because they feared circumcision or were married to a non-Jew who

did not want to convert, never converted. Upon becoming conversant and responsible to

the entirety of like a Jew, the who didn’t convert was then instead Torah geir Toshav

recognised as a (who was still not a Jew). Thus, it is inaccurate to confuse geir tzeddiq

the geir with the (converted) Jew. A is a non-Jew who has come before a geir Toshav

Beit Din and been recognised as a non-Jew, with probationary status in the Jewish

community, committed to learning, and keeping as they are in the process of learning,

Torah halakhah and .

Ger Sheker

Proselyte who declares full conversion for ulterior motives.

Ger Toshav

Literally: sojourner or stranger who dwells at the gate (Afrikaans: “die vreemdeling in

jou poorte”). A temporary resident in A Gentile living in Eretz Yisra’el who worships

the One Elohim of Yisra’el and obeys the Noachide laws as his covenant obligation, but

does not receive circumcision and does not as yet observe the entire Such a Torah.

person received courtesies and privileges. The teaches that such a person had to Torah

be treated well by the Israelites.

In Acts 15, the Nazarene Beit Din met in Yerushalayim and ruled that a non-Jew may

enter the Body of Messiah as a In other words, immediate conversion to Ger Toshav.

Judaism is not an entrance requirement for Messianic Gentiles. This loosing halakhic

still applies today, i.e. no-one may force a Gentile believer in Messiah to become „̓p

Jewish in order to be saved. Likewise, no-one may tell a Jewish believer in Messiah „̓q

to break away from In Torah, i.e. to be unfaithful to his or her covenantal obligations.

the first century, point was widely misunderstood. Today, point is sadly „Í „Í ƒp ƒq

misunderstood, both within Christianity and non-Messianic Judaism.

Ger Tzadek

Literally: a righteous sojourner or stranger. A full convert of true conviction, in all

respects to be treated like an ethnic Israelite. A Gentile who accepts the entire yoke of

the Torah as his covenant obligation and is circumcised.

Note: the yoke of the is considerably lighter for a female than for a male Torah Ger


The Torah given through Mosheh deals with Israel’s unique covenantal obligations, and

contains (commandments) on how to treat Gentiles travelling through and mitzvot

residing in Eretz Yisra’el. It does state how Gentiles staying outside Eretz Yisra’el not

should behave. Why not? Is it an oversight? Certainly not! The covenant with Noach

applies to such Gentiles, i.e. all non-Israelites dwelling outside the borders of Eretz

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Yisra’el. Before Messiah, only a received the fulness of the benefits of the Ger Tzadiq

covenants with Israel. Since Messiah, Gentile believers enter into the fulness of the

benefits of the (New Covenant), not by converting to Judaism, but by B’rit Chadashah

the (faithfulness) of Yahushua the Messiah. After having entered into the emunah

covenant by grace, the Gentile believer keeps the Noachide (commandments) as mitzvot

the entrance requirement for fellowship, and should then start out on the path of learning

and practicing more and more of the . In the view of many Messianic Jewish Torah

ruling councils, then, the covenantal obligations of a Gentile worshiper of the Almighty

are considerably less that that of a Messianic Jewish believer. Israel had and has a

unique commissioning: they are the chosen people—chosen to perform a task.


The process of conversion to Judaism.


A Jewish bill of divorce, given by a man to an unwanted wife.

In the days of King David, it was customary for soldiers to provide their wives with a

Get Get before they went to battle. Should the husband become “missing in action” the

would spare the wife the agony of having to remain an unmarried widow for the rest of

her life.

The rabbis teach that Uriyah gave Bat-Sheva a before he went to war, so get

that—technically—Bat-Sheva was a divorced woman when King David seduced her.

This fact does not distract from the seriousness of King David’s sin, for which he was

punished but forgiven.

Gevurot Geshamim

“The power of rain,” a praise to YHWH for the revelation of His powers in nature.


Laws or traditions added by the Pharisees as around the written of the fences mitzvot

Torah in an attempt to prevent it from being broken.



Ge’ulah shelemah

The complete redemption, in the acharit-yamim, to be established by Almighty YHWH

by the hand of His Messiah. The eschatological messianic redemption.


A strong one, i.e. a male or a warrior.



Gey Hinnom

Valley of (the son(s) of) Hinnom. Simplistically translated as “hell.” A valley to the

Page 70

South, Southwest and West of Yerushalayim where the social outcasts and those with

unclean diseases dwelt amidst rubbish, sewerage, worms and smoke from ever-present

fires, cut off from the life of Yisra’el and tye avodah of the . Beit haMiqdash A place of

punishment in the age to come.


A river. Literally: to gush.


(Greek New Testament Text)

It is a fact of life that there are many manuscripts of the New Testament, ranging from

minute portions, dated as early as 45 to 55 YM, right through to whole copies of the New

Testament dating as early as the middle 300’s YM, and many more that are later than

that, right up to around 1000 YM.

No one claims to have any portion of the original documents themselves, and so

everything of antiquity available to us are copies (of copies etc.). This all took place

before the printing press.

The copyists of the New Testament text were generally reasonably accurate in their

work, but not nearly as accurate as the Jewish copyists of the Hebrew Scriptures. There

were mistakes made, but not usually significant.

Most people do not bother to count copies of the New Testament that are younger than

1000 YM as significant in determination of the most accurate text.

On such a basis there are around 28,000 manuscripts or parts of, that are considered as

old enough to have any bearing on what would determine an accurate representation of

the original Greek text.

Such a large number of manuscripts provide a sufficient enough amount of data to

compare each, and in doing so generally iron out any mistakes made by copyists.

Although it does seem to some extent logical that the older the manuscript it is less likely

to be influenced by scribal error.

Although, such a conclusion is challenged by some of the most eminent of commentators

on this matter.

Most early translations into English, the first of which took place around the end of the

1300’s YM were made from a very early Latin translation, made by Jerome, called the


However, there arose a very strong desire to present an accurate edition of the Greek text

of the New Testament. Names like Stephen (1550 YM) and Elzevir (1624 YM) represent

serious attempts to present working editions of the Greek text.

The methods they used were simply to sift through whatever was available and make a

decision about what each manuscript available to them said, and include what looked

like a general consensus of accuracy into their text.

They were guided to some extent by what had been considered traditionally by the

church, and its theologians, as an accurate representation of the original text. That is,

Page 71

what which had been received by the church through the ages. Thus the general

description of the resultant text has become to be known as the “Received Text”

(sometimes known by its Latin title Textus Receptus). This forms the basis of the —

work of the above editors, and many others of the time.

By the time of the translation of the 1611 King James Version of the Bible, the edition

known as the Received Text was generally accepted as the most accurate representation

of the Greek New Testament. That was used by the translation committee of that version.

In the late 1800’s a significant ancient Greek manuscript became available: this became

to be known as and currently resides in the British Museum in Codex Sinaiaticus,

London. Its significance in the discussion as to the accuracy of the 15th and 16th

Century editions of the Greek New Testament, can be seen in that it is the oldest

complete copy of the New Testament and dates to around 340 YM. At last, it was

believed, a very ancient manuscript that could confirm or validate the work of the

Erasmus, Stephens and Elzevir.

There arose a consensus of opinion in this area of discussion that the most ancient

manuscripts were the most accurate. This had not been the opinion of the 15th and 16th

Century editors, who had followed rather a loose majority text opinion. This more

modern idea, that the oldest manuscripts were the most accurate, began to be widely

adopted by editors, and forms the basis of the principles of Westcott and Hort. Largely

speaking that position has prevailed in the region of textural criticism since the latter half

of the 19th Century, and is still held by many today.

The text that we refer to as the Westcott and Hort text, although it is known by some

other descriptions, is largely based upon the Codex Sinaiaticus, and highlights some

significant differences with that presented in the Received Text.

However, the theory that antiquity carries authenticity has some serious flaws. The

reason why it was adopted, was simply because, it was assumed that people do not take

things out of a text, they more likely add things to it. The older the manuscript the less

likely to be the errors. Yet this is simply not true. You can just as easily remove things in

error as well as you may add things in error.

One reason why there are not so many really old documents is that they get damaged and

deteriorate in use. To find a very ancient complete manuscript of the Apostolic Writings

actually implies that it had not been used, which carries and inherent suggestion of


Another difficulty with the school of thought that surrounded the editions following the

principles of Westcott and Hort, was simply that it was all too eclectic, and subject to the

opinions of the editors. Evangelicals have looked for a less subjective approach to the


A number of evangelical scholars have pointed out the glaring problems of too closely

following the Westcott and Hort type text, for there are occasions where a variant text is

chosen which just does not accord with context.

For example, in Luke 4:44: the Westcott and Hort text says that Yahushua continued to

preach in the synagogues of Judea, when the passage immediately previous to it makes it

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very clear that he was nowhere near Judea, being continually located in Galilee at the

time. This is echoed by the NIV and NASB translations which both, quite slavishly,

follow the Westcott and Hort type text, and is so obviously wrong that it is surprising

that the translators could stick to the text, yet they do acknowledge this in their footnotes.

However, the (NKJV), which follows a Majority Text position New King James Version

gets it right and translates the text to read that he continued preaching in the synagogues

of Galilee, which admirably fits the context.

Another example is found in John 1:28, where the NIV reflecting its Westcott and Hort

background claims that John was baptising at Bethany which is the other side (meaning

the eastern side) of the Jordan, which of course is simply incorrect, for Bethany is just a

mile or two to the south east of Yerushalayim and nowhere near the Jordan, let alone the

other side of it. The NKJV version, following the majority text, more accurately points

out that John was baptising at Bethabara, which is on the eastern side of the river Jordan.

Why we ask do the advocates of the Westcott and Hort principles stick to such obvious

errors of presentation, if it is not to give the reader the general impression that errors

reside in the New Testament text?

Do they not realise that the original writers and their readers were so highly unlikely to

have settled for such obvious errors, that as such they are clearly do not come from the

original text.

This and many other observations have caused evangelical scholars from all schools of

thought to contend that the principles of Westcott and Hort are so seriously flawed that

the editions of Greek that are espoused by them are just not trustworthy.

Even the most recent editions of the NIV have been forced to acknowledge this, and

while not completely eradicating the slavish attitudes of the early translation committee,

they have been forced to reinstate into the text some passages, missing in the Westcott

and Hort text, that were originally found only in footnotes.

Recently, significant numbers of scholars have abandoned that principles outlined in the

work of Westcott and Hort and have simply turned to a majority text position. That is

where it is theorised that the burden of accuracy rests with the rendering that has the

support of the largest number of manuscripts. This of course recognises the values of

many manuscripts that were not available to the editors of the Greek Text at the time of

the editors of the so called “Received Text.”

Surprisingly enough, the product of the modern Majority Text position is very much like

the Received Text, and we are beginning to understand that the GNT manuscript

compilers of the 15th and 16th Century were not so far from the truth.

„M „M „M „M „M „M „M

Some claim that the was first written in Hebrew and that we only have New Testament

Greek translations of the Hebrew original.

Hebrew documents that recorded events in the life of Yahushua existed very early. Each

of the gospel writers Mattityahu, Mark, Luke and Yochanan have drawn on these —

Hebrew and Aramaic documents in preparing their gospels.

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The following Semitic manuscripts of are not simply translations, New Testament books

but are descendants of the original Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts of the Apostolic

Writings of which the Greek is a translation:

„¿ — DuTillet A Hebrew manuscript of Mattityahu which was confiscated from Jews

in 1553 and placed at the Bibliotque Naztionale in Paris as Hebrew MS 132.

„¿ — Shem Tob Shem Tob A Hebrew version of Mattityahu which transcribed in its

entirety into his polemic work in 1380. Evan Bohan

„¿ — Munster DuTillet Shem A Hebrew version of Mattityahu closely related to and

Tob which Munster published in printed form in the 16th century from a

manuscript (now lost) which he obtained from Jews.

„¿ — Old Syriac A Syriac (Aramaic) version of the four Gospels which exists in two

manuscripts which date to the fourth century.

„¿ — Peshitta NT A Syriac (Aramaic) version of most of the Apostolic Writings

(only 2 Peter; 2 & 3rd John; Jude and Revelation are missing) which exists in

about 350 ancient manuscripts which date as early as the fourth century. This was

the Aramaic version which came to be used by the Messianic Assemblies of the

East (Nestorians/Assyrians) as well as the Syrian Jacobites and the Chaldean

Roman Catholics.

„¿ — Crawford Manuscript An Aramaic Manuscript of Revelation.

„¿ Also some Greek manuscripts of Mattityahu have notes referring to variant

readings from the (Jewish version). Judaikon

Professor Shmuel Safrai has remarked that just as one should not expect to find firstcentury

copies of Pharisaic writings, one should not expect to find fragments of a

Hebrew biography of Yahushua. Prof. Safrai’s assumption that no Hebrew Life of

Yahushua will turn up results from his knowledge that in this period the disciples of a

Pharisaic sage was not permitted to transmit in writing the words of his master. A sage’s

teaching was considered Oral and as such its transmission writing was strongly Torah

prohibited. If, as seems likely, Yahushua’s first disciples viewed his words as part of that

growing corpus of scriptural interpretation know as Oral then they, too would not Torah,

have dared preserve his teaching in writing, but would have transmitted it orally.

Pursuing this line of reasoning, one can suggest that the first written collection of

Yahushua’s words and deeds was a Greek work.

Dr David Bivin of the Jerusalem School of Synoptic Studies suggests that early listeners

to the Apostle’s preaching may have made notes and that these formed some of the

collections of writing that were used by the gospel writers themselves. Dr Bivin says,

“Perhaps the listeners took notes in Hebrew and later translated them to Greek, or simply

translated what he heard directly into Greek.”

What we can say is that the conversations recorded in the gospel accounts, were

conducted in Hebrew, and the Greek text of the B’rit Chadashah shows much evidence of

these Hebraic origins. These were Hebrews, writing about events that are very Jewish,

where the original conversations took place largely in Hebrew. But note carefully that

Page 74

this is not equivalent to saying that the was originally written in Hebrew B’rit Chadashah

and then translated into Greek.


Kinsman-redeemer. A close relative who pays the price required to restore a person or

persons who have lost their property and/or freedom, to their original state of landownership

and freedom, from which they had fallen into poverty and slavery. Yahushua,

the Second Adam, is our Go’el. He had to come as a Man to accomplish the work of

redemption, to restore the believing remnant of mankind to the fulness of the Malkut

Shamayim (Kingdom of Heaven) and the earth to its former state.

The article from the 1903 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia states: GO’EL

Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the

clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to

be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man which lapsed

through his inability to perform the duties attached to such rights, could be and

should be resumed by the next of kin. This applied especially to parcels of land

which any Israelite found it necessary to sell. This his , or kinsman, had to go’el

redeem (Leviticus 25:25). From the leading case of Yirmeyahu’s purchase of his

cousin Hananeel’s property in Anathoth (Yirmeyahu 32:8-12) it would appear

that in later Israel at any rate this injunction was taken to mean that a kinsman

had the right of pre-emption. Similarly, in the Book of Ruth the next of kin was

called up to purchase a parcel of land formerly belonging to Elimelech (Ruth

4:3). It would appear from the same example that another duty of the was go’el

to raise offspring for his kinsman if he happened to die without any (Ruth 4:5).

This would seem to be an extension of the principle of levirate marriage; hence

the procedure of was gone through in the case of Na’omi’s , just as halizah go’el

if he had been her brother-in-law. The relative nearness of kin is not very

definitely determined in the Old Testament. The brother appears to be the

nearest of all, after whom comes the uncle or uncle’s son (Leviticus 25:49).

Another duty of the was to redeem his kinsman from slavery if sold to a go’el

stranger or sojourner (Leviticus 25:47-55). In both cases much depended upon

the nearness or remoteness of the year of jubilee, which would automatically

release either the land or the person of the kinsman from subjection to another.

As the had his duties, so he had his privileges and compensation. If an go’el

injured man had claim to damages and died before they were paid to him, his

go’el would have the right to them (Leviticus 6:1-7). The whole conception of the

go’el was based on the solidarity of the interests of the tribe and the nation with

those of the national Elohim, and accordingly the notion of the became go’el

spiritualised as applied to the relations between Elohim and Israel. Elohim was

regarded as the of Israel, and as having redeemed him for the bondage of go’el

Egypt (Exodus 6:615:13). This conception is especially emphasised in

Yeshayahu 40-66.

However, the chief of the duties toward his kinsman was that of go’el avenging

him if he should happen to be slain by someone outside the clan or tribe.

Indeed, it is the only expedient method by which any check could be put upon

the tendency to do injury to strangers. Here again to the family of the murderer,

and the death of one member of a family would generally result in a vendetta. It

would appear that this custom was usual in early Israel, for the crimes of a man

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were visited upon his family (Yehoshua 7:24; II Kings 9:26); but at a very early

stage the Jewish code made an advance upon most Semitic codes, including

that of Hammurabi, by distinguishing between homicide and murder (Exodus 21:

13-14). It was in order to determine whether a case of manslaughter was

accidental or deliberate that the cities of refuge were instituted (Deuteronomy 19;

Numbers 35). In a case where the elders of the city of refuge were satisfied that

the homicide was intentional, the murderer was handed over to the bloodavenger

( ) to take vengeance on him. Even if it was decided that “go’el ha-dam”

it was a case of unintentional homicide, the man who committed the deed had to

keep within the bounds of the city of refuge till the death of the high priest, as the

go’el could kill the one who committed the homicide with impunity, if he found

him trespassing beyond the bounds (Numbers 35:26-27).

In the legislations [of other nations] the principle of commuting the penalty by

paying an amount of money as a fine, grew… [the amount of money that had to

be paid] varied according to the rank of the person. Such a method [of paying a

fine] was distinctly prohibited in the Israelite code (Numbers 35:31). It would

appear that the custom of the still existed in the time of David, as blood-avenger

the woman of Tekoah refers to it in her appeal to the king (II Samuel 14:11)…

In His second coming, we see Yahushua the Messiah coming as the the Go’el ha-dam,

blood-avenger, coming to save the faithful remnant and take vengeance on His enemies:

Yeshayahu 26:20-27:1:

20Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you; hide

yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by.

21See, YHWH is coming out of his dwelling to punish the people of the earth for

their sins. ; she will conceal The earth will disclose the blood shed upon her

her slain no longer.

27:1In that day , YHWH will with his sword, his fierce, great and powerful 10 punish

sword, Liv’yatan the gliding serpent, Liv’yatan the coiling serpent; He will slay the

tannin of the sea.

Yeshayahu 63:1-6:

1Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah, with his garments stained

crimson? Who is this, robed in splendour, striding forward in the greatness of

his strength? “It is I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save.”

2Why are your garments , like those of one treading the winepress? red

3″I have trodden the winepress alone; from the nations no-one was with me. I

trampled them in my and trod them down in my ; their anger wrath blood

spattered my garments, and I stained all my clothing.

4For the day of was in my heart, and the year of my has vengeance redemption


5I looked, but there was no-one to help, I was appalled that no-one gave support;

so my own worked salvation for me, and my own sustained me. arm wrath 11

10 Some modern translations render this, misleadingly, as “on that day.” is a 1000 year day, Yom YHWH

and not a single 24-hour day.

11 A term for the Messiah.

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6I trampled the nations in my anger; in my wrath I made them drunk and

poured their blood on the ground.”

Go’el Yisra’el

The Redeemer of Israel. The One who pays the price to enable us to regain what we

have lost, and who will avenge the blood of the covenant people in the Day of the fierce

anger of YHWH, as the Go’el ha-dam, the blood-avenger. It is very important to note

that the concept of not only implies kindness and restoration, but also vengeance in go’el

the eschatological time of wrath.

One of the eighteen benedictions of the prayer. Amidah

Gog and Magog

The Jewish Encyclopaedia, (Singer, 1912, Volume VI: 19) states:

…the term [Magog] connotes the complex of barbarian peoples dwelling at the

extreme north and Northeast of the geographical survey covered by [Genesis

10]. Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, II.6 § 1) identifies them with the

“Scythians,” a name which among classical writers stands for a number of

unknown, ferocious tribes. According to Jerome, Magog was situated beyond

the Caucasus, north of the Caspian Sea. It is very likely that the name is of

Caucasian origin…In Ezekiel 38:2, “Magog” occurs as the name of a country

(with the definite article); in Ezekiel 39:6 as that of a northern people, the leader

of whom is Gog.

The Gematria of the Hebrew letters of the expression Gog-uMagog (“Gog and Magog”)

is 70. The sages interpreted this as the 70 nations of the world rising up against Yisra’el

and the Mashiach.

Golden Calf Worship

Christmas and Easter forms part of a “golden calf” system of worship. What is the

“golden calf” system of worship? It is paganism with the worship of the Elohim mixing

of Israel and calling this mixed worship the true worship of YHWH.

Exodus 32:4-6:

And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool and after

he had made it a and they said, these be thy Elohim O Israel, which molten calf:

brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And when Aaron saw it, he built an

altar before it and Aaron made proclamation and said: ‘Tomorrow is a FEAST

TO YHWH. And they rose up early on the morning and offered BURNT

OFFERINGS and brought PEACE OFFERINGS and the people sat down to eat

and to drink and rose up to play

YHWH commanded Israel to serve Him with offerings and feasts; however, backslidden

Israel expressed that worship in an idolatrous fashion with a golden calf. —

Jeroboam, the leader of the Northern Kingdom of Israel did the same thing in 1 Kings


Whereupon the king took counsel and made two calves of gold and said unto

them, It is too much for you to go to Yerushalayim [as YHWH commanded in

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Deuteronomy 16:16]: behold thy elohim, o Israel, which brought thee up out of

the land of Egypt. And he set the one in Bethel and the other put he in Dan.

The places where the images were set up, is prophetic: means “house of El” and Bethel

Dan comes from Hebrew word, which means The people called it “The din judgement.

house of Elohim,” but Elohim called it “Dan/Din” or judgement. Ultimately, Elohim

judged the northern kingdom and dispersed them into the nations; they reaped what they

sowed . —assimilation mixing or

The reason for Elohim’s judgement upon this system is given in…

2 Kings 17:9-14:

And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against

YHWH their Elohim and they built them high places in all their cities, from the

tower of the watchmen to the fenced city. And they set up images and asherim

in every high hill and under every green tree. And there they burnt incense in all

the high places, as did the heathen whom YHWH carried away before them: and

wrought wicked things to provoke YHWH to anger. For they served idols

whereof YHWH had said unto them, Ye shall not do this thing. Yet YHWH

testified against Israel and against Yahudah by all the prophets and by all the

seers saying, Turn ye from your evil ways and keep my commandments and my

statues according to all the which I commanded your fathers and which I Torah

sent to you by my servants the prophets. Notwithstanding they would not hear,

but hardened their necks, like the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in

YHWH their Elohim.

The worship system of the people was in their minds the worship of the Almighty of

Israel. When YHWH sent His messengers to the people and told them “you don’t have it

quite right,” they rejected these messengers because they viewed that they were

worshipping YHWH and had a covenant with Him and so their reaction was the

following: “Who are you to judge my faith in YHWH?”


Plural: Goyim.

Nation; Gentile.


A Gentile woman.


Gentiles; nations.

Great Commission

In Mattityahu 28:18-20, Yahushua commissions his to become talmidim

sh’liachim—sent ones, commissioned ones:

Mattityahu 28:18-20:

…Therefore go and make of all the teaching them to obey talmidim Goyim…

everything I have commanded you…”

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To understand this commandment, we must place it back in its original setting. In

ancient Israel, a Rabbi or teacher would attract a group of i.e. students, to him. talmidim,

They would voluntarily attach themselves to him to study the Scriptures with him and

learn from him how to apply the Scriptures in their daily walk. The Rabbi attracted his

talmidim by his knowledge, wisdom, understanding and his walk with YHWH, not by

forcing them or running after them.

Based on this understanding, we can paraphrase the commission, as it applies

specifically to us, as follows:

Become talmidim of the Messiah. Learn the Scriptures, worshipping the Father

walking in the Footsteps of the Messiah. Live like Messiah instructed us,

obeying the Word in love. Then go to all the nations. By your moral example

and knowledge of the truth, people to (and often temporarily) attract voluntarily

attach themselves to you as . Teach them that YHWH seeks us in the students

Son Yahushua the Messiah, that He reaches us in the Spirit, bringing us by —

the Spirit to the Son and in Him to the Father.

Green Tree

One of the more difficult sayings of Yahushua is:

Luke 23:31

For if they do these things in the green wood, what will be done in the dry?

The Aramaic literally reads:

That if in a green tree they do these things, what will happen in the dry?

Not in Hebrew and Aramaic the “b-” preposition can mean “in” but idiomatically it can

also mean “with” meaning “to” In this case the passage is best rendered:

That if with a green tree they do these things, what will happen with the dry?

In the Semitic the passage is a clear allusion to 20:45-21:17, where the Yechezq’el green

tree righteous dry tree wicked, is a metaphor for the while the symbolises the who will

be burned up when judgement falls.

In summary: Alluding to Yahushua uses a Yechezq’el 20:45-21:17, kol v’khomer

statement to say:

If they do this with a righteous one,

What will happen to the wicked?


If they do this with me,

What will happen to them?

Luke 23:26-31 and 20:45-21:17 are parallel passages; Yahushua the Messiah Yechezq’el

is the Word become flesh, and the density of His references to the Word, i.e. the Hebrew

Scriptures, is astounding. He did not speak His own words, but the words of His Father

in Heaven. Almost every sentence that He spoke contains multiple references to the


Page 79


Noisemaker used to drown out Haman’s name during the reading of the on Megillah


G ulah e

Redemption. Specifically: t YHWH through the Messiah. The blood of he redemption of

bulls and goats can never restore (resurrection and immortality) to our Chayim Olam

nefesh (being). The sacrifices offered in the wilderness and in the Beit haMiqdash

(Temple) set Yisra’el apart unto YHWH and temporarily covered their transgressions,

but ultimately pointed toward the G’ulah Go’el (redemption) through the (Kinsman-

Redeemer) who would be sent forth by the Father. We presently have the of firstfruits

redemption, but await the final or full redemption that will happen with the return of

King Messiah.

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Deuteronomy 32; the Song of Mosheh. Ha-Azinu was prayed every morning on the Beit

haMiqdash. It was prayed by the kohanim, who would run to do this prayer, which was

performed in the Chamber of Hewn Stone—the meeting place of the highest court in

Eretz Yisra’el. The sages taught that ha-azinu has 6 parts, which point to the 6

eschatological periods of the (present age), leading up to the final Olam ha-zeh

eschatological period—the time when King Messiah will reign. Performing the haazinu

prayer every morning must have given the kohanim the means to make it through

the day—we can maintain our stability in the present because of the promise of the


Parashat Ha’Azinu is one of the most remarkable in Scripture. Its uniqueness stems, first

of all, from its special literary style, for it is composed almost entirely of one extended

poem. However, it is outstanding not only in style but also in content. Moses leaves the

people with a poem which is to serve as a testament and warning to all future

generations. The Ramban (Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, Spain, 1194-1274) concludes

his commentary on the poem with a summary of its content:

Now this Song, which is our true and faithful testimony, tells us clearly all that will

happen to us. It mentions first the mercy that the Holy One, blessed be He,

bestowed upon us from the time He took us to be His portion. He mentions the

favors that He did for us in the wilderness, and that He caused us to possess the

lands of great and mighty nations, and the abundant good, wealth and honor that

He made us inherit there. Yet despite the abundance of all good, they rebelled

against God to worship the idols, and it mentions how He was provoked by them

until he visited upon them in their country pestilence, famine, the evil beast, and

the sword, and then He dispersed them in every direction and corner. It is

known that all this has been fulfilled, and it was so…

The poem is composed of several parts. Following the prologue, the Torah recounts the

benevolence of God towards the people of Israel in their travels in the desert, and in His

bequeathing to them a rich and fertile land. The second segment recounts the people’s

rebellion against Elohim and their severe punishment and eventual exile from the land of


The poem then concludes with a promise of future redemption. The poem is a synopsis

of the history of the people of Israel. The nation forgets all the good which Elohim has

bestowed upon them, rebel, are punished and then mercifully redeemed. The Ramban

marvels at the accuracy of the poem’s predictions. We would add that from our vantage

point, the poem seems all the more impressive in its forecasts. Not only have the first

two segments transpired, Elohim’s bequeathing to the people the land, their wrongdoing

and exile therefrom, but, we have been fortunate enough to witness the unfolding of the

final section of the poem, Elohim’s restoration of the people to their homeland. If the

Ramban marveled at the precision of the poem’s prophecies, all the more do we of later


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What causes the tragic deterioration from the first segment of the poem, Elohim’s

benevolence towards Israel, to the second segment, the rebellion and punishment of the

people? Let us see how the Torah portrays this awkward chain of events:

Deuteronomy 32:710-18

Remember the days of old,

Consider the years of ages past;

Ask your father, he will inform you,

Your elders, they will tell you: …

He [Elohim] found him [Israel] in a desert region,

In an empty howling waste.

He encompassed him, watched over him,

Guarded him as the pupil of His eye.

Like an eagle who rouses his nestlings,

Gliding down to his young,

So did He spread His wings and take him,

Bear him along on his pinions;

The Lord alone did guide him,

No alien god at His side.

He set him atop the highlands,

To feast on the yield of the earth;

He fed him honey from the stone,

And oil from the flinty rock,

cheese of cattle and milk of flocks;

With the best of lambs,

And rams of Bashan, and he-goats;

With the very finest wheat-

And foaming grape-blood was your drink.

So Jeshurun grew fat and kicked-

You grew fat and gross and coarse-

He forsook the Elohim who made him

And spurned the Rock of his support.

They incensed Him with alien things,

Vexed Him with abominations.

They sacrificed to demons, no-gods,

Mighty ones they had never known,

New ones, who came but lately,

Who stirred not your fathers’ fears,

You neglected the rock that begot you,

Forgot the Elohim who brought you forth.

As previously stated, the structure of the poem is such that it begins by recounting

Elohim’s kindness to the people and then continues with the people’s rebellion against

Him. However, a close inspection of the poem reveals a direct relationship between the

two sections. The Torah describes the people’s rebellion as a direct outcome of Elohim’s

benevolence! The key verse signaling the shift from the description of Elohim’s

kindness to the people’s wrongdoing is “So Jeshurun grew FAT and kicked.” The act of

rebellion is depicted as a kick. The cause of the rebellion is Jeshurun’s fatness. How did

Israel become fat? The answer appears in the preceding verses. Elohim provides the

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people with the fattest of foods! Let us return to the poem’s description of the

fruitfulness of the land to which Elohim brought the people of Israel:

He set him atop the highlands,

To feast on the yield of the earth;

He fed him honey from the stone,

And oil from the flinty rock,

cheese of cattle and milk of flocks;

With the best of lambs,

And rams of Bashan, and he-goats;

With the very finest wheat-

And foaming grape-blood was your drink.

This lavish description is reminiscent of other verses in the Torah which describe the

bountifulness of the land of Israel. “Honey from the stone” and “milk of flocks” remind

us of the description of Israel as a land “flowing with milk and honey” (Numbers 13:27).

Likewise, the mention of honey, oil, wheat and grape recall the verse describing the

fruits of the land: “It is a land of wheat, barley, grapes, figs and pomegranates; a land of

olive oil and honey” (Deuteronomy 8:8).

The Torah contrasts the desert which is described as “an empty howling waste” with the

lushness of the land of Israel. After entering the promised land the nation grows fat,

forsakes Elohim and turns to idolatry. Instead of the desert description, “the Lord alone

did guide him, no alien god at His side” we find “They sacrificed to demons…gods they

had never known.” This development is a direct outcome of settling in the land of Israel.

The problem did not exist in the desert! The question arises, if the opulence of the land

of Israel is the cause of the people’s rebellion, then why did Elohim lead them there? Is

not Elohim to blame for the fattening of Jeshurun? Rabbi Hirsch (Rabbi Samson

Raphael Hirsch, Germany, 1808-1888) relates to this specific point in his illuminating


“Here for the first time we meet the name Jeshurun. It designates Israel after the

ideal of its moral calling, which in ‘yashar’ – straight, never deviating in any way

from the straight path, corresponds to this name…Elohim wishes that Israel

ascend the summit of the dual heights of human aims, the highest material good

fortune and the highest spiritual and moral perfection. For Israel is to show the

world an illuminating example of how a life devoted entirely to spiritual moral

duties by no means entails a renunciation of bright earthly happiness, on the

contrary, how the highest degree of morality fits in very well with the highest

amount of earthly happiness and all material wealth and earthly enjoyments can

be turned into moral deeds and spiritual achievements. But when the destined

Jeshurun-people get an abundance of all the good things on earth for the

purpose of fulfilling this mission, when it has come out of the wilderness into the

land of milk and honey, then it became fat and “kicked out.”

‘You grew fat and gross and coarse’ is an address in parenthesis made to the

people present with Moses and to all future readers of the words of the poem. It

contains the quintessence of the whole of Jewish history. In suffering, the

Jewish people have mostly proved themselves splendid. But it has seldom been

able to stand good fortune. ‘As often as it has become fat, it has become

corpulent and overgrown with fat,’ literally: ‘covered.’ … The sense of the

passage is: – the more strengthening, the fatter, the food which is given to the

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body is, the more should the surplus be used up in energy and work, the higher

should the activity and achievements be. Then the person masters the

abundance and remains bodily and mentally healthy and fit, and by his greater

achievements increases his moral worth. But if he neglects to use it, then the

surplus material stores itself up in his body, he becomes corpulent, obese, and

instead of mastering the abundance, he, his real spiritual active self, becomes

overcome by the fat, and sinks. That is the history of Israel. It did not use the

abundance and surplus with which it was blessed to increased spiritual and

moral achievements, not the fuller carrying out of its mission. Its moral

improvement did not keep pace with its material good fortune. It did not

understand how to remain master of its riches and good fortune, did not know

how to use them for the purpose of fulfilling commandments, it allowed itself to

be overcome by riches and good fortune, and its better, spiritual moral self to be

ruined by it.”

Rabbi Hirsch suggests that the word “Jeshurun” stems from the root ‘yashar’ – straight

and refers to the whole nation of Israel. The nation which was to exemplify uprightness

has become crooked and has turned away from Elohim. They have become fat from the

abundance of the land of Israel.

Why then did Elohim bring them to a land flowing with milk and honey? Rabbi Hirsch

explains that this is the ultimate mission of the people of Israel. According to the Torah,

spirituality does not negate material wealth. In contrast to other religions, Judaism does

not preach or glorify asceticism. Spirituality is not achieved by living a reclusive life in

the desert. The Torah is to be observed in the land of Israel with its material richness.

However, here lies the major challenge and danger confronting the nation of Israel.

They must use their material wealth for the accomplishment of spiritual ends. Material

well being is meant to assist moral growth. This is where the nation fails in its mission.

That which was meant to be a tool turns into the essence. Material wealth develops into

materialism, a way of life. In such circumstances, spirituality can no longer exist. The

people grow “fat,” and “kick” and rebel against Elohim. Elohim responds by sending the

people into exile and bringing upon them horrible suffering. If the nation does not know

how to use the blessings of the land of Israel for positive ends, then they forfeit their

claim to it.

The land of Israel presents the nation with the opportunity for great spiritual growth but

also with the danger of moral disintegration. It is the ultimate mission of the people of

Israel to utilize the “highlands” of the land of Israel for accomplishing their higher

spiritual mission. It is only thus that we may realize the full potential of the land flowing

with milk and honey.


A myrtle branch.


The Most High.


Selection from the Prophets read or chanted after the weekly portion during the Torah

synagogue service on the Sabbath and set-apart days.

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The great.


To murmur (in pleasure or anger). To ponder, imagine, mutter, roar, speak, study, talk,



Days of Abstinence.


A general Hebrew term for utterance, applied specifically to the nonlegal portion of

rabbinic literature. It is also the title of the text recited at the festive meal (Seder) on the

first two nights of . Literally: telling; book in which the story is retold Pesach Pesach

and the Seder ritual is outlined. The tale of the Exodus from Egypt as read at the Seder




Hairstyle (men)

It is very sad, even disgusting, that the popular Christian representation of “Jesus” is a

long-haired man—Scripture clearly prescribes that a priest should have neatly trimmed

hair and beard. Yahushua was and is our High Priest. Look at the following witness of

the and the Tanakh B’rit Chadashah concerning the hairstyle of a priest:

Yechezq’el 44:20:

The priests must not shave their heads or let their hair grow long, but they are to

keep the hair of their heads trimmed.

1 Corinthians 11:14:

Does not the very nature of things teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a

disgrace to him…

In Me’am Lo’az The Torah Anthology: — (Kaplan, 1982: 60), the Yom Kippur Service

halakhic prohibitions of the sages concerning male hairstyle are set out:

…a prohibition against letting one’s hair grow and not cutting it…so as to

resemble [pagan priests]…Likewise, it is forbidden to…leave the hair on the

back [of the head] falling on one’s shoulders, since all these are pagan customs

and forbidden by Elohim.

If one does any of these, he is in violation of this commandment and can incur

the penalty of flogging.

We have shown that the popular “takhaar” conception of how “Jesus” looks, is in fact a

representation of Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” and the coming False messiah.

HaQadosh BaruchHu

“The Set-Apart One, Blessed be He.”

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The way one goes; the “walk.” The legal and regulatory portions of the Talmud, and of

all Jewish lore…Jewish law. Law, regulation, legal ruling on a particular issue. The

legal part of rabbinic literature. Derived from a Hebrew word meaning “walk,”

halakhah lays down the way one should walk or live one’s life, based on the teachings of

both written and oral A is also a specific legal decision in a given area Torah. halakhah

of life which a person is to follow.

Halakhah comes from the Hebrew word Halak (Strong’s 1980) which means “to walk.”

Halakhah the way one walks how you keep the commandments of YHWH. means or

In Scripture, YHWH gives many commandments for us to follow. The question then

becomes do I follow and keep these commandments. The Hebrew term describing how

the rules of how to walk is halakhah.

In Yochanan 14:6, Yahushua said that He was the WAY. The Hebrew equivalent of

“way” is course of life or mode of action, a road trodden.” derek; Halakhah it denotes “a

is intended to show you the (way) that you are to live to keep the commandments derek

of the Almighty, i.e. your covenantal obligations.

Halakhah comprises the orally transmitted authoritative interpretations of Scripture

handed down by the over the millennia. comprises two forms: (a) Beit Din Halakhah

case law, and (b) legislated Both forms are issued by a res judicata, mishpatim, khuqim.

Beit Din Torah , and define the legitimate limits in interpreting . The Qumran-Essene

Tzedoqim called their orally transmitted interpretations (the practice). The ma’aseh

Roman-vassal Pseudo-Tzedoqim of the Beit Miqdash in Yerushalayim called their

interpretations which they codified in an attempt to end oral transmission their — —

“Book of Decrees.”

Halakhah L’Mosheh Mi’Sinay

A Law claimed to have been given to Mosheh on Mount Sinay, but not written explicitly

in the Torah. Oral Torah.


Psalms 113-118 in liturgical use.


The king.


Filled three-cornered pastries supposed to represent Haman’s hat, traditionally eaten on

Chag Purim.


The Havdalah blessing.


See: Chanukah

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Haptomai [G]

To attach oneself to, i.e. to touch. Hebrew: Naga.

Har ha-bayit

Temple mountain in Ir . Literally: “mountain of the House.” Yerushalayim

Harpazo [G]

Catch (away, up), pluck, pull, take (by force).


The Adversary (same as Satan).


Literally: separation; ceremony that marks the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of

the week. The blessing over wine to mark the difference between the Sabbath and the



Plural: Hallim.

The Hallim are – 118, which are special psalms of praise sung on specific Psalms 113

festivals. The Hallim were sung while Messiah died on the cross. Read Psalm

118—the —in this light. Note that the expression, “the Right Hand Lot of the Messiah

of YHWH” is a prophetic term for the Messiah.

Hallel haGadol

Talmud Peshachim 118a calls Psalm 136 the —the Great Song of Praise. Hallel haGadol


The King. Major part of the Rosh HaShanah Mussaf (additional) service.


See: New Song.

Two types of harp were used in ancient Yisra’el. The first harp, known as the Nevel,

dates from the patriarchal period. The Nevel had 3 to 22 strings. The number 22 is very

significant to the sages. The Hebrew alphabet contains exactly 22 letters. They teach

that the Almighty created the universe by pronouncing the letters of the Hebrew

alphabet, one letter at a time, from the ( ) to the ( ). The sages taught that alef tav } Z

YHWH sang the creation, accompanied by a heavenly harp, a Nevel. Besides creation,

the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, as well as the 22 strings of the Nevel,

speak of the (Word), and the Messiah. Devar Torah (the Instruction of the Almighty)

The sages claim that the Nevel makes the most beautiful music in the world.

During the Second Temple era, the was used in the music, and Nevel Beit haMiqdash

had a half-tone lever system. These levers provide the player the ability to alter each

string exactly one half-tone. They can also be repositioned very quickly, even in the

middle of a song. This device enables the musician to change into different scales while

playing, without stopping to re-tune the harp. It is known that the Levitical choir

performed these changes frequently in the awesome music of the . Beit haMiqdash

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Below is a picture of a Nevel, reconstructed by Micah and Shoshanna Harrari of


Figure: A 22-stringed Nevel.

The second type of harp referred to in the Scriptures, is the The Hebrew name Kinnor.

for the Sea of Galilee is Lake Kinneret, because it this lake has the shape of a Kinnor.

The lyre of David is a Kinnor. Below is a picture of a 10-stringed Kinnor, reconstructed

by Micah and Shoshanna Harrari of Yerushalayim.

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Figure: A 10-stringed Kinnor.

The harp, whether the Nevel or the Kinnor, can be played in three different ways. The

first is to play a known tune. The second method is where the musician begins to play

the harp, sensitive to the direction of the Almighty. The ancient prophets played like

this—the prophet began to play his harp freely and then would feel a hand on his (yad)

shoulder At this time the tune and words was coming from the Almighty, and the song

was the prophecy. The Nevel was only used for joyful occasions: weddings, homecomings,

Temple Services, and for the simple act of praising and worshipping the

Creator of the Universe. King David composed the psalms using the accompaniment of

both the Nevel and the Kinnor (lyre). In solitude, he reached up to the throne of Heaven,

and as the strings vibrated, his heart would fill with joy, and the Ruach HaQodesh

entered into his being and gave him the inspiration to write the Psalms. The sages teach

that the musical notes played in the are actually coded in the Hebrew Beit haMiqdash

Scriptures, but that the key of translation has been lost over time.

The third way of playing the harp is as awesome as the second. The harp is the only

musical instrument that can be played by the wind. A famous midrash tells of King

David hanging his in a tree at night as he lay down. At midnight the north wind Kinnor

would blow and the harp would begin to play, awakening David to worship YHWH by

studying In Hebrew, the word for wind is the Hebrew term customarily Torah. ruach;

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translated as “Holy Spirit,” is The rabbis teach that simulated wind, Ruach HaQodesh.

e.g. from a fan, can not induce the harp to play. Only the can make the harp ruach

resound beautifully, without human hands. It is awesome to hear the Kinnor being

played by the the (Hand) of YHWH. Ruach, Yad


Literally: “the Name.” An evasive synonym for the explicit Hebrew name of the

Almighty, YHWH.

HaShem Yisborach

Evasive synonym for the Name YHWH.


“Enlightenment;” a movement for spreading modern European secular culture among

Jews. This movement was influential from circa 1750 to 1880. An adherent was called

a This movement originated and was most influential in the very countries in maskil.

which Nazism later arose. The Haskalah led to a gross departure from Torah. Devarim

28 teaches that if Israel departs from punishment will follow. Torah,


The hope.” National anthem of the modern state of Israel.


Literally: separation. A ceremony that marks the end of the Shabbat and other days setapart

to YHWH, and the coming secular days. During Havdalah, a spice-box is passed

around the table. Everybody brings it to their noses to delight in the pleasant smell. This

is a picture of the Almighty’s delight in those who delight in His exaltation. Yeshayahu

13:1-2 draws its imagery from the Havdalah ceremony, but is usually poorly translated.

Hebrew thought

Hebrew thought is very different from Greco-Roman thought. The Hebrew studies

affectively—to revere, to worship. Scriptural revelation is seen as the final authority.

The perfect virtue is seen as obedience. The prime question is: “What should I do?”

Hebrew thought deals with correct action in the here and now. It is concrete and simple.

How many in the mitzvot Torah deal with the hereafter? None.

In contrast, Greek thought is abstract, disregards this life and has an otherworldly

orientation. It sees the physical, material world as something evil that should be escaped.

It strives after the purely spiritual and abhors the physical as evil.

Hebrew thought is correct and Greek thought is wrong. There is more to life than dying!

Life in the world to come is a reward, not a purpose.


Literally: “the festival.” One of the names for Sukkot.


The property of the Beit haMiqdash. Articles endowed with kedusha.

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The set-apart place that housed the (7-branched lampstand), the menorah shulchan

lechem ha-panim mizbe’ach zahav (Table of the Bread of the Faces) and the (golden

Altar of Incense).


The shining one, the awakener of light. A term for the king of Babylon in Yeshayahu

14:12. When the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Latin, this term was translated

as At the same time, the exegesis that Yeshayahu 14:12 deals with the fall and lucifer.

judgement of Satan, became popular. As a result, the name “Lucifer” became a popular

term for the adversary. It should be noted that the common and popular identification

“Lucifer Satan” is based on (1) a translation, which is inherently arbitrary, and (2) a „M

questionable interpretation. In rabbinic literature, the satan’s name is usually Sama’el—

“strong poison.”


Misleading traditional mistranslation of —”Valley of [the sons of] Gey Hinnom

Hinnom —a valley to the South and West of Ir Yerushalayim. “

Hester Panim

Hiding the face, i.e. the withdrawal of the favour of YHWH.


Permission, permit.



Hierarchy in commandments

The sages inferred from Scripture that there are three acts a Jew should never commit,

but rather die : al Kiddush HaShem—sanctifying the Name of the Almighty

Sanhedrin 74a

Rabbi Yochanan said in the name of rabbi Shim’on ben-Yehotzadak: “By a

majority vote it was decided in the upper chambers of the house of Nitza in Lud

that in every law of the if a man is commanded, ‘Transgress, or you will Torah,

be put to death,’ he may transgress in order to save his life—with these

exceptions: idolatry, fornication and murder.”

To these we may add: denying that Yahushua is the unique son of Almighty YHWH,

sent forth from YHWH as the anointed, empowered Redeemer of the World who interposed

His shed sacrificial blood between us and the righteous demand of the that Torah

the wages of sin is death.

High Holy Days

The ten day period that starts on Rosh HaShanah Yom Kippur (Tishri 1) and ends on

(Tishri 10). Called the Days of Awe and days of teshuvah (turning (Yamim Nora’im)

back in repentance) by the sages, because an exegesis of Yo’el 2 shows that an overwhelmingly

strong army will attack and almost completely destroy Israel in the Day of

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YHWH. The historical attack on Yahudah during the reign of king Chizkiyahu by king

Sancheiriv of Ashshur, is a prophetic shadow of this great eschatological attack. The

terminology used in Yo’el 2 indicated to the sages that this attack will start on a Yom

Teruah Yom Kippur (Tishri 1) and end on a (Tishri 10). Yechezq’el 38-39 describes this

same attack. YHWH will use this attack to turn the remnant of Israel to accept their

Messiah—cf. Yechezq’el 39:22. In its eschatological, prophetic intent, Chapter 1 of

Yeshayahu starts on the very eve of that when Israel lies waste, her cities Yom Kippur,



A famous rabbi who taught from 10 BM to 30 YM Hillel was known for his thirst after

knowledge, patience, humility, great knowledge and kindness towards Gentiles who

wanted to learn the ways of the Most High.

Hillel’s seven rules

Rule 1: (light and heavy). Kal v’khomer

Kol v’khomer is the first of Hillel’s seven hermeneutical rules. Hillel did not invent these

rules; these rules are used in the . Tanakh

The thought-form is used to make an argument from lesser weight based on kol v’khomer

one of greater weight. It may be expressed as:

If X is true of Y then how much more X must be true of Z, where Z is of greater

weight than Y.

A argument is often, but not always, signalled by a phrase like “how much kol v’khomer


The Rabbinical writers recognise two forms of kol v’khomer:

„¿ —In this form the argument appears Kal v’khomer meforash kal v’khomer


„¿ —in which the argument is merely implied. Kal v’khomer Kal v’khomer satum

There are several examples of in the . For example: Kal v’khomer Tanakh

Proverbs 11:31

Behold the righteous shall be recompensed in the earth;

much more the wicked and the sinner.


Yirmeyahu 12:5a

If you have run with footmen and they have wearied you,

then how can you contend with horses?

Other examples to look at, are Devarim 31:27; Samuel 23:3; Yirmeyahu 12:5bTanakh 1

Yechezq’el 15:5 and Esther 9:12.

There is also an important limitation to the thought-form. This is the Kal v’khomer dayo

(enough) principle. This is that the conclusion of an argument is satisfied when it is like

the major premise. In other words, the conclusion is equalised to the premise and neither

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a stricter nor a more lenient view is to be taken (m.BK 2:5). Rabbi Tarfun rejected the

dayo principle in certain cases (b.BK 25a).

There are several examples of in the Apostolic Writings. Yahushua often Kal v’khomer

uses this form of argument. For example:

Yochanan 7:23

If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath, so that the Law of Moses should

not be broken, are you angry with me because I made a man completely well on

the sabbath?


Mattityahu 12:11-12

What man is there among you who has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the

Sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out? Of how much more value then is a

man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.

Other examples of Yahushua’s usage of are: Kal v’khomer

Mattityahu 6:2630 = Lk. 12:2428

Mattityahu 7:11 = Lk. 11:13

Mattityahu 10:25 & Jn. 15:18-20 Mattityahu 12:12 & Jn. 7:23

Sha’ul uses in: Kal v’khomer

Romans 5:8-910151711:1224

1 Corinthians 9:11-1212:22

2 Corinthians 3:7-911

Philippians 2:12

Philemon 1:16

Rule 2: (Equivalence of expressions) G’zerah Shavah

An analogy is made between two separate texts on the basis of a similar phrase, word or


Tanakh example:

Judges 13:5 & 1Sam. 1:10

Rule 3: (Building of the father from one text) Binyan ab mikathub echad

One explicit passage serves as a foundation or starting point so as to constitute a rule

(father) for all similar passages or cases.

Exodus 3:4 YHWH addressed Moses “Moses, Moses…” all the time.

Hebrews 9:11-22 applies “blood” from Exodus 24:8=Heb. 9:20 to Yirmeyahu 31:31-34

4. (Building of the father from two or more texts) Binyab ab mishene kethubim

Exodus 21:26-27

Two texts or provisions in a text serve as a foundation for a general conclusion.

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In Heb. 1:5-14 the author sites:

Ps. 2:7 = Heb. 1:5

2Sam. 7:14 = Heb. 1:5

Deut. 32:43/Ps. 97:7/(Neh. 9:6) = Heb. 1:6

Ps. 104:4 = Heb. 1:7

Ps. 45:6-7 = Heb. 1:8-9

Ps. 102:25-27 = Heb. 1:10-12

Ps. 110:1 = Heb. 1:13

to build a rule that the Messiah is of a higher order than angels.

5. (the general and the particular) Kelal uferat

Genesis 1:27 > Genesis 2:721

A general statement is first made and is followed by a single remark which particularises

the general principle.

6. (analogy made from another passage) Kayotze bo mimekom akhar

Two passages may seem to conflict until a third resolves the conflict.

Lev 1:1 & Exodus 25:22 > Num. 7:89

2Sam. 24:9 & 1Chr. 21:5 > 1Chr. 27:1

Exodus 19:20 & Devarim 4:36 > Exodus 20:19 (m.Sifra 1:7)

Sha’ul shows that the following . passages SEEM to conflict: Tanakh

The just shall live by faith (Rom. 1:17 = Hab. 2:4)


There is none righteous, no, not one… (Rom. 3:10 = Ps. 14:1-3 = Ps. 53:1-3Eccl. 7:20


[Elohim] will render to each one according to his deeds. (Rom. 2:6 = Ps. 62:12; Proverbs



Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;

Blessed is the man whom YHWH shall not impute sin. (Rom. 4:7-8 = Ps. 32:1-2)

Sha’ul resolves the apparent conflict by citing Genesis 15:6 (in Rom. 4:322):

Abraham believed Elohim, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.

Thus Sha’ul resolves the apparent conflict by showing that under certain circumstances,

belief/faith/trust (same word in Hebrew) can act as a substitute for righteousness/being

just (same word in Hebrew).

7. (Explanation obtained from context) Davar hilmad me’anino

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The total context, not just the isolated statement must be considered for an accurate



The group of Pharisees who held to Hillel’s view of the as taught in Beit Torah,

Hillel—the school of Hillel. Their view stressed the —the kindness and chesed

mercy—of the One who gave the for them, was given for the benefit of Torah; Torah



A celebration of a memorial.

Hineh ha-Seh ha-Elohim chanoseh chata’aat ha-olam

Behold the Lamb of Elohim, Who takes away the sins of the world.

Hip! Hip! Hurrah!

Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable Hip states that is said to be a notarica,

composed of the initial letters of (“Jerusalem is destroyed”). H E P ierosolyma st erdita

Henri van Laun says, in that whenever the German knights headed a Notes and Queries,

Jew-hunt in the Middle Ages, they ran shouting “Hip! Hip!” as much as to say

“Jerusalem is destroyed.”

Timbs derives from the Slavonic (“to Paradise”), so that Hurrah hu-raj Hip! hip! hurrah!

would mean “Jerusalem is lost to the infidel, and we are on the road to Paradise.” These

etymons may be taken for what they are worth. The word “hurrah!” is an exclamation in

the Germanic languages.

Hodu Hoddu „¡



The murder of 6 million Jews by the Fascists during World War 2.

Holy of Holies

See: Qodesh haQodeshim.


The art of preaching or public persuasion.


In a study published on the Internet, Orthodox Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld of Har Nof,

Yerushalayim, writes:

“We find a connection between war, lust and pride in the ‘s description of horses. Torah

In biblical times, it seems that horses were primarily put to use in war.

Mishlei 21:31

A horse is prepared for times of war.

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Tehillim 33:17

The horse is not able to provide a person salvation [when YHWH is not with


As the Gemara describes,

Pesachim 113b

Six things were said of a horse: It is promiscuous; it loves war; and it is a proud


It is appropriate that we find the Egyptians being described as the best horse-breeders in

the civilised world (Devarim 17:16). Due to the exceptional beauty of their land

(Be’reshith 13:10; Rashi Ba’Midbar 13:22), the Egyptian nation was especially arrogant

(Shemot 15:1, and Targum Onkelos). In fact, the refers to Egypt as Torah Rahav,

(Tehillim 87:7), meaning “Arrogant” (as in Tehillim 40:5). Along with this, the

Egyptians were known throughout the world for their promiscuity (Rashi: Be’reshith

13:10; Va’Yikrah 18:3; Aggadic literature also point to 42:9). With regard to Be’reshith

horses, the arrogant of nations perfecting the breeding of the arrogant of creatures.

The fact that horses represent war and conquest answers a number of riddles. In

Be’reshith 32:15,16 Ya’aqov sends a generous gift to his brother, Esav, in order to

appease his anger. Ya’aqov’s gift includes all sorts of animals goats, sheep, camels, —

cows and donkeys. I was once asked, why didn’t Ya’aqov send Esav any horses? The

answer obviously is that he did not want to send the angry Esav weapons for war, nor did

he wish to hand him a sign of conquest.

The prophet (Zekharyahu 9:9) describes the Messiah as “a poor man, riding upon a

donkey.” The Gemara (Sanhedrin 98a) describes how King Shevor of Persia scoffed,

“Why doesn’t your Messiah come riding on a horse? If he lacks one, I’ll be glad

to provide him with one of my best!”

Why, indeed, should the Messiah come on a donkey? Isn’t a horse a more appropriate

sign of military victory?

The answer may be learned from the words of the Gemara earlier on that same page

(ibid.). A poor man on a donkey is a description of how the Messiah will appear if the

Jews are *not* found deserving of a spectacular salvation.

Whether we deserve it or not, we will eventually be redeemed; however, if we are not

deserving the Messiah will only arrive riding on a donkey. A horse is a sign of proud

conquest; this Messiah will provide but a humble Exodus. As the Gemara says in

Shabbat 152a,

“One who rides a horse is a king; one who rides a donkey is but a freeman.”

Similarly, when the 72 Elders translated the for King Ptolemy (Megillah 9a), they Torah

changed the meaning of a number of words in order that he should not misunderstand

them and scoff at them. One of the words they change involved the donkey that Moshe

rode his family upon, on his way to Egypt to free the Jews. Instead of “donkey,” they

used the broad term “beast of transportation,” lest King Ptolemy ask them, “Did Moshe

not have a horse to ride upon?” Moshe, too, rode upon a donkey because the Jews were

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not being redeemed from Egypt on their own merit, but rather out of YHWH’s mercy. He

was not the proud conqueror.

On a deeper level of meaning, in the above-mentioned Gemaras the gentile kings were

not able to grasp the concept that YHWH will redeem the Jews even if they are not

worthy of it. “How can that be?” they thought, “If the Jews are not worthy of being

redeemed, let YHWH leave them as they are, under our domain. If they are worthy, let

him redeem them proudly, with flourish and fanfare!”

What these kings did not know was that the Jewish People are YHWH’s chosen nation.

Out of His love for our virtuous ancestors, who embedded their desirable traits deep in

the hearts of their descendants, YHWH promised to always come to our rescue and to

eventually redeem us from exile. Whether he comes on a horse or on a donkey, the

Messiah is on his way may he arrive speedily in our days!” —


A chant which means “please save us!” A heartfelt and almost desperate prayer to the

Almighty to send the Messiah, the Redeemer. This word is widely misunderstood and

misapplied in present-day Christianity, especially in songs of praise.

Hoshana Rabbah

The last and greatest day of Sukkot.

[The] House

A term for the in Beit haMiqdash Yerushalayim. When we read in Acts 2 that the

talmidim were gathered together with one accord in “the house,” it does not refer to the

upper room, but to the Beit haMiqdash.

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The (esteem; glory) has departed. kivod

In chapters 9-11 of the great prophetic work, the prophet Yechezq’el gives an awesome,

touching account of the departure of the kavod from the first First he Beit haMiqdash.

sees the Shekhinah in the usual place between the keruvim in the Qodesh ha-Qodeshim.

Then the Shekhinah arises and moves to the threshold of the House, where it remains for

a while. Then the kavod moves away from the Beit haMiqdash. Passing out by the east

gate, it hovered over the court, which was full of the brightness of the kavod of YHWH.

This was a very slow, deliberate departure, full of pathos and tragic judgement.

Eventually, the kivod of YHWH went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the

mountain which is on the east side of Yerushalayim—the Mount of Olives, also called

Har Mashiach—Mountain of the Messiah.

Rabbi Yochanan said in a commentary, “For the space of three years and a half, the

Shekhinah was sitting upon the Mount of Olives, thinking perhaps Israel might repent.”

Many scholars hold the view that Yahushua’s public ministry spanned three and a half

years. Messiah Yahushua ascended to heaven from this same mountain where

Yechezq’el the prophet saw the Shekhinah depart, finally ascending out of sight.


Proselytes to Judaism were immersed as a sign and a seal of their life-redirecting,

regenerating experience. The proselyte had utterly broken with idolatry (i.e. demonworship)

to the worship of YHWH, the One Elohim of Yisra’el. He passed from death to

life, and was born as a citizen of the (the World to Come). The immersion- `Olam ha-ba

washing of the proselyte was a graphic reminder, sign and seal of this fact. The (ot)

candidate, fully naked, immersed in the waters, symbolically cleansing himself himself

from antecedent defilement. At least one had to be present to witness the witness selfimmersion.

No part of the body was allowed to be above the surface during immersion;

the fingers and toes had to be moved to ensure that the water of the would touch mikveh

the entire surface of the body. His past behind him, the proselyte emerged to take his

stand with (the covenant-people of Israel). In the Talmud, newly immersed Am Yisra’el

proselytes are called “born again.” In Tractate Yevamot 62a, e.g., Shim’on Ben-Lakish

says that “a proselyte is like a new-born infant.” Rabbi Yosi makes a similar statement

in Tractate Yevamot 48b. Genesis Rabbah 39:11 also alludes to this concept of rebirth.

The laws of the menstrual cycle specifies that an Israelite husband and wife should not

come together for 2 weeks per month. The first week was the “seven red days” which

were followed by the “seven white days.” Following the separation, the woman would,

fully naked, immerse herself into a to symbolise her passing from a state of being mikveh

tamei tahor (not ready; ceremonially unclean) to (ready; ceremonially clean). Coming

out of the she would dress herself like bride for the married couple’s “monthly mikveh,

honeymoon,” and was called “born again.”

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The earliest artistic depiction of the immersion of Messiah Yahushua shows Him

immersing into the river Yarden, fully naked, with Yochanan haMatbil standing Himself

right at the of the water, the self-immersion and lending the Messiah a edge witnessing

hand to help Him out of the river.

It is very important to note that Scriptural immersion is always full immersion self- and

immersion, witnessed by at least one witness, and never immersion by a second party. It

is ironic that virtually none of the denominations who vehemently denounce each other

for practising an incorrect form of “baptism,” practice it correctly! Any major library

contains all the information that is necessary to establish how Scriptural immersion

should be performed. Most denominations, however, cherish their inherited traditions

more than the truth. The fathers built a fence, the children installed a gate in the fence

and the grandchildren threw away the gate’s key. So the only way out is to break out.

Immersion was used to render objects in the that became Beit haMiqdash tamei, tahor

once again. If, e.g., the or the (table of the bread of Menorah Shulchan lechem ha-panim

the faces) became they were removed from the for immersion into the tamei, ha-qodesh

yam (“sea”).

In the name of

According to the teaching of. When a rabbi taught, he had to state whether his teaching

was his own, or whether he received it from another rabbi. When he quoted another

rabbi, he spoke “in the name of” that other sage. The term also connotes authority. To

ask something “in the name of” the Messiah, means to ask it of Almighty YHWH in

accordance with the teachings and of Rabbi Yahushua miNatzeret and also in halakhah ,

the authority of our adoption accomplished by his redemptive work.

‘Iqqvot haMashiach

“Footsteps of the Messiah.” A Hebrew term for eschatology. In Hebraic understanding,

eschatology encompasses dealing with the coming of the Messiah. The term everything

‘Iqqvot haMashiach is derived from

Tehillim 89:50-51

Remember, Adonai, how your servant has been mocked, how I bear in my heart

the taunts of all the nations, the taunts with which your enemies have mocked, O

YHWH, with which they have mocked the footsteps of your Mashiach.

Ir David

City of David.


Pagan fertility idol on whose pagan, idolatrous rites many rituals of the “Christian”

festival of Easter is based.

Israel Vision

See: in the monograph “What about the Lost tribes of Israel?” The Coming of King


Page 99


The Hebrew language.

Iyov Iyyov „¡




Page 100


Jewish attitudes to Yahushua

All quotations below, except that of Dr Pinchas Lapide, may be found in The

Messiahship of Jesus: Are Jews Changing Their Attitudes Towards Jesus? by Dr Arthur

Kac (Baker Book House, 1986). Dr Lapides’ book is The Resurrection of Jesus

(Augsburg Publishing House,1983).

Albert Einstein

As a child I received instruction both in the Bible and in the Talmud. I am a Jew,

but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene.

Rabbi Leo Baeck (for many years the religious leader of German Jewry)

Jesus is a genuine Jewish personality, all his struggles and works, his bearing

and feeling, his speech and silence, bear the stamp of a Jewish style, the mark

of Jewish idealism, of the best that was and is in Judaism. He was a Jew among


Prof. Martin Buber, Philosopher and Professor at Hebrew University,


It is a peculiar manifestation of our exile-psychology that we permitted, and even

aided in, the deletion of New Testament Messianism, that meaningful offshoot of

our spiritual history. It was in a Jewish land that this spiritual revolution was

kindled; and Jews were those who had spread it all over the land…we must

overcome the superstitious fear which we harbour about the Messianic

movement of Jesus, and we must place the movement where it belongs, namely,

in the spiritual history of Judaism.

Prof Joseph Klausner, Hebrew University, Yerushalayim

Jesus was a Jew and a Jew he remained till his last breath. His one idea was to

implant within his nation the idea of the coming of the Messiah and, by

repentance and good works, hasten the ‘end’…In all of this, Jesus is the most

Jewish of Jews…more Jewish than Hillel…From the standpoint of general

humanity, he is, indeed, ‘a light to the Gentiles.’

Sholem Asch, Yiddish writer:

I couldn’t help writing on Jesus. Since I first met Him, he has held my mind and

heart…I floundered a bit, at first; I was seeking that something for which so

many of us search-that surety, that faith, that spiritual content in my living which

would bring me peace and through which I might help bring people to others.

I found it in the Nazarene…Everything He ever said or did has value for us

today, and that is something you can say of no other man, alive or dead…He

became the Light of the world. Why shouldn’t I, a Jew, be proud of it?

Rabbi Hyman Enelow, past President of the Central Conference of American


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Jesus has become the most popular, the most studied, the most influential figure

in the religious history of mankind…No sensible Jew can be indifferent to the fact

that a Jew should have had such a tremendous part in the religious education

and direction of the human race…Who can compute all that Jesus has meant to

humanity? The love he has inspired, the solace he has given, the good he has

engendered, the hope and joy he has kindled-all that is unequalled in human

history…The Jew cannot help glorying in what Jesus has meant to the world; nor

can he help hoping that Jesus may yet serve as a bond between Jew and

Christian, once his teaching is better known and the bane of misunderstanding at

last is removed from his words and his ideal.

Rabbi Stephen Wise, Zionist leader and founder of the Jewish Institute of


Neither Christian protest nor Jewish lamentation can annul the fact that Jesus

was a Jew, a Hebrew of the Hebrews. Surely it is not wholly unfit that Jesus be

reclaimed by those who have never unitedly nor organizedly denied him, though

oft denied by his followers; that Jesus should not be so much appropriated by us

as assigned to the place in Jewish life and Jewish history which is rightfully his

own. Jesus was not only a Jew but he was the Jew, the Jew of the Jews…In that

day when history shall be written in the light of truth, the people of Israel will be

known not as Christ-killers, but as Christ-bearers; not as God-slayers, but as

God-bringers to the world.

Dr Pinchas Lapide, Orthodox Jewish scholar:

Jesus was utterly true to the as I myself hope to be. I even suspect that Torah,

Jesus was even more true to the than I, an Orthodox Jew. I accept the Torah

resurrection of Easter Sunday not as an invention of the community of disciples,

but as a historical event…I believe that the Christ event leads to a way of

salvation which [Elohim] has opened up in order to bring the gentile world into

the community of [Elohim’s] Israel.


A term applied to a group of first-century Messianic Jews (probably from Beit Shammai)

who required non-Jews to perform —”works of the Law” before they Ma’asei haTorah

were accepted into the Body of Messiah. Also called the “circumcision faction/party.”

Sha’ul reacts strongly to their unauthorised countermissions in epistles such as Romans,

Colossians and, especially, Galatians. The message of the Judaisers conflicted with the

halakhic decree of the Nazarene Beit Din reported in Acts 15.



Jubilees, Book of

A pseudepigraphic work sometimes called the Lesser Genesis, consisting of a history of

mankind as related to Mosheh by an angel. The dates mentioned by the angel centres

around the years of Yovel.

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See: Qabalah.

Jewish Mysticism. Qabalists strive to understand the Creator and the universe from a

mystical viewpoint. Some wise men taught that whoever studies Qabalah before the age

of 40, may go insane.

Kalat Be’reshith

Literally: bride of Genesis; the woman called to recite or chant the blessings over the

first section of the on Torah Simchat Torah.


Bride. Conclave or retreat.


Expiation…The ceremony of transferring sinfulness to the goat during the l’Azazel Yom

Kippur service.


The covering of the Ark of the Testimony. Seat of atonement.


A Pesach dish.


To cut (off, down or asunder). To destroy or consume. To cut a covenant (i.e. make an

alliance by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces). “Being cut off” from the

people is punishment which might become capital or consist of early natural death.


Mount Carmel.


A green herb like parsley or a green vegetable such as celery or watercress, symbolising

spring; one of the symbolic foods used on the Pesach Seder plate.






Ritually clean food, permitted by the Torah. kashrut. Foods permitted under the laws of

Commonly called under the influence of Yiddish. kosher

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Orthodox Rabbi Yehuda Appel writes:

Many people find dieting to be quite a challenge. Indeed, Jewish tradition found

the entire enterprise of eating to be filled with obstacles and opportunities. Meal

time is termed in Jewish literature as “the hour of war;” the Hebrew word for

war— —has the same root as —bread. Eating is supposed to milchama lechem

be an act of elevating oneself through the medium of thought, speech and

action. In the realm of thought, we should view eating as an act of fulfilling the

Almighty’s will. In the realm of speech, we say a blessing over the food. And in

the realm of action, we eat the food with care and appreciation of the Almighty’s


In this week’s portion, the delineation is made between Torah Shmini, kosher

and non-kosher animals. The states that for an animal to be kosher it Torah

must chew its cud and have split hooves. Chewing the cud (“rumination”)

involves the regurgitation and then redigestion of food. Jewish tradition sees this

as an allusion for the need to review and re-examine one’s actions, a procedure

that is at the very heart of righteousness. The split hoof, coming as it does at the

foot, emphasises the need for a person to be complete from head to toe.

In contradistinction to the wholeness of a kosher animal, there are four

animals—the camel, pig, shafan and arnevet (the last two animals’ identities are

not known today)—who are singled out in this week’s parsha because they

possessed only one of two kosher signs. The camel represents pride, the

pig—hypocrisy, the shafan—idolatry, and the arnevet—narrowness.

On the other hand, fish are seen as the most holy of species. Unlike other

species who, even in their kosher manifestations need some tikkun

(rectification), the fish needs none. Fish do not need to be ritually slaughtered or

have its blood removed as its land cousins did. Moreover, the fish were

unaffected by Noach’s flood. While the land animals had been involved in

bestiality before the deluge, the fish maintained their purity and were thus saved.

This symbol of the fish as representing purity can also be found in the qabalistic

literature where it is used to symbolise the Tzadiq, the righteous person. Many

people are guilty of misusing their gift of sight and viewing scenes they would be

better off avoiding. In qabalistic understanding, the anatomical feature of the

eyelid is an allusion to this need to at times shut our eyes and avoid seeing

improper things. The Tzadiq, however, guards his behaviour, intuitively avoiding

such situations, and actually needs no such safeguard. He is thus symbolised

by a fish, a species which has no eyelid.

The also makes distinctions between kosher and non-kosher fish. To be Torah

kosher, a fish has to possess both fins and scales. The sources explain that

these elements can be likened to crowns atop the fish, attesting to the kosher

fish’s higher spiritual status. Furthermore, such fish tend to swim in the upper

expanses of the ocean where the water is more pure.

It is clear that Jewish tradition sees the act of eating as an opportunity to elevate

one’s behaviour to a higher level.


The dietary laws of the Torah.

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Literally: intentionality; referring to the spiritual attitude with which we approach

worship. The spiritual concentration accompanying prayer and the performance of a

positive commandment.

Karath „¡ Kareth

To cut off; by implication: to destroy or consume; to cut a covenant by cutting flesh and

passing between the pieces; to excommunicate; to execute by death or to die an early


Dani’el 9:24-27 teaches that —the Anointed Ruler—will be “cut Mashiach HaNagid

off,” i.e. that He would be killed and a covenant be cut through His death. The prophecy

makes it clear that He would be “cut off” before the destruction of Yerushalayim and the

Second Temple. Which covenant would be cut by the death of Mashiach HaNagid? The

Tanakh answers: The (Renewed Covenant) promised to the Houses of B’rit Chadashah

Israel and Yahudah in Yirmeyahu 31:31-34. This prophecy about Mashiach HaNagid

also teaches that there will not be Messiahs—a suffering Servant and a conquering two

King—but only Messiah, who would both suffer a vicarious covenantal death and one

(subsequently) be the ruling Messiah (Nagid). A close scrutiny of the Talmud,

especially Tractate Sanhedrin, shows that Dani’el 9:24-27 was well understood by the



To come up and be present. Often translated as “at hand,” it usually does not mean that

something is near, but that something has come up and is now a reality. present






The dietary laws prescribed in the Colossians 2:16-17 teaches us that the dietary Torah.

laws were given to about Messiah. teach




When the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah (standing prayer), the congregation rises

for this antiphonal chant of a doxology from Scripture verses proclaiming the oneness

and set-apartness of YHWH.

Kedushat Hayom

The benediction concerning the “set-apartness of the day” included in the Amidah

prayers on Sabbaths and Festivals.

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Village. The first part of many settlements in Eretz Yisra’el. The Messiah frequented

Kefar Nachum (Capernaum)—the “Village of Nachum,” i.e. the “Town of the

Comforter.” This town was named after the prophet Nachum.


See Qahal Qahol. „¡



Priesthood in the . Beit haMiqdash

Kehunah Gedolah

High Priesthood.


The set-apart vessels used in the of the avodah Beit haMiqdash. According to the

rabbinic commentators, the vessels of the not only allowed ceremonies to be Miqdash

performed, but also lent to the —the dwelling-place of the —the Miqdash Sh’khinah

ambience of a palatial residence.


An idol. Mentioned in Numbers 21:29Judges 11:241Kings 11:7332Kings 23:13;

Yirmeyahu 48:71346.






Plural: Keruvim.

A type of heavenly messenger (“angel”).


The loyal covenantal love of YHWH.


See: Yom Teruah

Another name for is the Rosh HaShanah Yom Teruah or Yom haKeseh, Day of the

Hiding, Day of Concealment Hidden Day. keseh the or the The term or is derived from

the Hebrew root which means to conceal, cover, or hide. A Jewish reference for kachah

Rosh HaShanah being called can be found in the book, The Hidden Day The Complete

Story of Tishrei Mekkos L’inyonei Chinuch by Nisan Mindel, (Brooklyn, New York: Inc.,


Page 106


A traditional Jewish marriage contract, detailing the duties of the husband and the wife

and stipulating the amount of money that the husband should pay as a penalty should he

divorce his wife.


Literally: “the Writings;” the third section of the Tanakh.


End of Days.


Chamber; room.


Blessing recited or chanted over wine on Shabbat or festivals emphasising their setapartness.

A prayer of setting apart, of separation, of dedicating something or a set-apart

time to Almighty YHWH. The Kaddish is recited over wine and bread on the eve of the

Shabbat and the Festivals.

Kiddush HaChodesh

The setting-apart of the New Moon.

Kiddush Levanah

The blessing of setting-apart over the monthly renewal of the moon.


Literally: set-apart. Refers to the full wedding ceremony and the state of being married.

King James Only

The erroneous belief that the (KJV) translation is inerrant. Many of these King James

groups follow the views of Dr. Peter S. Ruckman, an outspoken advocate of this view.

Ruckmanism is popularised by the popular comic, which is Crusaders Sabotage,

published by Chick Publications in the USA.

Welcome to the real world! Though the KJV is the least tainted by theological

modernism, there simply is no perfect translation of the Scriptures, because translation is

the work of fallible human beings. While many love to make the King James Bible out

to be a perfect translation, in reality it is not. In one quick example, Acts 12:4 reads:

And when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to

four quaternions of soldiers to keep him: intending after EASTER to bring him

forth to the people…

This is the same Greek word translated as in over 25 passages in the Apostolic Pesach

Writings. In Luke 22:15 it is written,

“I have desired to eat this (3957) with you before I suffer” PESACH

Can you imagine Yahushua saying, “I have desired to eat this EASTER with you before

I suffer”? Horrid paganism!

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The original KJV was printed in 1611. The present KJV has been retranslated over 10

times. If you owned an original KJV, you could not read and understand it because it is

written in Old English. English has changed a lot during the past 400 years.

Furthermore, the King James Bible displays an anti- bias in the translation because Torah

of the theology that prevailed when it was translated. This same bias is still preached

today in many denominations. Beginning in the 3rd century, this anti- bias began Torah

to gain a strong foothold within Christianity. Some of the viewpoints of the heretic

Marcion, who detested the are still prevalent and taught in many churches today Torah,

and are accepted as some of the true doctrines found in the Epistles of Sha’ul. In

addition, Jews were kicked out of England during the era of the printing and influence of

the King James Bible because the “Christian church” was still steeped in many Catholic

doctrines from the 4th century through the Middle Ages.

Those who claim the KJV is the “pure Word” are living in fantasy. These people are as

deluded as the “sacred name” fanatics who claim that if you don’t use the correct Hebrew

name for the Almighty and His Messiah, you will “burn in hell.” The KJV is inaccurate

in many areas. However, it is the most accurate English translation and based upon less

questionable transcripts. Modern translators, influenced by liberalism, also have far less

respect for the Word than the more ancient translators. For that reason, the KJV is the

least tainted with liberalism, modernism and occultism. But perfect?—no! Only the

original Hebrew manuscripts are perfect. Because practically all of the Apostolic

Writings was conceived in Hebrew, and often mechanically rendered into Greek, the

translator and exegete should reconstruct the hidden Semitic undertext that underlies the

Greek New Testament.


Small round head covering worn by -observant men in a set-apart place or when Torah

reading Scripture. It is a symbol of respect for and submission to the Almighty. Some

sages would not walk two steps without their heads being covered, because the Sh’khinah

is all around us.

Christianity’s tradition that men’s heads should be uncovered in a House of Prayer, is

possibly based on a misunderstanding and mistranslation of Sha’ul’s instruction in

1 Corinthians 11:4. Correctly understood, this verse means that men should not enter a

Beit Tefillah hair tangled up, hanging down. (house of worship) with their (In the

ancient Roman Empire, male homosexual prostitutes wore their hair like this.) In other

words, a man’s hair and beard had to be neatly shaven, and he had to have his head



Plural: Kinot.

Lamentation. Elegy in poetic (piyyut) structure recited on Jewish days of mourning.


Month in which Chanukah falls. Usually overlaps with the months November and

December on the pagan calender.

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White garment that is part of traditional Jewish burial clothes; worn by some worshipers

on as a reminder of mortality and a symbol of purity, and by some officiants Yom Kippur

at services and at the Seder. Also worn by some grooms at their Rosh HaShanah Pesach



Commonly translated as Cyprus, but anciently understood to denote Rome in some

passages, e.g. Numbers 24:24, where renders it as Rome. The word Targum Onkelos

Kittim Tanakh is used in 8 verses in the — Genesis 10:4Numbers 24:24, 1 Chronicles

1:7, Yeshayahu 23:1,12; Yirmeyahu 2:10; Yechezq’el 27:6 and Dani’el 11:30.


Washstand. Laver.


Corner, wing; corner of garment where the are fastened. Malachi 4:2 teaches that tzitzit

the Messiah will come as the (Sun of Righteousness) with healing in Shemesh Tzadekah

his k’naf . (wings, corners) When correlated with the creation account of Genesis 1, the

principle that 1 day represents 1000 years, and the fact that the symbolises the tzitzit

Torah, this intimates to us that the Messiah would come to earth as the Light of the

World around the year 4000, and that He will be the Living In the book of Ruth, Torah.

we read how Ruth asked the (kinsman redeemer), Boaz, to spread the of his go’el k’naf

garment over her. This is a beautiful intimation about the Messiah and His bride.

Knowledge of good and evil

„Í „Í ƒp ƒq The possession of the full spectrum of knowledge, or attaining the age of moral

insight and responsibility.

Qodesh haQodeshim

The Most Set-Apart Place; the “Holy of Holies” in the Beit haMiqdash in . Yerushalayim

This room housed the Ark of the Covenant. Only the High Priest could enter this room,

and that only on Yom Kippur.

Korban Asham

Guilt-offering; trespass offering.

Korban Hata’aat

Sin offering.

Korban Olah

Burnt offering.


Hand-written scroll placed in a containing Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21mezuzah,


Set-apart. Afrikaans: “gans anders.” Misleadingly translated as “holy.”

Page 109

Qodesh haQodeshim

The room behind the HaQodesh.


The scroll of “Ecclesiastes.”


Plural: Kohanim.

Descendant of the priestly class, the progeny of Aaron. A priest.

Kohen haGadol

The High Priest.



Kol ha-kavod

All honour.

Kol Nidrei

Literally: “al vows;” a prayer that begins the evening service; the entire Yom Kippur

service is often called the service…a prayer and announcement of repeal of Kol Nidrei

all vows that is recited upon the advent of the Day of Atonement. According to Rashi,

Kol Nidrei Geonim was instituted by some (Babylonian Jewish sages, heads of the

Talmudic academies in the Middle ages, circa 600-1100). The Geonim were extremely

divided about this practice. only applies to personal religious vows which do Kol Nidrei

not affect any other person. It has no bearing on an oath imposed by law.


Matzah and bitter herb sandwich, eaten during the Pesach Seder meal.


Cyrus, the King of the Medes and Persians and conquerer of Babylon. In Yeshayahu 45,

he is calles an anointed one, because he was anointed with the royal power to conquer

Babylon, and with the wisdom to allow the rebuilding of the Temple in Yerushalayim.


Yiddish for R Kasher. itually fit for use…permitted.


The traditional pronunciation of words in the Torah.


The traditional spelling of words in the Torah.


Anciently, 3 regions were known as Kush—(1) Sudan/Ethiopia, (2) a region in Yemen,

and (3) Mesopotamia. When a text reads, “beyond/between the rivers of Kush” it refers

Page 110

to the Mesopotamian Kush and not to Ethiopia. See, e.g. the ancient commentary of

Rabbi Ibn Ezra in Isaiah.

The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (1988: 267) mentions “…an earlier Asiatic, Mesopotamian

Cush, probably the Kassites.”


Kushites. Inhabitants of Kush, i.e. one of the 3 regions anciently called Kush.

See: Kush.

Page 111


Lamnatze’ach Ya’ancha HaShem

Psalm 20, recited on weekdays to mark sorrow and supplication.


A torch; one who brings forth light. A term for the Messiah.

The account of Devorah, Barak, Ya’el and Sisera in Shovetim (Judges) 4 contains much

teaching on the Messiah. The name Devorah means bee, but is closely related to “Word”

and “Congregation.” She is married to Lappidoth. She overcomes the enemy. She sits

and judges between Ramah and the mountains of Ephrayim. The sages understood

Ramah as the “seat of idolatry,” while Ephrayim means fruitfulness. Likewise, the

Congregation who is married to the Torch, the Light of the World, King Messiah, will

overcome and will choose Ephrayim (fruitfulness) above Ramah (idolatry). Barak

means lightning. Yahushua’s coming will be like lightning that flashes from the east to

the west . Ya’el crushed the head of Sisera, a —Chavaqquk 3:3-4; Mattityahu 24:27

picture of Satan and the False messiah (cf. Genesis 3:15), with a yo’ted—a term for the

Messiah, who would crush the head of (the serpent) and the eschatological seed nachash

of —the False messiah. nachash

Lashon ha-qodesh

Literally: The set-apart tongue. The Hebrew language.

Lashon ha-ra

Literally: “Tongue that is evil.” Evil speech; gossip and slander. Lashon ha-ra means

the making of a derogatory or damaging remark about someone.

Gossip has always been a serious problem, but in modern times it has become so

prevalent that witty innuendo is a mark of distinction, and character assassination is a

constitutionally protected right that is regarded as an essential safeguard in a free society.

If one has a grievance against another, it should be settled personally and privately. If,

however, one instead gossips to a third party, has occurred. This wicked lashon ha-ra

tongue can be worse than the original offence, and is expressly forbidden in the Torah.

Proverbs 15:2

Death and life are in the power of the tongue.

There are 31 commandments that relate to in the Two in particular lashon ha-ra Torah.

will be considered here. These specifically address inappropriate speech or mitzvot

gossiping about another:

Leviticus 19:16

You shall not go up and down as a talebearer among your people.

The text,

Page 112

Leviticus 25:17

You shall not wrong one another.

has traditionally been interpreted as wronging a person with speech. It includes any

statement that will embarrass, insult or deceive a person, or cause a person emotional

pain or distress.

The Chofetz Chayim, Israel Meyer Kagan, wrote several books about lashon ha-ra

which all go into great detail. The basics of the laws are these:

„¿ You are not to say derogatory things about anyone whether true or not.

„¿ You are not to imply derogatory things about anyone.

„¿ You are not to listen to derogatory things about anyone, and if you do, you should

not believe it.

To violate these instructions is to become one who is known as having an “evil Torah

tongue,” or one who commits Tale bearing is, essentially, any malignant lashon ha-ra.

gossip. The Hebrew word for talebearer is (resh-kaf-yod-lamed), which is related rakheel

to a word meaning trader or merchant. The idea is that a talebearer is like a merchant

whose merchandise is gossip or tale bearing. Some other terms that bring more

understanding to the solemnity of this subject are or the dust of gossip and avak rechilut

avak lashon ha-ra the dust of an evil tongue. —

Sometimes a violation of can be committed in without even saying Torah lashon ha-ra,

anything specific about another. The “dust” of could be a statement that lashon ha-ra

you may make such as “well, so-and-so said something about you, but I won’t tell you

because that would be wrong.” The worst offence is purposely “motzi shem ra”

spreading a bad name or lie about another, with the intention of bringing injury.

We must correct our speech, change our habits, and learn to walk circumspectly before

YHWH and people. Western Christianity has evolved into a system that strongly

preaches what one “believes,” but that belief-system is not necessarily expressed in

everyday living. The early Messianic Assemblies had a different perspective: one

studies in order to revere and obey; not to assemble head-knowledge.

Please note that warning people about a dangerous person, specifically a teacher of

heresy, does not constitute lashon ha-ra—to contend for the truth and warn the sheep

about wolves is a Scriptural principle. Such warning, though, should be done with many

documented facts and few adjectives.

Scriptures forbids one to denigrate the behaviour or character of a person or to make any

remark that might cause physical, psychological or financial harm.

Wayyiqra 19:16

Do not go about spreading among your people. Do not do anything that slander

endangers your neighbour’s life. I am YHWH.

Proverbs 10:18

He who conceals his hatred has lying lips, and whoever spreads is a slander


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Proverbs 30:10

Do not a servant to his master, or he will curse you, and you will pay for slander


Yirmeyahu 6:28

They are all hardened rebels, going about to They are bronze and iron; slander.

they all act corruptly.

1 Corinthians 4:12-13

When we are cursed, we bless; when we are persecuted, we endure it; …when

we are we answer kindly. slandered,

1 Corinthians 5:11

But now I am writing to you that you must not associate with anyone who calls

himself a brother but is sexually immoral or greedy, an idolater or a a slanderer,

drunkard or a swindler. With such a man do not even eat.

1 Corinthians 6:9-11

9Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be

deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male

prostitutes nor homosexual offenders nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards 10

nor nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of YHWH. And that is slanderers 11

what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were

justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.

2 Corinthians 12:20

For I am afraid that when I come I may not find you as I want you to be, and you

may not find me as you want me to be. I fear that there may be quarrelling,

jealousy, outbursts of anger, factions, gossip, arrogance and disorder. slander,

Ephesians 4:31

Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and along with every slander,

form of malice.

Colossians 3:8

But now you must rid yourselves of all such things as these: anger, rage, malice,

slander and filthy language from your lips.

Titus 2:3

Likewise, teach the older women to be reverent in the way they live, not to be

slanderers or addicted to much wine, but to teach what is good.

Titus 3:2

Remind the people…to no-one, to be peaceable and considerate, and slander

to show true humility towards all men.

Ya’aqov 4:11

Brothers, do not one another. Anyone who speaks against his brother or slander

judges him speaks against the law and judges it. When you judge the law, you

are not keeping it, but sitting in judgment on it.

Page 114

1 Kefa 2:1

Therefore, rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and

slander of every kind.

Ten fundamental rules to remember in order to avoid lashon ha-ra

1. It is to convey a derogatory image of someone, even if that image is lashon ha-ra

true and deserved. (False derogatory statements are called —”slander motzi shem

of a name.”)

2. A statement which is not actually derogatory but can ultimately cause someone

physical, financial or emotional harm is also lashon ha-ra.

3. It is to humorously recount an incident that contains embarrassing or lashon ha-ra

damaging information about a person, even if there is not the slightest intent that

they should suffer any harm or humiliation.

4. is forbidden even when you not only incriminate others, but also Lashon ha-ra


5. may not be communicated in any way, shape or form—i.e. through Lashon ha-ra

writing, body language, verbal hints, etc.

6. To speak against a community as a whole is a particularly severe offence.

Harmful remarks about children are also . lashon ha-ra

7. may not be communicated even to close relatives, including one’s Lashon ha-ra


8. Even if the listener has previously heard the derogatory account, or the

information has become public knowledge and the subject will suffer no further

harm by its repetition, it nevertheless should not be repeated.

9. which is telling one person a derogatory statement that another person Rechillut,

said about them, is forbidden because it causes animosity between people.

10. It is forbidden to listen to or If someone inadvertently lashon ha-ra rechillut.

hears it is forbidden to believe that it is true. One should give the lashon ha-ra,

person the benefit of the doubt. Assume the slanderous information is inaccurate

or that the person does not realise they are doing something wrong.

Last Day

Yom YHWH. Yom YHWH, Note that the resurrection of the dead takes place in the

sabbatical millennium, the Last Day.


Uncle of Ya’aqov; father of Rachel and Leah. Literal translation: “Whitey.”


To act as though there was no to act in radical opposition to The goal of Torah; Torah.

Torah is to instruct man in the righteousness that is through Yahushua the Messiah, who

has interposed his shed sacrificial blood between us and the righteous demand of the

Torah that the wages of sin is death. The Man Yahushua the Messiah is the only

Page 115

mediator between mankind and Elohim. The essence of the is to love YHWH Torah

your Elohim alone, with your entire being. The False messiah will say that he is “Christ”

and “God” and will demand worship. This will make him the —the man of lawlessness

man who seeks to annul both the and the of goal essence Torah.

Note that wrong definitions of “lawlessness” abound in contemporary Christian teaching.

Many pastors do not understand the term at all, because they have not learned to think in

terms of the Hebrew lifeworld of the first century. The term lawlessness does not deal

with crime statistics, strikes and marches, but with the of YHWH. To teach that Torah

the has been “cancelled in Christ” is teaching lawlessness. It is especially the Torah

liberal “no Law” branch of dispensationalism that is guilty of this incorrect teaching.



Lechem Mishneh

Two loaves required for the blessing on Sabbath and Festival meals.


Literally: “to judge oneself;” the Hebrew verb translated as “pray.”

Leshanah Tovah Tikatevu

Literally: May you be inscribed [in the Book of Life] for a good year; Rosh haShanah

greeting, sometimes shortened to Shanah Tovah.


Heart. Metaphor for the mind, the will, the cognitive, morally responsible centre of a

person. The heart has two entrances windows: the eyes and the ears. One’s heart is

manifested in one’s thoughts, words and deeds.

See: nefesh.


The moon. “The white one.”


A husband’s brother.

Levirate marriage

Hebrew: Yibbum. The institution of the brother-in-law marrying his brothers widow.

The marriage of a childless widow by the brother of the deceased (yavamah) (yavam)

husband, in accordance with Devarim 25:5. The release of this obligation is effected

through chalitzah.


“That rise up against me.” A prophetic term for Bavel (Babylon) in Yirmeyahu 51:1.

Yirmeyahu 51:1-2:

1This is what YHWH says: “See, I will stir up the spirit of a destroyer against

Babylon and the people of I will send foreigners to Babylon to Lev-Kamay. 2

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winnow her and to devastate her land; they will oppose her on every side in the

day of her disaster.

In the acharit-yamim, Bavel, the “hammer of the whole earth,” i.e. the policeman of the

world, will rise up against YHWH by turning against those in Israel who are jealous for

the and will therefore come under judgement, because she destroys the inheritance Torah

of YHWH, the apple of His eye.

See: Meratayim.


Leviathan. A seven-headed, gigantic, twisted serpent that dwells in the sea. Liv’yatan

was a well-known character in ancient Middle-eastern literature. In Ugaritic literature

this monster is called Lotan. YHWH uses this well-known symbol to give graphic

prophecies about Satan, the False messiah (Antichrist) and his evil empire.

The word is derived from a root meaning “to coil” and “to twist.” liv’yatan

The 1912, Vol. VIII, p. 37-39 states: Jewish Encyclopedia,

The leviathan is prominent in haggadic literature in connection with the advent of

the Messiah. Referring to Job 41:6, “and the pious ones shall make a banquet of

it,” Rabbi Yohanan says that in the time of the resurrection a banquet will be

given by Elohim to the righteous, at which the flesh of the leviathan will be

served…Elohim will divide the monster with his sword…

These haggadot concerning the leviathan are interpreted as allegories by

[practically all Jewish] commentators…

In the…literature the “piercing leviathan” and the “crooked leviathan” are

interpreted as referring to Satan Sama’el [the celestial prince over Rome]…,

while…others consider the expressions to be allusions to the destruction of the

powers which are hostile to the Jews…The haggadic sayings obtained a hold on

the imaginations of the poets, who introduced allusions to the banquet of

leviathan into the liturgy.

The Vol. 11, p. 90 states: Encyclopaedia Judaica,

In the Scriptures, [leviathan] is used interchangeably with several other seamonsters

— (“dragon”), and (“sea”)—all of whom are tanin rahav, yam

represented as supernatural enemies of Elohim.


A great, morally and intellectually superior person; a distinguished scholar of the

Scriptures. King Messiah is the Lion from the Tribe of Yahudah.

See: Fox.

L’olam va’ed

For ever; for a period of time that has a hidden, undetermined, indefinite end.

Loose the hedge

In a 1998 submission to an Internet newsgroup, Dr James Trimm writes:

Understanding Ephesians 2:14-15 from the Aramaic text

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Ephesians 2:14-16:

14He is, therefore, our shalom who made the two of them one and loosed the

hedge which stood between us and therefore the enmity (by His flesh and the 15

Torah because of the statutes within the commandments) is abrogated, that

from the two of them He might create in Himself one new man, and He made

shalom, reconciling you two into one body with Eloah, so that by His crucifixion 16

the enmity has been slain.

footnotes to 2:14-16: Lit. Aram. “and the law (namosa) of the statutes (puqada) within

the commandments (puqdana).” Aramaic Hebrew and Aramaic namosa Torah „M

puqada mitzvah puqdana mitzvot „M „M Hebrew , and also Aramaic Hebrew (Mk.10:19).

In Aramaic, also equals Hebrew which means means puqada choq statute. Mitzvot

commandments or ordinances. Greek has “the law (nomos) of the decree (dogma) in the

commandments (entole).” Here the Greek decree or statute which is dogma „M

equivalent to the Hebrew or The passive verb “is abolished” is singular mitzvah choq.

and can not have two subjects. As a result only “enmity” is abolished. The words “by

His flesh” is conjuncted to “and the ” The next phrase is a and begins torah. dalet clause

with “because” as in Dani’el 3:29,4:96:323, and 7:11. The reference here in 2:15

concerns the enmity between Yahudim and Gentiles due to the unique “customs of

Israel” (v. 12) that necessarily produced estrangement between them. The particular

customs that Sha’ul here refers to are that separated, such as the hedges about the Law

laws of separation from Gentiles given in the (e.g. which were in Mishna Avodah Zarah)

effect in the period (see John 4:921-22). The phrase “and loosed the New Testament

hedge” in the Aramaic reads and was used as a technical term in sh’ra s’yaga halakhic

Judaism. was used to mean or (as in 18:18 and in Sh’ra “loose” “permit” Mattatiyahu

various places in Rabbinic literature) The term appears in Mishna Avot 1:1 “make s’yaga

a hedge about the torah.”

To “loose the hedge” would mean to permit activities that these hedge rules had

effectually discouraged such as, to (truly) love thy neighbour. Sha’ul is pointing out that

the flesh of the Messiah was given as a sacrifice for the whole world and that even the

Torah Kol v’chomer itself demanded the abrogation of enmity. (light and heavy) is

applied as the reasoning the work of the Messiah is of higher consequence than the —

differences between Jew and Gentile that the statutes produced, for even the itself Torah

teaches to love your neighbour. It is emphasised that Messiah died for the whole world

and now has become the unifying factor above all else, in whose redeeming work all

enmity between people can and should be set aside.


Plural: Lulavim

Palm branch, with myrtle and willow sprigs attached; with the etrog, it is the symbol of

Sukkot…a palm branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Booths.

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Night-time prayer service…evening prayers after sunset. Service after dark.


Plural: Ma’asrot.


Tithing one’s possessions was a very ancient custom, existing as early as the time of the

patriarchs. Avraham gave a tenth part of all to Malki-tzedeq:

Bereshith 14:18-20

Then Malki-tzedeq king of Shalem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of

the Most High El, and he blessed Avram, saying, “Blessed be Avram by the 19

Most High El, Creator of heaven and earth. And blessed be the Most High El, 20

who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Then Avram gave him a tenth of


Ya’aqov made a vow that, if he should return to his father’s house in safety, he would

acknowledge YHWH as his Elohim and give Him a tenth of everything he possessed:

Bereshith 28:20-22

20Then Ya’aqov made a vow, saying, “If Elohim will be with me and will watch

over me on this journey I am taking and will give me food to eat and clothes to

wear so that I return safely to my father’s house, then YHWH will be my Elohim 21

22and this stone that I have set up as a pillar shall become the house of Elohim,

and of all that you give me I shall repeatedly give you a ” tenth.

Later, the Torah given through Mosheh made the tithe obligatory on the Israelites. The

tithe, whether of the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree, belonged to YHWH and was,

in consequence, qadosh—set-apart. It was redeemable by adding 20% to its value. The

tithe of the cattle and other kosher animals was, however, not redeemable. If one animal

earmarked for the tithe was exchanged for another, both animals became set-apart unto


The tithe-animals were determined by passing the animals under the rod in single file;

every tenth animal passing under the rod became the tithe-animal.

Wayyiqra 27:30-33

30A of everything from the land, whether grain from the soil or fruit from the tithe

trees, belongs to YHWH; it is set-apart to YHWH.

31 If a man redeems any of his he must add a fifth of the value to it. tithe,

32 The entire tithe of the herd and flock—every tenth animal that passes

under the shepherd’s rod—will be set-apart to YHWH.

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33 He must not pick out the good from the bad or make any substitution. If he

does make a substitution, both the animal and its substitute become set-apart

and cannot be redeemed.'”

Tithing dealt with agriculture and with animals (livestock), and not with money—except

when crops were redeemed.

2 Chronicles 31:5-12

5As soon as the order went out, the Israelites generously gave the firstfruits of

their grain, new wine, olive oil and date honey and all that the fields produced.

They brought a great amount, a of everything [i.e. agricultural products]. tithe

6The men of Israel and Yehudah who lived in the towns of Yehudah also brought

a of their herds and flocks and a of the set-apart produce dedicated to tithe tithe

YHWH their Elohim, and they piled them in heaps.

7They began doing this in the [i.e. at and finished in the third month Shavuot]

seventh month [i.e. in Tishri, at … Sukkot]

… Then they faithfully brought in the contributions, and dedicated gifts… 12 tithes

Almsgiving and offerings is an altogether different subject from tithing. Every

synagogue had a gebei tzadeqah—the treasurer of almsgiving. Each rabbi and his

group of talmidim had a gebei tzadeqah. talmidim Yahushua and his group of also had a

gebei tzadeqah—Yehudah ha-Zikari (Judas Iscariot—Judas the cut-throat). (He was

no honest man, for he stole from the purse.) The people were instructed from childhood

that they had a responsibility of taking care of the dependents in the community.

In ancient Israel, the poor and disabled of the community were expected to request alms.

Refraining from this was seen as sinful conduct, because it kept almsgivers from

receiving blessings from YHWH. Whereas tithing dealt with the produce of the land,

almsgiving and scriptural giving (offerings) could be done with money. Alms were

given to the for distribution to the needy, or directly to the persons in gebei tzadeqah

need. Childless aged widows were put on the roll of local synagogues. A portion of

what was given at the synagogue, was given to these people.

Besides Temple tax, all that was given to the Beit haMiqdash was required to be freewill

gifts. Synagogues levied a tax, part of which was given to the synagogue’s gebei

tzadeqah for distribution to the needy. The Temple tax amounted to half a sheqel per

year—about half an American dollar per year; everybody paid the same Temple tax.

There were certain responsibilities that one could not avoid by giving. If a man had an

income and his own parents were in need, it would be wrong to give to the synagogue,

the Beit haMiqdash or to other needy persons, unless his own parents were well looked

after first. Giving to his needy parents was seen as giving to Elohim. It was considered

a sin to take money to the or synagogue, and let his own parents suffer Beit haMiqdash

want. A man who did not fulfil this vital responsibility first, was seen as a pagan.

Messiah Yahushua objected vehemently to people giving to the Temple while their own

family suffered want.

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All the tithe was given to the Levi’im, as they had no inheritance in the land. The tithe

was to be their principal source of sustenance. In turn, the Levi’im tithed to the priests.

The Levi’im were the of Israel. gebei tzadeqah

Bemidbar 18:20-31

20YHWH said to Aaron, “You will have in their land, nor will you no inheritance

have any share among them; I am your share and your inheritance among the


21″I give to the Levites all the in Israel as their inheritance in return for the tithes

work they do while serving at the Tent of Meeting…

23It is the Levites who are to do the work at the Tent of Meeting and bear the

responsibility for offences against it. This is a lasting ordinance for the

generations to come. They will receive no inheritance among the Israelites.

24Instead, I give to the Levites as their inheritance the that the Israelites tithes

present as an offering to YHWH. That is why I said concerning them: `They will

have no inheritance among the Israelites.'”

25 26 YHWH said to Moses, “Speak to the Levites and say to them: `When you

receive from the Israelites the I give you as your inheritance, you must tithe

present a of that as YHWH’s offering… tenth tithe

28…In this way you also will present an offering to YHWH from all the you tithes

receive from the Israelites. From these you must give YHWH’s portion to tithes

Aaron the priest…

31…You and your households may eat the rest of it anywhere, for it is your

wages for your work at the Tent of Meeting.

The Levi’im were the treasurers of the tithe. They also used it for their own sustenance.

The tribe of the Levi’im had no agricultural land; their function was to perform the

avodah in the Beit haMiqdash Eretz and serve as the gebei tzadeqah to the poor of

Yisra’el. They also used the tithe for their own food.

From Exodus 23:14 we know that there were 3 annual or regalim

Devarim 12:5-19

5But you are to seek the place YHWH your Elohim will choose from among all

your tribes to put his Name there for his dwelling. To that place you must go;

6there bring your burnt offerings and sacrifices, your and special gifts, tithes

what you have vowed to give and your freewill offerings, and the firstborn of your

herds and flocks.

7There, in the presence of YHWH your Elohim, you and your families shall eat

and shall in everything you have put your hand to, because YHWH your rejoice

Elohim has blessed you.

11Then to the place YHWH your Elohim will choose as a dwelling for his

Name—there you are to bring everything I command you: your burnt offerings

and sacrifices, your and special gifts, and all the choice possessions you tithes

have vowed to YHWH.

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12And there before YHWH your Elohim, you, your sons and daughters, rejoice

your menservants and maidservants, and the from your towns, who Levites

have no allotment or inheritance of their own.

17You must not eat in your own towns the of your grain and new wine and tithe

oil, or the firstborn of your herds and flocks, or whatever you have vowed to give,

or your freewill offerings or special gifts.

18 Instead, you are to your Elohim at the eat them in the presence of YHWH

place YHWH your Elohim will choose—you, your sons and daughters, your

menservants and maidservants, and the Levites from your towns—and you are

to rejoice before YHWH your Elohim in everything you put your hand to.

19Be careful not to neglect the as long as you live in your land. Levites

During the reign of King Shlomo, Ancient Israel was divided into 24 districts. There

were levitical cities in each district. There were storehouses in these cities. These

storehouses were granaries, cattle-pens and sheep-pens. The people brought the food to

the storehouses; the food was used for two purposes: (1) To provide for the Levi’im, the

kohanim and their families, and (2) to provide for the poor people of that district. The

Levi’im administered this distribution system. Of the total amount that came in, the

Levi’im gave 10% to the kohanim. The kohanim had no responsibility to distribute this

to the poor; they had to consume the animals and agricultural produce given to them by

the Levi’im; it was their “salary.”

Only farmers tithed. Others, e.g. scribes, tradesmen and artisans, gave alms and taxes,

but not tithes—the tithing system was purely agricultural. The elders of a synagogue

did not receive or collect tithes. The “pastors” of “congregations” had no authority, no

right, to ask the congregants to “tithe.”

Tithing was structured in a 7-year cycle.

Devarim 14:22-29

22Be sure to set aside a tenth of all that your fields produce each year.

23Eat the tithe of your grain, new wine and oil, and the firstborn of your herds and

flocks in the presence of YHWH your Elohim at the place he will choose as a

dwelling for his Name, so that you may learn to revere YHWH your Elohim


24But if that place is too distant and you have been blessed by YHWH your

Elohim and cannot carry your tithe (because the place where YHWH will choose

to put his Name is so far away), then exchange your tithe for silver, and take 25

the silver with you and go to the place YHWH your Elohim will choose.

26Use the silver to buy whatever you like: cattle, sheep, wine or other fermented

drink, or anything you wish. Then you and your household shall eat there in the

presence of YHWH your Elohim and rejoice.

27And do not neglect the Levites living in your towns, for they have no allotment

or inheritance of their own.

28At the end of every three years, bring all the tithes of that year’s produce and

store it in your towns,

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29so that the Levites (who have no allotment or inheritance of their own) and the

aliens, the fatherless and the widows who live in your towns may come and eat

and be satisfied, and so that YHWH your Elohim may bless you in all the work of

your hands.

We can summarise the 7-year cycle of tithing as follows:

Year Shavuot Sukkot

1 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to

2 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to

Beit haMiqdash


& feast there

eit haMiqdash


& feast there

3 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to local storehouse

4 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to t haMiqdash

Beit haMiqdash

& feast there

& feast there 5 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to

6 Tithe to local storehouse Bring tithe to local storehouse

7 Year of release. No planting or tithing Sh’mitah:

Devarim 26:12-15

12When you have finished setting aside a of all your produce in the tenth third

year, the year of the tithe, Levite, the alien, the you shall give it to the

fatherless and the widow, towns so that they may eat in your and be satisfied.

13Then say to YHWH your Elohim: “I have removed from my house the set-apart

portion and have given it to the Levite, the alien, the fatherless and the widow,

according to all you commanded. I have not turned aside from your commands

nor have I forgotten any of them.

14I have not eaten any of the set-apart portion while I was in mourning, nor have

I removed any of it while I was unclean, nor have I offered any of it to the dead. I

have obeyed YHWH my Elohim; I have done everything you commanded me.

15Look down from heaven, your set-apart and wholly different dwelling-place,

and bless your people Israel and the land you have given us as you promised on

oath to our forefathers, a land flowing with milk and honey.”

Nechemyah 10:37

37″Moreover, we will bring to the of the house of our Elohim, to the storerooms

priests, the first of our ground meal, of our [grain] offerings, of the fruit of all our

trees and of our new wine and oil. And we will bring a tithe of our crops to the

Levites, for it is the Levites who collect the tithes in all the towns where we work.

38 A priest descended from Aaron is to accompany the Levites when they

receive the tithes, and the Levites are to bring a tenth of the tithes up to the

house of our Elohim, to the storerooms of the treasury.

Nechemyah 12:44

At that time men were appointed to be in charge of the storerooms for the

contributions, firstfruits and tithes. From the fields around the towns they were to

bring into the storerooms the portions required by the Law for the priests and the

Levites, for Yehudah was pleased with the ministering priests and Levites.

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Nechemyah 13:5,12

5…and he had provided him with a large room formerly used to store the grain

offerings and incense and temple articles, and also the tithes of grain, new wine

and oil prescribed for the Levites, singers and gatekeepers, as well as the

contributions for the priests.

12All Yehudah brought the tithes of grain, new wine and oil into the storerooms.

Amos 4:4

“…Bring your sacrifices every morning, your tithes every three years.

Malakhi 3:7-12

7″Ever since the time of your forefathers you have turned away from my decrees

and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you,” says YHWH

Tzva’ot. But you ask, ‘How are we to return?’

8″Will a man rob Elohim? Yet you rob me. “But you ask, `How do we rob you?’

“In tithes and offerings.

9You are under a curse—the whole nation of you—because you are robbing


10Bring the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house.

Test me in this,” says YHWH Tzva’ot, “and see if I will not throw open the

floodgates of heaven and pour out so much blessing that you will not have room

enough for it.

11 I will prevent pests from devouring your crops, and the vines in your fields will

not cast their fruit,” says YHWH Tzva’ot.

12″Then all the nations will call you blessed, for yours will be a delightful land,”

says YHWH Tzva’ot.

The tithe of the spring harvest (called the firstfruits) was brought to the levitical

storehouses during Shavuot (Pentecost), and the tithe of the late-summer harvest or main

harvest, was brought at Chag Sukkot. Every third year, the tithes were not brought to

Yerushalayim, but were taken to the local levitical storehouse, for use by the Levi’im,

who presented a tithe of the tithe to the kohanim, and distributed the food to widows, the

disabled, orphans and (resident aliens; strangers) who had no income. In years 1, gerim

2, 4 and 5 the landowner took the tithe to the (Temple) and ate it there Beit haMiqdash

with his family, sharing freely with the less privileged and the Levites. In the year of

Sh’mitah (Release), there was no planting of crops or harvesting of fields, and therefore

no tithing. Everyone could help themselves to what was available in the fields. Only

farmers refrained from work during the Sh’mitah; all other people worked as usual.

In conclusion: Tithing was purely agricultural, and pertains to the land of Israel. For the

tithing system to be operational, there has to be a Beit haMiqdash (Temple) as well as

levitical storehouses. Tithing has nothing to do with giving money to the Church; that

misapplication dates from around the year 1200, when the Roman Catholic Church

needed money to build cathedrals. The Faith Movement within the Charismatic

movement is notorious for misapplying the concept of tithing to their advantage.

Page 124

The fact that at least 90% of the teaching on tithing heard within Christianity is a

misapplication of Scripture, should not prevent us from practicing scriptural giving. The

Talmud records that Beit Shammai stipulated that a generous person gives 60% of his

income to the poor; the School of Shammai considered a man who gave 40% or less to

the poor, to have an evil eye, i.e. be stingy.

The following saying of the Messiah, as recorded in Mattityahu and Luke, teaches that it

is wrong to tithe religiously while neglecting the weightier matters of the Torah:

Luke 11:42

“Woe to you Pharisees, because you give Elohim a tenth of your mint, rue and

all other kinds of garden herbs, but you neglect justice and the love of Elohim.

You should have practised the latter without leaving the former undone.

Mattityahu 23:23

Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You give a tenth

of your spices—mint, dill and cummin. But you have neglected the more

important matters of the —justice, mercy and faithfulness. You should Torah

have practised the latter, without neglecting the former.

Ma’asei haTorah

Works of the Law.

A technical term is 1st century Judaism, referring to the aspects of the that set Torah

Israel apart from all the other nations — circumcision, the dietary laws (Kashrut) „Í „Í ƒp ƒq

and the keeping of Shabbat. „̓r


Flood, specifically the deluge in the days of Noach.


There are two mayor reason because the Council of Yavneh (90 BM) did not include the

books of Maccabees in the as Scriptures. First is the “internal evidence” as the Tanakh

author of the book confess and never said the inspired formula: “This said YHWH.”

Second is the external evidence: the Hasmoneans’ family, once in the political control of

Yisrael after they defeated the Syrian army, introduced an illegal monarchy in Israel. As

we know, only the Davidic descendent trough Salomon has the right to seat in the

Throne of David as king of Yisrael. The Messiah has to come from this royal line. At the

moment as the Hasmoneans declared themselves to be kings dynasty in Israel they

destroy the royal framework for the Messiah to arise.

So if that fact had was confirmed through inclusion the books in the the Council Tanakh,

would have declared them a legitimate royal dynasty that replaced the Davidic Lineage

and so destroy the Except for this error, the Hasmoneans or Maccabees Torah.

(Mikamojah B’elim Adonai) was considered by many as good shepherds.

There is another reason because we don’t accepted it as inspired books: Messiah

Yahushua. In Yohanan 10 we have the story of Yahushua in Yerushalayim rejoicing in

the Chanukah Festival (verses 20-23). On that occasion he present himself to Yisrael as a

Good Shepherd and said: “He who does not enter through the door into the sheepfold but

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enter through the (climbs in some other way), he is a (thief) and derech hasha’ar ganav

a (robber).” So Yahushua declared that the action of the Maccabees to proclaim shoded

themselves as a royal family in Israel is similar to the false shepherd (thief). That

specific action invalidated them so that the books written by and about them do not

merit inclusion in the Tanakh.

At the same time, the presence of Yahushua in Yerushalayim for Chanukah endorse the

festival as valid for His (disciples). talmidim


To stroke or rub; by implication to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or

make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to abolish, blot out, destroy, full of marrow, put out,

reach unto, utterly, wipe (away, out).


Literal meaning: repetition.

A special prayer book used during (Pilgrimage festivals) and Regalim Mo’edim

(appointed times). There are for (inter alia) machzorim Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur

and . Sukkot




Last part of reading on a given Shabbat or festival…the man who is “called up” in Torah

the synagogue to perform the reading of the concluding passage. Also: the public reader

of the Haftarah.


Shield. A term for the Messiah. Psalm 84:9 says,

“Behold, O Elohim, our Magen (Shield),

and look upon the face of your Mashiach.”

This verse is in the style of Hebrew parallelism—saying the same thing twice, in

different words. Note that the parallelism links the with the Magen Mashiach. If we do

remez with Yeshayahu 21:5b,

Arise you princes, anoint the magen…

at the interpretative level of the (deeper meaning), reading it in its context, we sod

identify the latter text as a prophecy that the princes (i.e. believers, who have all been

made royalty by the covenantal love of the Father and the faithfulness of the Son) will be

resurrected (“arise”) and caught up to heaven to attend the coronation of King Messiah

(“anoint the magen”) shortly before the annihilation of eschatological Babylon in Yom

YHWH. This annihilation will precipitate the Chevlei Shel Mashiach (Yirmeyahu 51:7),

catapulting the False messiah into office at an emergency summit meeting held in Europe

(Revelation 17).

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Magen Avot

A short summary of the Sabbath Amidah prayer, recited on Erev Shabbat (Sabbath Eve)

after the silent prayer.


Preacher; generally itinerant, and popular because of his clever parables…narration.

Mah Nishtanah

Four questions asked by a child during the Pesach Seder service.


Plural: Mahozim.

Fortification. Fortified stronghold.


Place.” The sages applied this term to the Almighty. He is not in the universe; He is

haMakoum (The Place); the universe is in Him. When we suffer bereavement, we can

pray to the Almighty as asking Him to fill the void, the empty place within haMakoum,

our hearts, with His dwelling presence (the and His comfort (the Sh’khinah) Menachem).


Messenger, “angel.” The sages taught that a takes the legal identity of the one malakh

who sent him in all his dealings with those he is sent to.


Malachi. “My makakh,” i.e. “my messenger.” The Messiah is the Messenger of the very

Face of YHWH, the exact representation of His Being. The name YHWH is in Him; He

has all the attributes of the Father.




The penalty of lashing.

Malkut Shamayim

The Kingdom of Heaven, i.e. the Kingdom of YHWH Elohim. In this phrase, as in

many other expressions dating from the last half of the Second Temple period, the term

“heaven” is used as an evasive synonym or circumlocution for YHWH, the personal

name of the Almighty. The fact that, in the Apostolic Writings, the term “heaven” is a

circumlocution or evasive expression for the personal names of YHWH, is widely

misunderstood in Christianity—hence the deplorably otherworldly and pagan “we are

going to heaven for eternity” myth. The truth is that the is coming to Malkut Shamayim

the redeemed remnant of mankind and to the earth. What has been lost in Adam, is

gained and restored in Messiah Yahushua, the corporate representative of the Yisra’el of

Elohim—redeemed Yisra’el and Gentiles grafted into the commonwealth of Yisra’el.

We have the firstfruits now, but the fulness comes later—when Messiah returns.

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The teaching of some dispensationalists that there is a difference between the “Kingdom

of Heaven” and the “Kingdom of God” is an incorrect teaching dating from a time when

there was little appreciation of the communication principle of hermeneutics.

The Malkut Shamayim is a present reality. If I stand next to a table, I would say, “the

table is near.” This refers to spatial nearness. Likewise, the expression “the Kingdom of

Heaven is at hand or near” refers to its actual, spatial presence. The is Malkut Shamayim

a present, dynamic reality. In the fulness of time, it will become a physical reality on

earth. It is “here now but not yet in its fulness.”

The is: Malkut Shamayim

„¿ The supreme rulership and absolute sovereignty of YHWH Elohim. The

Kingdom of Heaven is the Kingship of YHWH. Remember that, in the Apostolic

Writings, the term Heaven is often not a place, but an evasive synonym for the

personal name of Almighty YHWH.

„¿ YHWH ruling and reigning actively, forever and ever. Imparting His life, His

Ruach, His redemption to man, through the Son. The king is a saviour—see

Psalm 72. The Almighty redeems to rule.

„¿ The redeemed people whom YHWH rules over. All authority has been given to

the Son—Yeshayahu 40:10. The movement started by Messiah Yahushua is the

Kingdom of Heaven. Those who submit to His mastership are in the Kingdom.

The Kingdom owns us; we are the subjects of the Kingdom. King Messiah is not

only our Saviour but also our Master.

„¿ The supernatural manifestations of the Spirit of YHWH.

Some applications of how to operate in the authority and power of the Kingship of

YHWH and His Messiah:

„¿ Repent, turn around. Confess your sins. Be cleansed. Be clothed. Be equipped.

Be commissioned. Now go.

„¿ Live a kingdom-centred life? How? Do the will of YHWH—”Thy kingdom

come, Thy will be done.” The manifestation of His kingdom, His kingship,

expands on earth as more and more people know Him and do His will. Submit to

His authority. Be faithful and obedient. Do the will of our Father in Heaven.

How? Prayer and Scripture, prayer and Scripture, prayer and Scripture… Hear

and obey. All who call the Messiah (Master) are not part of His movement; Adon

only those who do the will of His Father in Heaven—Mattityahu 7:21. Those

who “name and claim” but do not obey are not in the Kingdom. We must take the

yoke of the Kingship of YHWH on our shoulders. How? By obeying Torah in

the measure it has been laid on us: Yahudim should keep all of the while Torah

Gentiles should obey the Noachide as entrance-requirements. We should mitzvot

bend the neck, put on the yoke, and do the work of the Kingdom. The yoke is

easy to bear, but it is still a yoke. The Kingdom is for free, but it costs everything.

„¿ Lead a life characterised by humility. Be not puffed up. The Almighty is in

charge; He placed all under His Son.

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„¿ Beautify the commandments. When observing a commandment, do it with joy

and beauty.

„¿ Lead a life characterised by productivity and abundance in fruit. There is not a

single Hebrew word for “prosperity” in the sense of the accumulation of wealth.

Scripturally, prosperity refers to being equipped for what YHWH has sent us to

do. We should bear this fruit in the here and now, in our daily walk. As the Body

of Messiah, we share in the power of the Ruach that is upon Him. He is the

Bearer and Bestower of the Ruach. He bestows that power and authority to those

inside His movement. By the power and authority of YHWH in our lives, we

should bear abundant fruit and have abundant life.

„¿ Become connected to the community of the faithful. Be an active part of

Yahushua’s living movement; don’t try to be a “lone ranger,” a Rambo. Do not

fight battles alone; let the rest of the army support you in prayer. Think “we” and

“us” and not “I” and “me.”

„¿ Realise you are in continual spiritual conflict. Satan is upset when people leave

his territory and get into the Kingdom of YHWH. The Malkut Shamayim frees

the captives who are in Satan’s hold. The adversary takes offence at this and

attacks. You are part of a community engaged in conflict. So put on the full

armour of Elohim—truth, salvation, active witnessing, righteousness, the

manifestations of the the authority of the names of YHWH and Ruach HaQodesh,

Yahushua. Proclaim the mastership of Messiah Yahushua. Heal the sick, drive

out demons, set the captives free—by the power of Almighty YHWH and the

authority given to us by the Son.

„¿ Realise that the kingdom is a present reality, but a reality that is manifest in

firstfruits-form. The kingdom is in our midst individually and as a community of


Maoz Tsur

Best-known Chanukah song. An English version of the song is entitled “Rock of Ages.”


Also see: neo-Marcionism.

#Marcion was born around 100 YM at Sinope, a seaport located on the Black Sea coast

of Asia Minor. His father was a leader in the church of Sinope. Marcion grew up in a

Christian home, but it was most probably not the same type of Christianity known today.

It appears that Marcion remained in fellowship with the church as long as he lived in

Asia Minor. Many think that he shared his thoughts with leading churchmen of that

region, such as Polycarp of Smyrna and Papias of Hierapolis. Sometime after 138 CE,

during the time of Antoninus Pius, Marcion travelled to Rome, the imperial city. When

he arrived in Rome he made a generous contribution to the church.

Tradition says that he was a ship owner and very wealthy. He became very active in the

church and began to develop and teach his own theology. We do not know if he

originated this or if he simply taught the Christianity of his home area. The Roman

church leadership was so disturbed by his doctrine that they not only actively rejected it,

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but even refunded his contribution. However, their reaction didn’t end Marcion’s


As a devoted Christian, Marcion made his way to Rome (c.140) and attached himself to

the church there. He associated with the Syrian Gnostic, Cerdo, who was in Rome, and

developed unorthodox views that brought him into conflict with the Roman church.

Marcion was excommunicated (c.144), but his beliefs continued to gain wider and wider


The main thesis of Marcion’s system was that the gospel of Jesus is entirely a gospel of

love that is radically different from, and discontinuous with, the Marcion taught Torah.

that the original gospel of Jesus had been corrupted by Judaising tendencies among the

earliest disciples and that the Old Testament had no validity for Christians. According to

Marcion, only Sha’ul had correctly understood the original teaching of Jesus.

Marcion regarded Sha’ul as the only faithful apostle. In fact, he maintained that the

original apostles corrupted Jesus’ teachings by mixing it with legalism. This is the same

message often preached in the churches today when we hear “Replacement Theology” or

that we are “no longer under the Law but under grace alone.” Such a statement clashes

head-on with the Messiah’s own words in 5:17ff where he states that the Mattityahu

Torah will never pass away until heaven and earth pass away.

Marcion rejected the Hebrew Scriptures completely. Marcion distinguished the “God of

the Old Testament” from the “God of the New Testament and the Gospels.” Marcion,

being influenced by Persian dualism (two forces in the universe, one good and one bad,

who are constantly fighting it out for supremacy) believed that these were two individual

deities, each within its own independent existence. First, there was the Creator-God who

created the material universe. This was the God of Israel, which was a totally different

God from the Father spoken of in the Gospel of Christ. The Father God was the good

and merciful God and the God of Israel and the Old Testament was the bad God.

Marcion’s understanding followed the same line as that of the Gnostic schools. They

taught that the God who made the material world was an inferior deity. He was inferior

in both status and morality alike. The superior deity or the supreme God was pure spirit.

This idea is reflected in doctrines which teach that flesh is evil and spirit is good.

After being rejected by the church leadership in Rome, Marcion withdrew from the

Roman church and established a movement of his own. His “church” survived for

several generations. A unique aspect of his church was that it maintained its membership

solely through conversion. Celibacy was obligatory for every member.

Marcion’s Anti-Semitism: Marcion’s new “scriptures” included no part of the Old

Testament and were written in Greek. For Marcion, the Old Testament had passed away

and was by his edited version of the “New Testament.” Have you heard this replaced

same heresy preached in Christian Churches? For Marcion, the church was to replace

the synagogue, grace was to replace the new “holy days” were to replace the set- Torah,

apart days of YHWH as found in Leviticus 23, “spiritual Israel” was to replace physical

Israel. The Church was Israel’s replacement and was now to receive all that had been

promised to Israel. This is replacement theology at its worst.

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#Marcion, who lived in the second century YM, completely rejected the Hebrew

Scriptures (Old Testament) and wanted it excluded from the canon of Scripture.

Marcion stressed the radical nature of Christianity vis-a-vis Judaism. In his theology

there existed a total discontinuity between the OT and the New Testament, between

Israel and the Church, and even between the “God of the OT” and the “Father of Jesus.”

Jesus came to reveal the “true God,” who was totally unknown up to the Incarnation.

Having been greatly influenced by the Gnostics, he taught a theology—he demiurgic

claimed that the “God of the Old Testament” was cruel and a totally different being from

the “loving God revealed in the New Testament.” Marcion was so consumed with the

belief that Sha’ul’s message of the grace of YHWH opposed the “Law,” that he only used

an edited portion of Sha’ul’s writings that agreed with his theology. He detested the

Hebrew Scriptures and desired to root out the Jewish foundation of the faith altogether.

He also detested New Testament books with a strong Hebraic setting, e.g. Revelation.

Polycarpos, a prominent Gentile believer and sage, who received direct instruction from

Yochanan the Apostle, called Marcion the “first-born of Satan.”

After having been excommunicated by the congregation at Rome, Marcion founded his

own sect which merged selected “New Testament doctrines” with Gnosticism, creating a

theology that was sharply dualistic, violently antagonistic toward Judaism, ascetic and

celibate, and wielded a wide and destructive influence within Christianity.


A bitter herb such as horseradish, symbolising the bitter plight of the enslaved Israelites;

one of the symbolic foods used on the Pesach Seder plate.


Forcibly converted Jews in Spain.


Verb meaning to anoint with oil. The corresponding noun is mashiach—an anointed



Messiah. (Greek: The anointed, empowered One. The Messiah was sent Christos.)

forth by the Father to accomplish the redemption of man. Every king, prophet and high

priest of Israel was called messiah. The anointed prophets spoke the (Word) of a Devar

YHWH to his people, served as his instrument to work (miracles) and interceded nissim

on behalf of the people. The high priest served YHWH in the services of the Beit

haMiqdash (Temple), representing the people before YHWH in services that taught that

without the shedding of blood, there is no remission of sins. The king had to rule with

justice, as good shepherds who applied the principles of YHWH’s kingship on earth.

The king was anointed as the one chosen by YHWH to represent His rulership in Israel

and to bear witness to His glory before the nations. These three offices were pictures of

the , who is Prophet, High Priest and King. In Messiah’s first coming, Messiah the the the

the emphasis was on the prophet who spoke the and the high priest who actively Devar

interposed his own shed sacrificial blood between YHWH and the sinner as a kapparah

(atoning covering) for our sin. At present, the emphasis in the work of the Messiah is on

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the role of the interceding High Priest. In His second coming, the emphasis will be on

His role as King. Yet He will always stand in all three these offices.

The term is an Anglicisation of the Latin word which is a transliteration messiah messias,

of the Greek a translation of the Aramaic , which is in turn a translation messias, meshiha

and shortening of the Hebrew —”the King Messiah.” haMelekh haMashiach

Some prophetic terms for the Messiah are summarised in Table 4. We leave it to the

reader to extend the list and fill in additional references.

Page 132

Table 4: Some prophetic titles of the Messiah

Prophetic Title Reference

The Coming One Malachi 3:1 & Zekharyahu 9:9

The Elect One Yeshayahu 42:1

Adon Tehillim 110:1

Son of Man Dani’el 7:13

The Son Tehillim 2

Immanu’el Yeshayahu 7-8

Yeshayahu 11:1-10

The Branch

Choter netzer shoresh (shoot); (branch); (root)

(Tzemach) Yirmeyahu 23:5b

The Banner Yeshayahu 11:10; 18:3

The Capstone Tehillim 118:22

The Green Tree Rabbinic title (Yechezq’el 20:47)



ed of the Woman Genesis 3:15

The and the Zekharyahu 12:10; Genesis 1:1

The Man the Son of Peretz Rabbinic title (Ruth 4:18)


Alef Tav

on of the Clouds Rabbinic title (Dani’el 7:13)

The Messenger of YHWH Genesis 22; Exodus 3; …

The Messenger of the Presence Yeshayahu 63:9

The Arm of YHWH Yeshayahu 40-66


The Shield (Magen) Psalm 84:9; Yeshayahu 21:5b

The Lion of the tribe of Yahudah Genesis


49; Revelation 4-5

The (Redeemer) (many)

The (Servant) of YHWH Yeshayahu 42-53

The Rock (many)

The Prophet Devarim 18

The Good



Shepherd Genesis 49; Zekharyahu 11 & 13

The Teacher of Righteousness Yo’el 2:23

The Sun of Righteousness Genesis 1:14-18; Ma


13 lachi 4:2

The Light of the World Genesis 1:14-18; Yeshayahu 9:2

Shiloh Genesis 49:10b

Shiloach Yeshayahu 8:6

Wonderful Counsellor

Mighty El

Father of Time

Prince of Peace

Yeshayahu 9:6

12 Moreh Tzadekah.

13 Shemesh Tzadekah.

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In Table 5 we have listed some of the names that ancient Jewish sages ascribed to the


Table 5:

Some names ascribed to King Messiah in ancient rabbinic sources.

(Lamentations Rabba, Midrash Mishle, S. Buber’s note to Midrash Mishle, Targum to

1 Chronicles. Quoted in Patai (1979: 21-23, 81-83)).

Name of Messiah Meaning of the name

YHWH Personal Name of the Almighty

Yinnon To continue forever

Tzemach Shoot, Branch

Pele Miracle

Yo’etz Counsellor, advisor

Mashiach The Anointed One

El Mighty One before whom we tremble

Givvor Mighty Hero

Avi’Ad Shalom Everlasting Father of Peace

Tzidkenu Our Justice/Righteousness

Menachem Comforter

[My Servant] David (cf. )

Shiloh Him to whom the

Yechezq’el 34:23 & 37:24

right belongs

Hanina Favour

Nehira Light

Bar-Nifle Son of the Clouds

Anani He of the clouds

The Green Tree Yechezq’el 20:45-49; Luke 23:31

ben-Adam Son of Man

ben-David Son of David

ben-Yosef Son of Joseph

ben-Elohim Son of Elohim

haNavi The Prophet

haMoreh The Teacher


The body of traditions regarding the correct spelling, writing and reading of the Hebrew



A scholar of the Masoretic tradition.


In accordance with the Masorah.

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Masoretic Text

The accepted Hebrew text of scriptures.

Matan Torah

The giving of the Torah.


Unleavened bread.


Besieged places.

Mayim Chaiyim

Living Waters.

Mattan Torah

The giving of the (teaching, instruction), specifically on Mount Sinay. Torah

Mattanot Le-Evyonim

Giving to the poor.


Plural: Matzot.

Unleavened bread…The unleavened bread eaten in recollection of the hurried departure

from Egypt; the eating of is obligatory only at the Pesach Seder. matzah

Mayim Chayim

Living waters.

Mazel tov

Popular expression for “congratulations.” It contains an astrological mindset, because it

literally means, “good constellation” i.e. “good star-sign.”

Meat offered to Idols

I has been suggested that Sha’ul’s statements in Corinthians 8:1-13; 10:7, 14-28 conflict 1

the ruling against eating meat offered up to idols (Acts 15:102921:25; Revelation

2:14, 20). However there is in reality no conflict.

Acts chapter 15 does not give an exhaustive enumeration of all of the laws which apply

to gentiles, but rather the “greater burden” or outer limits of the Noachide or Gentile Law

(Acts 15:28). This is based on a Jewish exegetical principle of (light and Kal v’khomer

heavy) which recognises that certain commandments are of greater weight than others

(see Mattityahu 23:23; the principle is used in Mattityahu 12:11-12 & Yochanan 7:22

23). There was never any question as to whether Gentiles could forsake justice,

blaspheme, murder or steal; so there was no need to list these with the greatest burden of

Gentile Law.

The Noachide Law against idolatry is given very strict borders. Idolatry is to include

eating meat offered to idols.

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Now in Corinthians 8:1-13; 10:7, 14-28 Sha’ul agrees that one may not knowingly eat 1

meat offered up to idols. The issue Sha’ul questions, is whether or not one must halakhic

ask when purchasing meat whether or not it has been offered to idols. Sha’ul argues

(based on Tehillim 24:1= Corinthians 10:26, 28) that meat is not actually altered by the 1

idol but that eating such meat appears to others to endorse the idol to which it was

offered. If meat is advertised as having been offered to idols, then believers may not eat

it, since this would appear to endorse the idol. However, since the idol has no real power

over the meat, believers are not required to ask, since this would imply that the believer

believed that the idol had power over the meat, thus ascribing power to the idol and

endorsing idolatry by acknowledging the idols alleged power.

A basis for Sha’ul’s argument can be found by comparing Sha’ul’s summation of his

argument in Corinthians 10:28 to the story of the martyr Eleazar in 2 Maccabees 6:1- 1

29. Eleazar was a prominent Jew under the Hellenistic rule. A day came when all of the

Jews were to show their loyalty by eating meat offered to idols at a public feast. Eleazar

was not willing to do so, but because of his prominence, the authorities offered to allow

him to sneak kasher meat into the feast and eat it instead, thus only appearing to eat meat

offered up to idols. Eleazar refused, knowing that this would appear to endorse idolatry,

despite the fact that the meat would be kasher. As a result Eleazar was executed. This

story demonstrates that eating meat offered to idols is wrong, not because of the meat

itself, but because of the implied endorsement of the idolatry. Thus Sha’ul’s

interpretation does not conflict with Acts 15 but actually implies a very strict

interpretation, by which eating kasher meat would also be forbidden, if the meat were

falsely advertised as having been offered to an idol.


Hebrew: yeh’geh.

Commenting on Tehillim 2:2b,

…and in His Torah he meditates day and night…

the Volume I, pp. 60-61 teaches as follows on the Scriptural Artscroll Tehillim Series,

notion of meditation:

[yeh’geh] …means speech…[that] articulates deeply held personal thoughts

weighing heavily on a person’s mind…the word refers to a developed thought

ready for expression.

The Talmud 19a) urges a study program in which the (Avodah Zarah talmid

(student) first whets his appetite by acquainting himself with the entirety of the

Torah Torah text swiftly, albeit superficially, thereby making “YHWH’s his desire.”

Then the student is urged to go back and painstakingly analyse each topic with

deep deliberation, “And in his he meditates day and night.” Torah

In a culture where mass-media propagate dangerous, futile and occultic “meditation”

techniques, the talmid of Messiah Yahushua should know the Scriptural concept of

meditation, as taught by the sages of Israel, very well, and teach it to all who have ears to


Page 136




The Patriarch Yoseph son of Yisra’el, had 2 sons—Ephrayim and Menashsheh. The

conventional translation of Genesis 49:50-51 is:

Genesis 41:50-51

And Yoseph called the name of the firstborn For Elohim has Menashsheh:

caused me to forget all my troubles and my father’s family. (Nashani’)

The Hebrew word translated above as “forget” is derived from a root, “noshe,”

connoting “movement from its proper place.”

A linguistic analysis (freely translated) of the name “Manasseh” by Rabbi Samson

Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888) extracted from his Commentary on the Book of Genesis

shows that “Forget” is not the only meaning of “Nosheh.” “Nosheh” also means: to be

the bearer of a claim, to be a creditor. [Genesis 32:33:]`”Nosheh”…to have body or

property in another’s trust. Thus the (creditor) has passed to another person part nosheh

of his property and as a result he demands something from him…a woman in the

singular …complements (her husband) and stands by his side as an equal. In the (ishah)

plural [i.e. in the plural name for women, however, is revealed the “nashim”],

communal status of woman, who surrenders some of her rights to the man and these

rights are represented by him. Only in the mass, in the life of the general whole group, do

women reveal themselves as weak and lacking. Women, however, are (i.e. noshim

“creditors”) with a claim [to be represented] on the husband who owes it to them.’

(S. R. Hirsch on Genesis 32:33).

The relevant verse regarding the name Menashsheh, Genesis 41:51, says:

Genesis 41:50-51

And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manashsheh: For Elohim has

caused me to forget [Hebrew: `nashani’] all my troubles and my father’s family.

Rabbi S.R. Hirsch on the above states that does not mean “forget” in case of the nashani

name but rather Menashsheh, delegated representation:

“The correct interpretation therefore of “Nashani” [from which the name

Menashsheh is derived] is that Elohim has made my tragedy and my [loss of]

family credit claims. From that which till now appeared to be tragedy and

torment, Elohim has made a tool to form my happiness. I am greatly obligated to

my tragedy and [loss of] family.

The name Menashsheh is therefore derivable from the root A Creditor is a nosheh.

nosheh noshim because he has a claim on somebody else; women are because as a group

they have a claim on their husbands to represent their interests. Yoseph named his firstborn

“Menashsheh” because when a (righteous person) suffers years of hardship, tzadiq

it is as though he or she stores up credit for future happiness.


A pagan moon goddess.

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Plural: Menorot.

The seven-branched lampstand of solid gold that stood in the of the HaQodesh Mishkan

(Tabernacle) and the . Today, people commonly refer to a Beit haMiqdash (Temple)

Chanukiah as a menorah.

The usual translation “seven candlesticks” in Revelation 1-3 should actually read “sevenbranched

menorah.” Note that Yahushua stands in the of the menorah of middle

Revelation—the position of the or servant—just as the of Genesis 1:1 Shamash Z}

stands in the middle of the seven Hebrew words of Genesis 1:1. Because the can not Z}

be directly rendered into Greek, the “alef and the tav” is explicitly rendered as “the

Alpha and the Omega” in the Book of Revelation.

At a midrashic level of interpretation, we may relate the “Seven Spirits” or “sevenfold

Spirit” of YHWH, which is mentioned in Revelation, to a Menorah, each branch

bringing light and revelation to mankind. In 11 we see a sevenfold of Yeshayahu

attributes of the of YHWH, which is upon the Anointed One of Yisra’el in their Ruach

full measure:

1. The Spirit of (Wisdom). Chokhmah

2. The Spirit of (Understanding). Binah

3. The Spirit of Counsel.

4. The Spirit of (Might). Gibor

5. The Spirit of (Knowledge). Da’at

6. The Spirit of (the Fear of YHWH). ha-Yirat YHWH

7. The Anointing to do mishpat (right-ruling).


Chariot. The name of a modern Israeli armoured tank.


The traditional essential requirements in the writing of a scroll. Torah

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Plural: Mezuzot.

(Literally: doorpost). Cylindrical container with letter and text from the shin Sh’ma ( ) V

that is put on the doorpost(s) of the house.


Plural: Megillot.

Literally: scroll. A scroll of one of the following five books of Scripture: Esther, Song of

Songs, Ruth, Lamentations and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes); thus there are five megillot in the

Scriptures. Each is read on a particular as summarised in Table 6. mo’ed,

Table 6

Megillot read at specific Occasions.

Occasion Megillah

Pesach Song of Songs

Shavuot Rut

Tishah Be’Av Lamentations

Sukkot Kohelet

Purim Esther



Memra [A]

Aramaic equivalent of (Word; Divine expression). Devar


Comforter. The manifesting as comforter, as interceding advocate, of Ruach HaQodesh

the individual and the covenant people. Greek: Parakletos. Also a title for the Messiah,

the Comforter of Yisra’el.


Rest. The rest that the believers will enter in when King Messiah comes, of which we

now have the firstfruits in our hearts.


From an indefinite time in the past.


Intense bitterness; double rebellion. A prophetic term for Bavel (Babylon), the

policeman of the world, the queen of the kingdoms, in Yirmeyahu 50:21-25.

Yirmeyahu 50:21-25

21″Attack the land of and those who live in Pekod. Pursue, kill and Meratayim

completely destroy them,” declares YHWH. “Do everything I have commanded


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22The noise of battle is in the land, the noise of great destruction!

23How broken and shattered is How desolate the hammer of the whole earth!

is Bavel among the nations!

24I set a trap for you, O Bavel, and you were caught before you knew it; you

were found and captured because you opposed YHWH.

25YHWH has opened his arsenal and brought out the weapons of his wrath, for

Adonai YHWH Tzva’ot has work to do in the land of the (Chaldeans). Kasda’im


Mesech. Yechezq’el 38:2-3; 39:1. Linked by some commentators to the name Moscow.

Some Talmudic rabbis saw that historical Ashshur under Sancheiriv is a prophetic

picture of eschatological Gog from the land of Magog. As early as 1913, Professor HA

Ironside of the in Chicago, stated that historical Assyria equals Moody Bible Institute

eschatological Russia.


Jewish tradition teaches that Metatron is the name of the (messenger, “angel”) malakh

spoken of in Exodus 23:21, where YHWH states: “My name is in him,” so that Metatron

bears the Tetragrammaton, “YHWH” (Jewish Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 8, p. 519). Even

though he bears the ineffable Name, the rabbis stated (Babylonian Talmud, Tractate

Sanhedrin 38b) that Metatron may not be worshiped—they taught that YHWH

commanded, “Exchange Me not for him.” The sages taught that Metatron is the prince

of the world, a teacher of the and a power in heaven. The (a mystical Torah Zohar

cabalistic work) states that Metatron is the “Son of Man” who is only slightly lower than

YHWH (after Psalm 8:6). Some rabbis also identified Metatron as the Malakh ha-Panim

or “Messenger of the Presence,” spoken of in Yeshayahu 63:9. The term “metatron”

means “guide.” In rabbinic tradition then, Metatron is the unique (messenger) of malakh

the Presence, who bears the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, and guided the Children of

Yisra’el through the wilderness to the promised land. In the pseudepigraphic book of

EnochMetatron is called the “most excellent of the heavenly host” and “the guide to all

the treasures of my Elohim.” In some rabbinic works, he is called “Metatron Messiah”

i.e. the “Anointed Metatron.” A specific ancient prayer said on Yom Kippur by ancient

Messianic Jewish believers is directed to the Almighty, “ad-iad Yeshu

Metatron”—through Yeshua Metatron.

Hebrew commentaries on Yeshayahu 63:9, where the Malakh YHWH is called the

Malakh ha-Panim—the Messenger of the Face Presence—say that the title “malakh „¡

ha-panim” means “Prince of the Countenance” Radaq (Rabbi Dawid (Sar ha-Panim).

Qimchi) says of Malakhi 3:1, “He who will suddenly come to His Miqdash” is the King

Messiah, and He is Adonai-b’rit (Adonai of the covenant).

The Jewish prayer book (Siddur haShalem) contains a remarkable prayer which speaks

of the Prince of the Countenance. This prayer is said on Yom Teruah when the shofar is


May it be thy will that the blast from this shofar should carry to the tabernacle of

Elohim…through Yeshua the Prince of the Countenance and the Prince

Metatron, and may your favour be our part. Be thou blessed, Adonai of favour.

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In Bereshith 32:29-30, Ya’aqov wrestled with a certain “man” from whom he asked a

blessing. Ya’aqov named the place Peni’el, meaning “face of El.” The Midrash Rabbah

comments on this, saying that Ya’aqov “saw the face of El in the Shekhinah.”

It is important to remind ourselves that aggadic rabbinic teachings about Metatron are of

a characteristic playful, speculative nature, and is subservient to the full revelation of


Midat haDin

The attribute of justice of YHWH. The name YHWH is expressive of the Creator’s

mercy and loyal covenantal love, while the term Elohim expresses Him as the righteous

Judge. Drawing on a mathematical understanding of Exodus 20:5-6, the sages taught

that the attribute of mercy is at least times stronger than the attribute of ƒqƒoƒoƒo

ƒs „M ƒtƒoƒo

retributive justice.

In Me’am Lo’az The Torah Anthology: — (Kaplan, 1982: 59), the Yom Kippur Service

teachings of the sages concerning the attributes designated by the names and YHWH

Elohim, are set out as follows:

The Almighty directs Israel with two attributes: the Attribute of Justice (midath

haDin) (midath HaRachamim) and the Attribute of Mercy …

The Almighty therefore said, “I am YHWH your Elohim.”

The name YHWH denotes the Attribute of Mercy. The Almighty is saying, “I am

trusted to give good reward to those who follow my ways, but I am also your

Elohim. I can also direct the Attribute of Justice against you and punish those

who violate my commandments.”


Our character essence and heart-attitude, specifically as it manifests in the way we treat



Plural: Midrashim.

1) A method of interpreting the stressing the allegorical method of inter- Tanakh,

pretation. It is also a homiletic way of looking at a text, as opposed to an exegetical

approach. An inquiry, an investigation. A rabbinic exposition of the text of Scripture,

squeezing it to get more and more meaning out of it.

2) The name of certain specific collections of commentaries which have employed the

midrashic method of interpretation. A collection of works compiled between the third

and twelfth centuries that seeks out underlying truths and meanings of the Scriptures; the

result of the process of delving into the ramifications of a verse of Scripture and of the

ancient rabbis’ reading between the lines of Scripture. The best known collection of

midrashim is called the which is a commentary on the entire Midrash Rabbah, Torah

plus the five megilot. Although compiled sometime between the fourth and fifth

centuries YM, includes some material from Yahushua’s time and even Midrash Rabbah


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Migdal Eder

Stronghold or tower of the sheep-flock.

Mikhah 4: 8

And thou, O tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee

shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of


The phrase “tower of the flock,” according to Strong’s, is a particular location called

Migdal Eder, just outside of Beit-Lechem (Bethlehem). The Mishnah tells that Levitical

shepherds were require to raise the animals for Temple sacrifices within a prescribed

radius from Yerushalayim. Those “suburbs” of Yerushalayim that fell within that radius

were called Bat-Zion, i.e. the “Daughter of Tzion.”

The shepherds who watched over the flocks raised for sacrifices in the Beit haMiqdash

were not ignorant country bumpkins, but Levites who erected towers (migdal) from

which they watched over the sacrificial flocks. Yahushua’s birth, probably occurred in a

sukkah adjacent to the Levitical watchtower just outside Beit Lechem. The Migdal Eder,

Levitical shepherds would recognise the Messiah wrapped in swaddling cloths—the

priestly undergarments.

When one stands at Migdal Eder, Beit-Lechem can be seen in the distance. The word

migdal can also be understood to be a stronghold.

Miqdash Me’at

Literally: a small set-apart place. The home is seen as such, and the father of the household

is as a priest serving the Almighty in his own house.


Micah. Shortened form of Mikhayahu—”Who is like unto Yahu…”


Michael. Literally: “Who is like El…”


A pool of water for immersing the body to purify it from ritual uncleanliness. Immersion

in a is also obligatory for proselytes to Judaism, as part of the ceremony of mikveh

conversion. A mikveh contains at least 40 measures of water.


Something that is waited and hoped for in confidence.

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The 1000 year rule of the Messiah during Several approaches to the Yom YHWH.

Millennium mentioned in Revelation 20 are found in theology:

Premillennialism states that the Messiah returns to the Millennium, establishing prior

the Kingdom. Premillennialism may be further subdivided according to their views on

the timing of the catching up of believers to meet the Messiah in the air. We find the

pre-tribulation rapture (“PreTrib”), mid-trib and post-trib views. Many, but not all, pretrib

believers are dispensationalists.

Amillennialism states that there will be literal 1000 year Messianic reign, and that the no

prophecies about His reign are fulfilled, spiritually, in His present heavenly reign over

His Church on earth.

Postmillennialism states that the Church will triumph the return of the Messiah before

and that the triumphant Church will enter into this Millennium. After the horrors of

WW2, classical postmillennialism seemed in danger of losing all adherents because

serious doubts were cast on the perfectibility of the Church; many postmillennialists

quietly turned into amillennialists. However, the rise of Reconstructionism and Kingdom

Now Theology within the Charismatic Movement has swelled the ranks of the

Postmillennialist movement. The sermons of Postmillennialists are characterised by

optimistic and almost militant references to the “Triumphant endtime Church.” To teach

this triumphalism from the replacement theology, which “swaps” the term Tanakh,

Church Israel, for is employed. Postmillennialists refer to their optimistic views as the

“Biblical eschatology of victory” and think of premillennialists and amillennialists as

painful “gloom & doom” pessimists. Non-Charismatic postmillennialists are usually

Theonomians and hold the Law in high regard. Their views are far more sound than that

of Charismatic Postmillennialists. Yet Al Dager easily pulls many their views apart in

Vengeance is Ours: The Church in Dominion (1990).

An important aspect of proper interpretation of prophecy is the role of timing. When will

a prophecy be fulfilled in history? There are four possibilities. The four views are simple

in the sense that they reflect the only four possibilities in relation to time-past, present,

future, and timeless. The preterist (past) believes that most, if not all prophecy has

already been fulfilled, usually in relation to the destruction of in YM 70. Yerushalayim

The historicist (present) sees much of the current church age as equal to the tribulation

period. Thus, prophecy has been and will be fulfilled during the current church age.

Futurists (future) believe that virtually all prophetic events will not occur in the current

church age, but will take place in the future tribulation, Second Coming, or Millennium.

The idealist (timeless) does not believe either that Scripture indicates the timing of

events or that we can determine their timing in advance. Therefore, idealists think that

prophetic passages mainly teach great ideas or truths about YHWH to be applied

regardless of timing.

Personally, I regard Premillennialism as the correct eschatological view.

Some branches of the Charismatic movement currently teaches a somewhat bizarre

mixture of premillennialism and postmillennialism—they are doctrinal premillennialists

but operational postmillennialists.

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Plural: Menachot.

To apportion, i.e. bestow; a donation; tribute. Gift, offering, present, sacrifice.

In Temple times: A gift offering in the , usually bloodless and voluntary; Beit haMiqdash

an offering made of flour and oil.

Afternoon prayer.


Quorum of ten adult Jews necessary for public prayer.


Something that is called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place);

rehearsal, assembly, convocation.

Miqra Qodesh

A set-apart meeting, rehearsal, convocation.


“Mary.” Miryam was the most common name given to Hebrew women, 2000 years ago.


A residence, dwelling, habitation; specifically the Tabernacle.


The collection of the committed to writing around 200 YM under Rabbi Oral Torah

Yahudah haNasi.


Family, i.e. circle of relatives.


Plural: Mishpatim.

Judgement; right-ruling. Ethical commandments of the Torah.

Mishpat pl. mishpatim, connective pl. mishpatei-…

The lawful decision of the De-Judaized to “judgement” and various other Beit Din.

renderings to avoid recognition of the system. Mishpat is concerns the Beit Din

definitive, authoritative and just interpretation of applied to real-life situations. All Torah

other interpretations are “following one’s own heart and one’s own eyes” (Shemot 15:39;

Devarim 17:9-13). Mishpat has been handed down by the in a chain Beit Din

uninterrupted since Mosheh at Har Sinay. “Sanhedrin,” a Greek word, was known

(outside of Hellenist circles) in the Jewish community as the (the Beit Din Ha-Gadol

Great Court of Law). The corpus of accumulated case law (mishpatim) and legislated

statutes (chuqim) of the over the millennia is called (the walk). The Beit Din halakhah

Qumran-Essene Tzedoqim called their interpretations (“the practice”). ma’aseh

In contrast to a a makes sense to the rational mind. chuq, mishpat

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From the verb “to slaughter, kill, sacrifice.” There were two altars in the tzabach, Beit

haMiqdash mizbeach —the huge bronzen altar in the courtyard of the kohanim, and the

zahav parochet Qodesh ha-Qodeshim. or golden altar, in front of the in the



Historical Mitzrayim may well be a picture of the eschatological empire of the False

messiah. Compare Revelation 16, which describes the plagues over the kingdom of the

Beast, with the 10 plagues over Mitzrayim described in Exodus. Also compare

Yechezq’el 29:1-7 and 32:1-6 with Mattatiyahu 24:28, Luke 17:35-37 and Revelation



Plural: Mitzvot.

Literally: Commandment; a religious precept or obligation; mitzvah refers to one of the

613 commandments in the …a good deed. Torah

Mitzvat Aseh

A commandment-to-do, a positive command.

Mitzvat Lo Ta’aseh

A commandment-not-to-do, a prohibition.


An appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; specifically a festival and/or assembly of the

qahal of Yisra’el. An assembly convened for a definite purpose; technically the

congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal as appointed

beforehand appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, —

solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn, synagogue, (set) time (appointed). See

Leviticus 23 for a listing of the and their dates. mo’edim




A bride-price.


The official who perform covenantal circumcision.


An idol worshipped by bringing child sacrifices.

Molad haLevanah

The appearance of the new Moon.

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Demonic idol, served by casting children into fire burning inside the metal shell of the

idolatrous image.



Moreh Tzadekah

Teacher of Righteousness. A term for the Messiah. Based on Yo’el 2:23. Referred to in

Mattityahu 26:18Mark 14:14 and Yochanan 11:28.


Literally: ” is my teacher.” El


Name of Mountain in Yerushalayim. Literally: “Yah is my teacher.” MoriYah.

Mosheh Rabbenu

Moses our teacher.


Saviours (in Ovadiyah 21).

Motza’ei Shabbat

The night following the Sabbath.


Literally: Who brings forth bread; blessing over bread; standard blessing before meals at

which bread is served…one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony.


“Added” prayer service for Sabbaths and festivals, immediately following morning

prayer… the additional whole offering in the prescribed by the Beit haMiqdash Torah

for Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons. The service Mussaf follows the regular daily

service. The additional sacrifices brought on specific festivals, e.g. the seventy bulls that

were sacrifices during Sukkot. Because there is no Temple today, no additional sacrifices

can be brought. Therefore additional prayers are added on the above days.

The term means —that which has been to the normal state of Mussaf addition added

affairs. The Mussaf sacrifice is entitled such as it comes in addition to the standard, daily

sacrifices. Each day, one sheep is offered in the morning (the “tamid shel shachar”) and

one in the late afternoon (the “tamid shel bein ha’arbayim”). No sacrifices were offered

prior to the morning tamid, nor was any offering brought upon the altar after the

afternoon tamid (with the exception of the korban pesach). Thus, in effect, the two tamid

offerings opened and closed the daily service in the Temple.

In the Torah introduces the commandment regarding the as part Parashat Teruma, tamid

of its discussion of the altar (Shemot 29). This association suggests that the this korban

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constitutes part of the basic definition of the altar, or at least of the service conducted on

the altar.

As stated earlier, special korbanot are offered on Shabbat and festivals in addition to the

daily tamid offerings, and they must be brought only the morning tamid. (For this after

reason, the Mussaf prayer that we recite on Shabbat and Yom Tov, which commemorates

the Mussaf sacrifice, is always recited after the shacharit service, which commemorates

the morning tamid.)

A closer look at the various Mussaf sacrifices shows a variety of systems of the Mussaf

sacrifice, which may point to a corresponding variety of types of festivals. In other

words, the Mussaf sacrifices may enhance our understanding of the Jewish calendar with

its various holidays. The following chart lists the sacrifices to be offered at their

respective times, grouped by the numbers of animals:

Shabbat: two sheep

Rosh Chodesh: seven sheep; two bulls; one ram.

Chag haMatzot: seven sheep; two bulls; one ram.

Shavuot: seven sheep; two bulls; one ram.

Rosh Hashanah: seven sheep; one bull; one ram.

Yom Kippur: seven sheep; one bull; one ram.

Shemini Atzeret: seven sheep; one bull; one ram.

Sukkot: fourteen sheep; 13-7 bulls (in descending order from the first day); two rams.

Thus, three distinct types of festivals emerge.

On Shabbat, only two sheep are offered. In other words, the basic daily sacrifice (the

“tamid”), which consists of one sheep, is merely doubled. No rams or bulls are offered

as is the case on the festivals. Although Shabbat assumes its place among the sacred

days of the calendar, it remains separate from the other holidays. (This duality with

regard to the nature of Shabbat is manifest in the presentation of the Shabbat and

festivals in —Vayikra 23—as well.) Parashat Emor

The other festivals may thus be classified into two distinct groups, according to the

number of bulls sacrificed thereupon. The common denominator uniting all the festivals

regards the number of sheep—seven—and the number of rams—one. (Later, we will

examine the Mussaf of Sukkot, the obvious exception.) The point of difference, then, is

with regard to the number of bulls.

Thus, the festivals may be grouped as follows:

I) Rosh Chodesh, Chag haMatzot, Shavuot : two bulls II) Rosh Hashanah, Yom

Kippur, Shemini Atzeret: one bull

In order to properly understand the underlying significance of this classification, we

must first try to identify the beginning of the Jewish year. The Torah states in Parashat

Bo (Shemot 12:2), “This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months; it shall

be the first of the months of the year for you.” Here, the month of Aviv seems to mark

the beginning of the calendar year. However, as we all know, “Rosh Hashanah,” the

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New Year, is observed six months later, on the first of Tishrei. (See the first mishna in

Masekhet Rosh Hashana.) This calendar arrangement, with Tishrei marking the new

year, emerges from a different verse in Sefer Shemot (23:16): “…and the Feast of

Ingathering (Sukkot) at the end of the year, when you gather in the results of your work

from the field.” Sukkot is presented here as occurring towards the end of the year. (See

also the parallel verse—Shemot 34:22: “…and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the


Evidently, the Jewish calendar features two different new years—one in Aviv and the

other in Tishrei. I would like to suggest that the two systems of korbanot—i.e. the two

types of festivals—that we have encountered directly relate to this duality within the

Jewish calendar. The first system relates to the festivals of Aviv, i.e. the festivals of the

Exodus from Egypt. The institution of Rosh Chodesh was established simultaneous to

YHWH’s instructions to Moshe and Aharon with respect to the Exodus (Shemot 12:1);

Chag Ha-Matzot commemorates the Exodus; and Shavuot, which was never given a

calendar date and is observed always fifty days after Chag Ha-Matzot, comprises a

continuation of this process of recalling the Exodus from Egypt.

Correspondingly, the second system of festivals involves exclusively the month of

Tishrei. It consists of Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Shemini Atzeret, all of which

occur during this month. This distinction is expressed by the different sacrifices offered

on the holidays of each respective group.

Now we must turn our attention to the more complex Mussaf sacrifice of Sukkot. At

least with regard to the rams and sheep, the Mussaf offering of Sukkot is simply double

that of the other festivals. It requires fourteen sheep as opposed to the seven of the other

holidays, and its two rams double the single ram of the other Mussaf sacrifices. We must

therefore view Sukkot as a “double” festival, one which incorporates two “smaller”

festivals therein. It would seem that this double nature evolves from the two distinct

systems outlined above. In other words, Sukkot is observed both in the “Tishrei-year” as

well as in the “Aviv-year.” The reason is clear. On the one hand, Sukkot commemorates

the Exodus—”…in order that future generations may know that I made the Israelite

people live in booths seven days” (Vayikra 23:43)—thus warranting its inclusion in the

Aviv system of festivals. Concurrently, though, Sukkot obviously belongs in the Tishrei

group, as it follows Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur and occurs on the fifteenth of

Tishrei. Thus, Sukkot features a complex system of Mussaf sacrifices.

This dichotomy of Sukkot expresses itself in Parashat Emor, as well. The Torah there

presents and discusses all the festivals, concluding with Sukkot. Following its treatment

of Sukkot, the Torah summarizes, “These are the set times of YHWH that you shall

celebrate as sacred occasions” (23:37). After this conclusion, though, the Torah once

again commands the observance of Sukkot: “Mark, on the fifteenth day of the seventh

day, when you have gathered in the yield of your land, you shall observe the festival of

YHWH seven days.” Thus, the Chumash presetwo commandments with respect to

Sukkot, corresponding to the dual nature of this particular festival. (This issue of the

repeated discussion of Sukkot in Vayikra 23 is a vast topic, well beyond the scope of this

shiur. The reader is referred to the analysis of Rav Mordechai Breuer in “Pirkei


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(The issue of the bull-offerings, which require thirteen through seven bulls in descending

order over the course of the festival, seems to relate to an entirely different concept. As

this topic warrants independent treatment, we will simply remark that the Torah may

have specifically required the offering of seven bulls on the seventh day.)

These two categories of festivals present before the Jew two fundamental experiences,

expressed by and during the festivals. First, the Jew is called upon to experience his

nation’s history and commemorate events of the past, specifically the Exodus from Egypt

and the Revelation at Sinai ( = the year that begins with Aviv). Simultaneously, the

individual faces the present reality, specifically his agricultural concerns, and beseeches

the Almighty for success in his endeavors. This sense manifests itself most acutely in

Tishrei, the beginning of the agricultural year.

Thus, the listing of the sacrifices in Parashat Pinchas expresses the nature of the various

festivals and the relationships between them. We have not dealt with the specific

numbers themselves, e.g. why the Torah ordained specifically seven sheep and two

rams. Our goal here was to demonstrate the differences between the various festivals

and how these distinctions reflect the essence of each respective category of holidays.

In effect, within both systems man confronts the reality designed by the Almighty.

However, this confrontation contains two distinct but complimentary features. During

the festivals of Aviv, the individual faces the events that characterized the formation of

the Jewish people and expresses his gratitude to YHWH. In contrast, the festivals of

Tishrei have the Jew stand directly before the Almighty and request His assistance. Both

systems are founded on the same principle—YHWH’s boundless dominion over the

universe and the events that transpire therein. Whereas during the festivals of Aviv the

Jewish experience focuses on the events themselves, the festivals of Tishrei feature a

direct encounter with YHWH.

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The wavings of the four species on Sukkot.


To sigh, i.e. breathe strongly; by implication: to be sorry, i.e. (in a favourable sense) to

pity, console, or comfort, ease. To have regrets, as in Genesis 6:6Exodus 32:12-14 and

Yirmeyahu 26:3.


A prayer for consolation.


Serpent, snake. From a root that means “shining whisperer, enchanter.” The shining

enchanter. Afrikaans: “glinsterende verleier.” In Exodus 7:9-15, is parallel to nachash

the —the sea creatures of Genesis 1:21, and therefore also related to the tanin liv’yatan

(cf. Yeshayahu 27:1), which is a . The —the shining enchanter—misled tanin nachash

Adam and Chawwah in Gan Eden. Properly Hebraised, Revelation 20:2 reads:

Revelation 20:2

And [the seized the that old which is the Devil and malakh] tanin, nachash,

Satan, and bound him a thousand years…


To touch, i.e. lay the hand upon, draw near, reach, strike, touch. Following His

resurrection, Yahushua told Miryam not to Him naga —the same word a (High) Priest

would use while on his way to sprinkle atoning blood on the altar.




Plural: Nesi’im.

An exalted one. A king, governor, prince or president of the Beit Din. The president or

administrator of a synagogue. In the Talmudic period, the Nasi also functioned as the

head of the Jewish people. Yechezq’el 40-46. A title for the Messiah in


To snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense. Defend, deliver (self), escape,

without fail, part, pluck, preserve, recover, rescue, rid, save, spoil, strip, surely, take out.

Deliverance, being snatched away from danger; Greek: harpazo. Rapture.



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A vow. The service on Kol Nidre Yom Kippur begs the Almighty for forgiveness of, and

release from, all unkept vows made to Him.


Literally: closing; concluding service of …closing of the gate. Yom Kippur The

concluding service on after which the Nikanor gates of the Yom Kippur, Beit haMiqdash

were closed (Winter, 1973: 72-73). At this service, a sustained blast was shofar

sounded. Yeshayahu 27:13 and The (great of which we read in Shofar haGadol shofar),

Mattityahu 24:31, is blown with the service, and marked the closing of the Ne’eilah

Nikanor gates of the . It is clear therefore, that both Yeshayahu 27:13 Beit haMiqdash

and Mattityahu 24:31 intimates that the triumphant return of King Messiah will be on the

mo’ed Yom Kippur. (appointed time)

Nefesh chayyah

Living being. The animating life-force shared by humans and all living, breathing

creatures—Genesis 1:30. Essentially equivalent to the (breath of life) nishmat chayyim

mentioned in Genesis 2:7.


Fallen ones; mentioned in Genesis 6.


South. The southern, mostly arid area of Eretz Yisra’el.


See: Marcion.

A loose term used to refer to the mindset that the (Hebrew Scriptures) is largely Tanakh

irrelevant and has been replaced by the Greek New Testament Scriptures. In his book,

Jesus the Jewish Theologian, Professor Bradford Young laments the fact that large

sections of contemporary Christianity are infested with a subtle and pervasive spirit of




Ner ha-ma’aravi

The light in the branch of the nearest to the Menorah Qodesh ha-Qodeshim. The rabbis

taught that this light miraculously never was extinguished, except in the last 40 years

before the destruction of the by the Romans under Titus in 70 YM. The Beit haMiqdash

ner tamid was burned night and day in the Beit haMiqdash.


The libation of wine over the altar in the , accompanying the sacrifices. Beit haMiqdash


Breath of life. Treated hypostatically in later rabbinic writings.

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Head of the people, a head of a Tribe, a Prince.




The Prophets; second section of the Tanakh.

New Song

Hebrew: Shir Chadashah.

See: Harp.

Today, our music is set up on an eight-note scale called an octave. This dates back to

ancient times. In Scripture, there are references to a song called the This New Song.

song is understood as the song that will be sung when Messiah comes. The

commentaries of the sages abound with tremendous revelation on the full implications of

every reference to the The sages teach that the will be sung on a New Song. New Song

new ten-note scale rather than our present eight-note octave. They teach that the two

additional notes are already present, but that they can not be heard yet. Wherever we

encounter the expression, “sing to YHWH a new song” in Scripture, it indicates that the

passage will have its consummation at the time when King Messiah will come, when we

will be empowered by the to sing the praises of YHWH in an extended Ruach HaQodesh

musical scale, using ten-stringed musical instruments.

Psalms 33, 40, 92, 93, 96, 98, 144, 149, Yeshayahu 42:10-17, and also Revelation 5:9 &

14:3 deal with this wonderful theme. Psalms 92, 93 are sung with Qabalat

Shabbat—the welcoming of the Sabbath. These Tehillim speak prophetically of the

Messianic Kingdom to Come, the sabbatical millennium. The theme of these Psalms is

that the greatness of will be recognised by all in the Messianic Kingdom. Rabbi YHWH

Ya’aqov Emden taught that Psalms 92 and 93 should be sung when the Footsteps of the

Shabbat was heard. We are the generation living in Erev Shabbat—at the very

threshold of the Messianic age of which the of the weekly Shabbat is a prophetic shalom

tafnit (pattern).

The sage Rashi taught that Psalm 92 was the Levite’s song for the Shabbat Beit

haMiqdash service. According to the Scherman, Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor (

1985), Rashi taught that,

[Tehillim 92] refers to the World to Come [the when man will be Olam ha-ba],

given the spiritual perfection we only glimpse during the Shabbat.

Commenting on the expression,

“…upon 10-stringed instruments and lyre, with singing accompanied by a harp.”

the ( 47) states, Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor Scherman, 1985:

The sages teach that the lyre/harp of Messianic times will be ten-stringed,

representing a beautiful enhancement of music, which is now limited to the

octave of 8 notes. Every period in life calls for its own unique expression of

praise…The enhanced spirituality of Messianic times will [be expressed in] a

heightened form of song see Artscroll (Sfas Emes; Overview, Tehillim).

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In its commentary on the expression “10-stringed instrument” in Psalm 33, the Artscroll

Rosh HaShanah Machzor ( ) calls it “a celebration of the World to Come Scherman, 1985

(the Olam ha-Ba).”

This recognition of the profound prophetic significance of the joyous expression, “sing

to a enables us to understand otherwise obscure passages in an YHWH new song”

entirely new light. Take, for example,

Yeshayahu 42:10-17

10Sing to YHWH a new song, his praise from the ends of the earth, you who go

down to the sea, and all that is in it, you islands, and all who live in them.

11Let the desert and its towns raise their voices; let the settlements where Kedar

[i.e. Bedouin Arab believers] lives rejoice. Let the people of [Petra] sing for Sela

joy; let them shout from the mountaintops.

12Let them give esteem to YHWH and proclaim his praise in the islands.

13YHWH will march out like a mighty man, like a warrior he will stir up his zeal;

with a shout he will raise the battle cry and will triumph over his enemies.

14″For a long time I have kept silent, I have been quiet and held myself back. But

now, I cry out, I gasp and pant. like a woman in childbirth,

15I will lay waste the mountains and hills and dry up all their vegetation; I will turn

rivers into islands and dry up the pools.

16I will lead the blind by ways they have not known, along unfamiliar paths I will

guide them; I will turn the darkness into light before them and make the rough

places smooth. These are the things I will do; I will not forsake them.

17But those who trust in idols, who say to images, `You are our mighty ones,’ will

be turned back in utter shame.

The understanding that the phrase, “sing to YHWH a new song” refers to the empowerment

of the faithful remnant for a wonderful new mode of worship, at the revelation of

King Messiah, enables us to identify this passage as describing the triumphant revelation

of the Messiah at the end of the Chevlei Shel Mashiach—the Birthpangs of the Messiah,

i.e. the tribulation period —cf. . The faithful remnant of Yisra’el hiding in Sela (Petra

Yeshayahu 16 and Revelation 12 —cf. Yeshayahu 16 ), Arab believers (Kedar ) and all

the faithful in the earth (“the ends of the earth”) rejoice in His coming. Empowered by

the YHWH Ruach HaQodesh, they sing a New Song of praise to Elohim Tzva’ot, in an

extended musical scale, in the most joyous celebration.


Ritually unclean woman. A woman during the period of menstruation. The first 7 days

of menstruation was called the “seven red days.” This was followed by “seven white

days.” During this 14 day period, a husband could not come together with his wife.

Following the 14 days, the woman would immerse herself in a mikvah. Upon coming

out of the mikvah, she was called “born again.” She dressed herself like a bride,

beautifying herself for the monthly “honeymoon.”

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Nikanor gate

One of the seven gates in the large hall of the Temple compound. This gate was by the

Ezrath Yisra’el (the Hall of Israel) to the east, to the north of the altar.




Acceptance, closing prayer…the last phase of the Seder ceremony.

Nisan (Aviv)

First (springtime) month of year, during which falls. Pesach The first month of the

religious calender and the seventh on the civil calender. In earlier texts, its name is Aviv.

Under the influence of the Assyrian culture, which impacted upon Yahudah during the

Babylonian captivity, the name later was changed to Nisan.


Banner. A term for the Messiah in passages such as Yeshayahu 11:10, 13:2 and 18:3.


Miracles such as were performed by Messiah Yahushua, his Sh’liachim as well as other

1st century Chassidics such as Choni the Circle-Drawer. Yahushua’s had a nissim

uniquely messianic quality. The many miraculous healings He performed on the seventh

day—the Shabbat—are acted prophecies that the great healing is coming on the

seventh day—Yom YHWH.


In ancient times, the formal wedding ceremony.

Nisuch Hamayim

The libation of water in the during the Feast of Tabernacles. Beit haMiqdash

Noach (No’ach)



One who follows the stipulations of the covenant made with Noach after the Mabul


Noachide laws

Commands originally given to Noach and therefore binding on both Jews and non-Jews.

The sages taught that there were seven such laws or categories of rules. The Noachide

laws later became recognised as the basic commandments that a non-Jewish believer

should observe to show that he had withdrawn from idolatry, and serves only YHWH.

In Acts 15, the Nazarene Beit Din in Yerushalayim ruled that Gentile believers should,

as an keep the entrance requirement for fellowship in the Messianic assemblies,

Noachide covenantal obligations. This special concession does not mean that the entire

Torah is not binding on Messianic Jews any more. Neither does it mean that Gentile

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believers should not voluntarily obey more of the It Torah, in a gradual growth-process.

is a ruling about into the community of believers, the halakhic entrance requirements

commonwealth of believing Yisra’el.

The US Congress officially recognised the Noachide Laws in legislation which was

passed by both houses. Congress and the President of the United States (then Ronald

Reagan) indicated in Public Law 102-14, 102nd Congress, that the United States of

America was founded upon the and that these Laws Seven Universal Laws of Noach,

have been the bedrock of society from the dawn of civilisation. They also acknowledged

that the are the foundation upon which civilisation stands and that Seven Laws of Noach

recent weakening of these principles threaten the fabric of civilised society, and that

justified preoccupation in educating the Citizens of the United States of America and

future generations is needed. This Public Law designated March 26, 1991 as Education

Day for this purpose.

Nomos [G]

The Greek term commonly mistranslated as Law. “Law” is a mistranslation of the

Hebrew term, which means teaching, instruction, a showing of the way. The Torah,

word Greek was in turn taken from Aramaic. nomos

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Some terms and concepts:

Yiddoni „M Spiritist.

Ov „M medium; familiar spirit; the divining demon present in the body of the conjurer.

Divining by an is expressly forbidden in Va’yiqrah 20:27. ov

Wayiqra 20:27

A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard (i.e. who is a

medium or spiritist), shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with

stones: their blood shall be upon them.

Zekharyah 10:2

The idols speak deceit, diviners see visions that lie; they tell dreams that are

false, they give comfort in vain. Therefore the people wander like sheep

oppressed for lack of a shepherd.

Cheret „M magic; occult magic.

Teraphim „M Household idols consulted for oracular answers—see Bereshith 31:19-35,

Judges 18:14-202 Kings 23:24, Yechezq’el 21:21 and Zekharyah 10:2.

Divination „M The art of obtaining secret knowledge, especially of the future; a pagan

corruption/counterpart of prophecy. Inspirational divination is by demonic power, and is

condemned by Scripture—

Devarim 18:10-12

10Let no-one be found among you who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire,

who practises divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft,

11or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead.

12Anyone who does these things is detestable to YHWH, and because of these

detestable practices YHWH your Elohim will drive out those nations before you.

Doresh el-ha-metim „M One who inquires of the dead; a necromancer. This practice is

forbidden in Devarim 18:11. The most famous instance of necromancy in Scripture is

that of king Shaul and the medium of En-dor, recounted in 1 Shemuel 28:1-25. The

medium of En-dor was a woman controlled or mastered by a divining demon.

Ohel Mo’ed

The Tent of Meeting.

Oil in Israel

The following texts allude to finding massive oil reserves in Israel in the acharit-yamim:

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Genesis 49:125

1And Ya’aqov (Israel) called for his sons and said, ‘gather yourselves together

(around me) so that I may tell you what shall befall you in the latter or last


25By the Elohim of your Father who will help you, and by the Almighty who will

bless you…blessings lying deep beneath…

Yeshayahu 45:3 (conventional translation)

I will give you the treasures of darkness, riches stores in secret places so that

you will know that I am YHWH your Elohim who calls you by name.

Deuteronomy 32:13

He (YHWH) made [Israel] ride on the heights of the land and fed him (Israel) with

the fruit of the fields…and with oil from the flinty crag (rock).

The term denotes natural porosity where oil is stored. crag

Job 29:6

And the rock (flinty crag) poured out rivers of oil.

Job 28:9-10

Man puts forth his hand upon the flinty rock: he overturns the mountains by the

roots. He cuts out channels and passages among the rocks and his eye sees

every precious thing. Man binds the streams so that they do not trickle and the

thing that is hidden he brings forth to light.

Deuteronomy 33:1316a19

Blessed by YHWH be His land (Israel) with the precious gifts of heaven from the

dew and from the deep rock that couches beneath with the precious things of the

earth and its fullness and the favour and goodwill of Him [financial prosperity] for

they shall suck the abundance of the seas and the treasures hid in the sand.

Genesis 14:10

Now the Valley of Siddim before the Dead Sea existed was filled with tar

pits…some of the men fell into them and the rest fled and escaped.

Genesis 19:2425A, 28-29

“YHWH rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire (sulphur and flaming

rock filled with oil) from YHWH out of the heavens…He overthrew, destroyed

and ended those cities (by the great oil reserves exploding)…and [Avraham]

looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the valley, and

saw, and behold, the smoke of the country went up like the smoke of a furnace

[a hole 60 km long, 8-12 km wide, and 16,000 feet deep]. When Elohim ravaged

and destroyed the cities of the plain (of Sodom), He remembered Abraham and

He sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow when He overthrew the cities

where Lot lived.


Burnt offering.

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Burnt offering in Temple.

`Olam ha-bah

The world to come (the renewed heavens and the renewed earth). The New

Yerushalayim. When a i.e. one who has received YHWH’s gift of imputed tzadiq,

righteousness, passes through resurrection (or the glorification of living believers) which

will happen when Messiah returns, the enters into the After the tzadiq `Olam ha-bah.

Great White Throne Judgement at the end of the Messianic Kingdom, all will tzadeqim

be in the `Olam Ha-bah.

`Olam ha-zeh

The present world of toil and turmoil. “This world.” Not a place, but the time interval

between Adam’s fall and the second coming of the Messiah. According to respected

rabbinic schools and reliable early Christian sources, the will endure for `Olam Ha-zeh

6000 years. At present, we are probably very close to the end of 6000 years since the

impartation of the to Adam. neshamah


Sheaf or bushel of grain.

Omer, Counting of the

Hebrew: A period of 49 days counted from the day on which the Sefirat ha-Omer. omer

was first offered in the , until Beit haMiqdash Chag Shavuot.

Oneg Shabbat

Literally: joy of the Sabbath; reception after Friday night services, which includes

refreshments, socialising, and, sometimes, Israeli dancing or a discussion.


An Aramaic paraphrase of the Onkelos was a proselyte to Judaism, who Torah.

translated the into Greek because the Septuagint was not widely accepted. His Chumash

Greek translation later became the basis for a further Aramaic paraphrase, a work

performed by others.

Oral Torah

The written requires continual interpretation. Much of the traditional Torah

interpretations of the sages are very valuable. However, much of the binds Oral Torah

an unnecessarily heavy burden on men.

A study of the is particularly valuable to the exegete of the Messianic Oral Torah


Original knowledge

In many pagan cultures, a diligent researcher may uncover remains of original

knowledge that there is One Almighty Elohim, that mankind was judged in a great

deluge and subsequently scattered across the earth after the confusion of languages.

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There are also evidence of original knowledge of the fall of man and the promise of a

coming saviour who would redeem a faithful remnant of man.


The gathering (of the nobles). The ingathering. is the —the festival Sukkot chag-ha-Asif

of ingathering.


Plural: Otot.

There are certain rituals in Judaism which are referred to in the as an “Ot”—a Torah

sign of the binding relationship between the Jew and YHWH.

Examples of otot:

The Sabbath is called an “Ot;” circumcision is described as an “Ot”; the mitzvah

(commandment) of is also an “Ot”—a sign. According to Genesis 1:14, the sun, Tefillin

moon and stars are otot ba’shamayim—signs in the heavens. The mark on Qayin (Cain)

was an as is the rainbow in the sky after the Mabul; (flood) in the days of Noach. ot,

Covenantal circumcision is an ot, as are miracles performed to substantiate the truth of a

claim. The blood of the Pesach lambs on the doorposts of the houses of the children of

Yisra’el in Mitzrayim were also an ot.

Otot haMashiach

“Signs of the Messiah.” The term means and is the plural of Things the ot sign, otot ot.

Messiah will do as well as events that will precede and follow his footsteps. The major

Otot haMashiach can be ascertained from a very careful study of Scripture, paying

specific attention to the prophecies about the events of To seek and teach Yom YHWH.

what has not been revealed, however, becomes dangerously close to divination. The

secret things belong to YHWH our Elohim, while that which has been revealed in

Scripture has been given for us to study and focus our hope upon. The teacher of

Scripture should pray not to fall into sensationalism.


Obadiah. “Servant of YHWH.”

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Literally: faces. Always used in the plural. Presence.

The Messiah is the unique of YHWH—the Messenger of the Malakh ha-Panin

Face/Presence of YHWH (Yeshayahu 63:9).


Plural: peqidim.

Biblical Hebrew: overseer, monitor, auditor, officer, commissioner.

Parah Adumah

Red Heifer, a special sacrificial animal whose ashes was used in cleansing ceremonies.

A has to be born and raised in before the continual altar Parah Adamah Eretz Yisrael

service (the may begin. There can only be a functioning priesthood in Israel once tamid)

a red heifer has been sacrificed and its ashes used for purification. The priesthood can

not function without the ceremony of the red heifer’s ashes mixed with water from the

pool of being sprinkled on each of the individual priests. Siloam




Plural: Parashiot.

The weekly portion. The rabbis have divided the into 54 portions which Torah Torah

are read and studied each week for one year. In ancient times, the -reading cycle Torah

in Israel lasted 3 years. A (portion) is sometimes also called a parasha sidra.



An acronym formed by taking the first letter of each of the four foundational categories

of rabbinic exegesis used in the first century. These methods were:

P‘SHAT: The simple, plain meaning of a text.

REMEZ: Hinting, alluding to.

D‘RASH: Complex; homiletical application.

SOD: Secret, mystery.


Almoners; deacons.

Members of an ancient synagogue whose responsibilities included caring for the poor

and distributing alms.


The curtain separating the (most set-apart place) from the Qodesh haQodeshim

HaQodesh parochet (set-apart place). The layout of the is shown in the following

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„„„ „„„Â



KhK denotes the and HK denotes the Note that the Qodesh haQodeshim HaQodesh.

parochet consisted of a double curtain with a narrow passageway along which the High

Priest walked during the service. Every curtain was about 4 inches thick. Yom Kippur

The faces of an ox, a man, a lion and an eagle were embroidered on the curtain.








The first five books of the Scriptures, the Five Books of Mosheh, i.e. the or Chumash







Plural: Pesachim.


Pesach Katan

The second offering of the Paschal Lamb on the 14th of Iyar.

Pesach Sheni

The 14th of Iyar, the offering of the Pesach Sacrifice by those who were not able to do so

on the 14th of Nisan.

In the time of the Birthpains, the False messiah will desecrate the Miqdash on Aviv 10,

exactly at the halfway mark of the last “seven” decreed over Am Yisra’el (the people of

Israel) and Yerushalayim (Dani’el 9:24-27). Having corporately accepted Yahushua as

the Messiah 6 months before this event, Messianic Israel will therefore have to celebrate

Pesach in the wilderness on Iyar 14.


Little meaning, literal meaning.

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Book of Haggadic discourses for festivals and special Sabbaths.


See: P’rushim.

Religio-political faction in late Second Temple days that wanted to develop Judaism

through prayer, study of and midrashic interpretations of forerunners of Torah, Torah;

the rabbis.



Pharo Nekho

Pharao Necho.

Piku’ach Nefesh

The care for human life.


Sharp, dialectic, intellectual argumentation. Used particularly by Talmudists in Poland

from the 16th century.

Pirkey Avot

“The Ethics of the Fathers”, a Tractate in the Mishnah. The Sages’ Guide To Living.

Consists of 6 chapters from the Talmud and is loved by many. The Talmudic sages

called it simply it is a the guide to behaviour, attitudes, civility, honour, Fathers;

integrity, faith, and much more.


Liturgical poem. Many piyyutim were incorporated into the services of the and chaggim





Greek equivalent of Hebrew ruach.

Prodigal son

A midrash on Yirmeyahu 31, the reading on Yisra’el is seen Haftarah Rosh HaShanah.

as a backslidden son who has gone to a far country, but who will be re-established in the

acharit-yamim. Malkut Shamayim In teaching his talmidim on the , Messiah Yahushua

originated many parables, but also drew on the large pool of existing used by aggadot

other sages of Yisra’el in their instruction to their talmidim.


A person who converted to Judaism, taking the full yoke of the (i.e. Yisra’el’s Torah

specific covenantal obligations) upon him or herself.

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A convert to Judaism.


Formal ordination of rabbis was only instituted after 70 YM. Before this period, many

prophetic teachers were given the title rabbi. Yahushua was an itinerant, aggadic protorabbi.

Itinerant travelled from place to place. Aggadic teach by parables. Proto- „M „M

rabbi A rabbi (prophetic teacher) who lived before the time when rabbis were formally „M


Proto-rabbinic Judaism

Judaism before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 YM.


Pharisees, i.e. the upholders of the at the time of the Second Temple. The Oral Torah

Pharisees were the teachers of the common people. In the 1st century, many were

itinerant, i.e. they travelled from place to place. They instructed by means of aggadot

(parables). Yahushua was like a Pharisee in the sense that He was Aggadic an itinerant


The Sadducees comprised mostly of the Temple religious establishment. They were the

primary sect that ran the order of business in the Temple. The Sadducees didn’t believe

in the resurrection of the dead, didn’t believe in angels or the . (That is Ruach HaQodesh

why they were sad, you see.) In contrast to the Sadducees, the Pharisees did believe in

the resurrection of the dead, believed in angels and in the . Ruach HaQodesh

There were several schools of Pharisaic thought in the first century. Yahushua seems to

have to some extent been a teacher of the school of Hillel. Some of his teachings also

agreed with Qumran. His objections to the Pharisees was always that they were

“hypocrites” he agreed largely with them but felt that they should have done a better —

job of practising what they taught.

Of all the sects of Judaism in the 1st century, it was only the Pharisees who remained as

a distinguishable sect of Judaism. It was the successors of the Pharisees who wrote the

Talmud (the Oral law consisting of the Mishnah and Gemara). In the Talmud, both

Pharisees and Sadducees are strongly criticised for their hypocrisy. When the Pharisees

wanted to tell somebody how to be religious, they did so by condemning the not

Sadducees and saying, “Don’t be like the Sadducees who do such and such…”

The were two main groups among the Pharisees. One group followed the Rabbi Hillel

the Great and the other followed Rabbi Shammai. One group was known as the House

of Hillel and the other group was known as the House of Shammai. Beit Shammai was

more strict regarding the and followed more closely the letter of the than Torah Torah

Beit Hillel. In some issues in the Gospels, Yahushua ruled with the House of Shammai

and in other places He ruled with the house of Hillel.

Overall, Yahushua most often agreed with the position of the House of Hillel; in

Mattityahu 23, he apparently clashes head-on with Beit-Shammai. The House of

Shammai disappeared over time. All who remained in their distinguishable form were

the Pharisees of the House of Hillel. The Pharisees of the House of Hillel wrote the

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Talmud. The Talmud is the Oral Teachings of Judaism that were written down to

preserve the Oral Teachings after the Temple was destroyed in 70 YM as the Jews were

eventually taken captive by the Romans and dispersed into the nations of the world. The

Talmud began to be written about 200 YM There is a Yerushalayim Talmud and a

Babylonian Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud is the most extensive, authoritative, and is

the most studied within Orthodox Judaism today.

Following the destruction of the Temple in 70 YM, in order to preserve Judaism,

Judaism was restructured at Yavneh in the land of Israel by a group of Rabbis. Rabbi

Yochanan ben Zakkai emerged as their leader. When this was done, Judaism changed

from being primarily Aggadic to being primarily . Thus, Rabbinic Judaism was Halakhic


Modern day Orthodox Jews trace their roots to the Pharisees of the House of Hillel. In

the last 150 years, those Jews who have broken away from the Orthodox Judaism have

formed two other main sects of Judaism Conservative and Reform. Both of these —

sects are more liberal than Rabbinical Orthodox Judaism and have steered away from the

Oral teachings of Rabbinical Orthodox Judaism while trying to maintain their Jewish

religious heritage and balance this with the realities of the modern world. Reform

Judaism is at the opposite extreme of Rabbinical Orthodox Judaism and is very liberal.

Conservative Judaism is a balance between Rabbinical Orthodox Judaism and the very

liberal Reform Judaism. There are even various sects within Orthodox Judaism itself.

Some Orthodox Jews try to remain Orthodox and try to balance this with the realities of

the modern world. These are known as “Modern Orthodox.” Then, there are the Ultra-

Orthodox Chassidic Jews. There are even various sects among the Chassidics. Many of

the Ultra-Orthodox Jews do not even acknowledge Conservative or Reform Jews as

representing Judaism. Torah


Written under another name.


The literal meaning or plain sense of a passage of Scripture.


Literally: lots; festival that celebrates the survival of the Jewish people in the time when

Haman the Agagite attempted to have them all killed. Celebrated on Adar 14 or 15 in

commemoration of the deliverance of the Yahudim in the Persian Empire in the days of


Purim is a Rabbinic command. It was instituted by the Beit Din after the D’Rabbanan

deliverance of the Jews who were under the rule of the Persian Empire.

Purim is a minor holiday connected to a historical event. One complete book in the

Scriptures the Book of Esther, often referred to as or the Scroll of — Megillat Esther

Esther is devoted to recounting the events that led to the holiday. The dramatic story is —

read at the synagogue service on the night of Purim and again at the service the

following morning.

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The name Purim, we are told in the Book of Esther, derives from the word (plural: pur

purim), meaning “lots,” which were used by Haman, Prime Minister of King

Achasverosh of Persia, to choose the date on which he would slaughter the Jews of the


Purim, the Feast of Lots, commemorates the deliverance of the Jews of Persia in the fifth

century BM by Esther and her cousin (the son of her father’s brother) Mordechai.

Haman, second in command to King Achasverosh, planned to exterminate the Jews of

Persia. He ordered that lots be drawn to determine on which day the massacre should

take place, and it fell on the thirteenth day of the Hebrew month of Adar.

Haman’s plans were foiled by beautiful Queen Esther and her cousin, Mordechai.

Risking her own life, Esther pleaded before the king for her people, and Haman’s order

was rescinded. Instead of the Jews of Persia being slaughtered, Haman and his family

were hung on the gallows prepared for Mordechai. Thus, those days of doom were

turned “from sorrow to gladness,” days to be commemorated by “sending gifts to one

another and to the poor” (Esther 9:22).

During the reading of the Megillah at the synagogue service, whenever Haman’s name is

mentioned, it is booed in one form or another by the stamping of feet or the rattling of

noisemakers (groggers). Before the day is over, friends and relatives exchange gifts and

join in a festive meal called the Seudat Purim.

Purim, of course is not mentioned in the Apostolic Writings, yet its lessons can still be

found within it. One primary lesson which Rav Sha’ul (Paul) expounds upon in Romans

9-11 is that of the faithfulness of YHWH towards the Jewish people. The church as a

whole should never forget, as they have in the past, that YHWH will remain faithful to

his people and intervene whenever they are threatened with destruction, not because of

their intrinsic “goodness” or because they deserve it, but because the character and Name

of YHWH would be impugned otherwise. The fact that YHWH has granted consistent

protection toward the Jewish people has literally provided the Gentiles with an insurance

policy that guarantees the promises of YHWH to be valid for them and their salvation as

well. Should YHWH fail at any point to carry out His ultimate promises to the Jewish

people, the Scriptures would be declared null and void, and the Gentiles would be left

without hope in this world, (May Heaven forbid! Perish the thought!). Chas-ve’Shalom


Founding immigrants to USA who sought purity of faith. Some of the early Christian

settlers who came to the USA from Europe to seek religious freedom in the founding

days of the USA were strongly opposed to the celebration of pagan festivals such as

Christmas. The Puritans embraced their Hebraic Heritage. Very few people realise that

the US congress voted on Hebrew being the official language of the USA. This proposal

was defeated by only in the early days of the republic. This is how much one vote

influence our Hebraic Heritage and the embracing of it had in the early days of the USA

and how close the USA came to speaking Hebrew today!

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“Received.” is the traditional and most commonly used term for the esoteric Qabalah

teachings of Judaism and for Jewish mysticism, especially the forms which it assumed in

the Middle Ages from the 12th century onward. In other words, while there is an ancient

esoteric tradition, refers to the apostasy of Middle Ages magic and superstition, Qabalah

prohibited by which infused 12th century Judaism. Before the 12th century, Torah,

Qabalah comprised the tradition recorded by Aboav in the Teimani (Yemenite Jewish)

work . Menorat ha-MeOr

Qabbalat Ol Mitzvot

The acceptance of the yoke of the commandments; a convert’s agreement to lead a

Jewish life.

Qabbalat Shabbat

Psalms, readings and songs welcoming the Sabbath; the introductory portion of the

Sabbath eve service.


A liturgical prayer praising the Almighty. This prayer is chanted at several points in a

service. In addition, it is recited at least once at each service in memory of those who

have died…Prayer of setting apart the Name of YHWH. (qadosh)


Set-apart. Separated. Radically different. (Afrikaans: “gans anders.”) Customarily

translated by the misleading and meaningless term, “holy.”


Set-apart ones; often translated as “saints” in English translations of the See Tanakh.


Qahal Qahol „¡

Synonymous to Kehilat.

Congregation, assembly of the people called out by YHWH. Translated as in ekklesia

the Septuagint. The believer of today, Jewish or Gentile, belongs to the same that Qahal

stepped out of the Ark, the same that stood (underneath; at the foot of) Qahal tachat

Mount Sinay, the same that received the Qahal Ruach HaQodesh Shavuot on in

Yerushalayim, about 2000 years ago, when the eschatological was empowered as Qahal

the power of the came upon believers, giving them the firstfruits of the Ruach HaQodesh

powers of the Olam Ha-ba. Jewish believers are natural members of that cultivated olive

tree, while Gentile believers have been grafted into that tree.

Conceptual chaos regarding the term “church” prevails today. The problem is that we

develop our understandings from where the term “church” first appears in translations,

the Apostolic Writings. Christian seminaries have historically trained pastors to under-

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stand the “New Testament” scriptures against a Hellenistic background, by looking at

what the terms meant in ancient Greek society. The conceptual darkness is dissolved

once we realise that the Apostolic Writings are Jewish theological documents, passed to

us in Greek, the of the day. Words should be understood by asking, “what lingua franca

is the Hebraic concept behind this Greek term, and how was it used (1) in the Tanakh,

and (2) by the ancient Jewish sages?” How it was used in pagan Greek culture is usually

quite irrelevant. In this way, sound hermeneutics can restore our sense of continuity with

the community of Avraham avinu (our father Avraham).

Some authors prefer not to use the term “church” at all, because it derives from

paganism—it is etymologically related to the temples of Circe (alias Kirke), the

daughter of the Sun-idol in Roman mythology.

In order to avoid conceptual chaos, we have used the terms “congregation” and

“assembly,” and even in our study monographs. Because language sets limits to Qahal

the clarity of our thinking, we should exercise extreme care to use language correctly.

Wrong terminology breeds wrong concepts, wrong convictions and, ultimately, wrong


The following overview of the correct meaning of the term is based on Dr John Church

D. Garr’s article, published in Vol. 4 No. 3. Upon this Rock! Restore!

When Yahushua asked his talmidim who they understood him to be, Shim’on Petros

answered him, “Atah hu, haMashiach, ben El Chai” “You are he, the Messiah, Son of —

the Mighty One who lives.” Knowing that the truth about his nature had been revealed

to this tempestuous by his Father in Heaven, Yahushua replied, talmid

Matttityahu 16:16-18

…Upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of she’ol shall not prevail

against it.”

Many have taken this statement to mean that “Jesus’ mission was to clean the religious

slate and initiate and establish something profoundly new and hitherto unheard of: the

Church. Those who hold to such a neo-Marcionist hermeneutic typically say that “Jesus

was terminating the dispensation of the Law and announcing the creation of a new,

vibrant entity the Church a vibrant new faith and a new ‘dispensation’ —— —the

dispensation of grace.”

Is this true? How should we understand Yahushua’s answer to Shimon Kefa’s insight?

In order to understand what Yahushua said and did, we must relate these words to their

original context, to Second-Temple period Judaism, to the life and practices of firstcentury

Israeli Jewry. We cannot understand these words if we transplant them to gentile

soil and to the present century, for they were spoken by a Jew in the land of the Jews to

fellow-Jews. Only when we return to that place, to that time and to that people, can we

truly comprehend the meaning and function of the Church.

The term church is both very familiar and very misunderstood. What is the church?

Who are part of it? When did it begin? Where does it exist? How does it operate? Why

does it exist? These are the questions of the study of the church. It is ecclesiology

essential that we build our entire understanding of the concept Church from analysing

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Scripture in its original intent and context. We must turn to Scripture for our

understanding of ecclesiology. In analysing Scripture, however, we must be careful that

we engage in exegesis, not eisegesis. The use of the latter has resulted in the maze of

confusion on the subject of the nature and mission of the church. People of good

intentions have read into the texts of Scripture the meanings which their cultures, politics

or other environmental conditioning dictated. It is imperative that we exegete the

scriptural term by literally “drawing out” the meaning of the words and texts of church


The word must be understood in the light of the New Testament Greek term church

ekklesia, which refers to an assembly or gathering of people. This brings us to a crucial

hermeneutical pitfall. The very worst, the most disastrous eisegetical turn to make at this

stage, is to follow the following recipe for exegetical shipwreck:

Premise 1

The term Church is used exclusively in the NT.

Premise 2

Jesus established the Church.

Premise 3

To establish the meaning of the term one has to analyse the use of the term church,

ekklesia in classical and Koine Greek.

The ecclesiology of many Christian denominations, especially those where scholarship

of the Hebrew language is sadly lacking, is based on the above “3-premise shipwreck.”

Why is the above method in error? How then, should we proceed?

The correct premise for an exegetical analysis of the term is that the use of church

technical terms in the Greek New Testament (GNT) is based on the use of these Greek

terms in the Septuagint and other Greek manuscript translations in common use in Late

Second Temple Period Judaism. As a corollary (associated truth), it follows that an

exegesis of a technical term such as we should first of all ask “Which Hebrew ekklesia,

word was translated by that Greek word in the Septuagint?” Next, we should study the

meaning of the corresponding Hebrew word(s) in the Hebrew Scriptures to determine its

meaning in the GNT. Because a Hebrew undertext and thought-world underlies the text

of the GNT, I can think of few things as pointless as being a scholar of Biblical Greek

without simultaneously being a scholar of Hebrew. The text of the GNT is something

that should be penetrated to uncover the underlying Hebrew lifeworld.

We begin to discover the meaning of the secular Greek term when we turn to the ekklesia

Hebrew word or words which were rendered by the translators of the ekklesia

Septuagint. According to tradition, seventy Jewish scholars based in Alexandria, Egypt,

translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in the third century BCE to enable the

Hellenised Jews in the diaspora to read the Scriptures in the of the lingua franca

Mediterranean Basin. These scholars used the Greek word to translate the ekklesia

Hebrew word which means “congregation, assembly.” is a derivative of qahal, Qahal

qol, the word for voice. Ultimately, it refers to the summoning of an assembly or to the

act of assembling. This term is generally used in Scripture to refer to the assembly of the

people of Israel, e.g. assembly of Israel, assembly of qahal Yisrael qahal YHWH — —

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YHWH, and the assembly of Elohim. The people of Yisrael are qahal Elohim

sometimes referred to as the from the same root. As said, the word qahal is qehillah,

usually rendered in the Septuagint. The important point is that the exegesis of ekklesia

the term in the GNT should therefore be based on the use of the term in ekklesia qahal

the Hebrew Scriptures. Failure to do so, inevitably results in a perverse “splitting up” of

concepts, in the creation of a new pseudo-concept, in creating a false dichotomy and

discontinuity in salvation-history.

In Scriptural language then, the “church” is the assembly of all who respond to the call to

enter into a covenant relationship with Almighty YHWH. “Church” is not exclusively a

“New Testament” term, for the origin of the term is found in the Septuagint translation of

the Hebrew Scriptures, which the writers of the GNT used. The word which the apostles

used to express their corporate identity was the same as that which had been used by the

people of Israel since the exodus from Egypt. This is why Stephanos calls Israel “the

church in the wilderness” in Acts 7:38 and why Hebrews 2:12 quotes Psalm 22:22: “I

will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of will I praise the congregation

thee” as “I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the will I sing church

praise unto thee.” This is also why Hebrews 12:23 uses “general assembly” and “church

of the firstborn” as virtually synonymous, in the characteristic style of Hebrew

parallelism, which rhymes thoughts, not words.

The authors of the apostolic writings understood that the word translated the ekklesia

Hebrew and meant the assembly or congregation of YHWH. For Yahushua and qahal

the sh’liachim (apostles) there was between the congregation of the absolute continuity

pre-Messianic past and the Messianic future, the church of the Hebrew Scriptures and the

church of which we read in the apostolic writings. The of the Messianic age is an qahal

empowered qahal Ruach HaQodesh. —empowered by the Yahushua called unto him

whom He would, trained twelve (students; apprentices under discipline) to be talmidim

the leaders of His empowered qahal. qahal He brought the of YHWH to its intended

state, a state of partaking of the firstfruits of the New Covenant which was sealed in His

own shed sacrificial blood.

We conclude that Reformed theology is correct in tracing “Church history” all the way

back to the time of the exodus from Egypt (or even before that). In contrast,

Dispensationalism misuses the term Their theology, with its stark church.

Church Israel dichotomy, was developed from English translations of Scripture, so that „q

they fell into the disastrous hermeneutical trap by assuming premises 1 to 3 detailed on

page 167 above.

Dr John D. Garr continues,

The term then, might more accurately be translated [or church, congregation

assembly]. Perhaps if the Archbishop of Canterbury’s instructions to those who

created the interpretation of the Bishops’ Bible that came to be known as the

Authorised King James Version of the Scriptures had not proscribed [ruled out]

the use of congregation in deference to the ecclesiastical term church,

generations of Christians in English-speaking nations would have understood the

church as the congregation of [Elohim], a perpetuation of the congregation of

Israel in complete continuity. Then, we might have more readily understood that

Paul’s olive tree metaphor in Romans 11 reveals Israel, into which Gentile

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branches were grafted to share in the roots and fatness of Judaism. We would

also have understood the church as the continuation, not replacement, of Israel

and the new covenant as a renewed covenant as Hebrews 8:10-11 reveals.

So who are the assembly, the congregation? Who are the people who comprise the

assembly of those who are called out to be in covenant with YHWH? The answer was

very clear in the Hebrew Scriptures: it was the entire assembly of the descendants of

Avraham through Yitzchak and Ya’aqov who made the exodus from Mitzrayim and

stood (at the foot of; literally: underneath) Mount Sinai, and it was all of their tachat

subsequent offspring who held fast to the covenant. While all of the children of Yisra’el

was denominated and arranged accordingly around the tent of meeting in the wilderness,

they were collectively considered the the “assembly of YHWH.” All of Israel qahal,

was the the ones called out to enter into covenant with YHWH. All of Israel, qahal,

therefore, was the in the wilderness. Those who became unfaithful to the covenant qahal

and fell into gross sin, were “cut off” from the qahal.

The answer is equally clear in the Apostolic writings. Just as the of Israel was qahal

immersed into one corporate body unto Mosheh in the cloud and in the sea (1

Corinthians 10:2), so all believers have been immersed by one into Ruach HaQodesh

one body (1 Corinthians 12:13), and buried and raised with Messiah by immersion in a

Miqvah (Colossians 2:12). This includes everyone who have been “There is called out:

one Spirit, called… body, and one even as you are ” (Ephesians 4:4). It is a calling into

covenant with Almighty YHWH. All believers are, corporately, the adopted children of

YHWH, betrothed to one husband (2 Corinthians 11:2).

The Christian denominations that teach that “the Church” began on the day of Pentecost

are correct, but they talk about the wrong Pentecost! The did not begin on qahal

Pentecost at Mount Zion in Acts 2. It began on (Greek: Pentecoste) at Mount Shavuot

Sinai in Exodus 19.

Yahushua’s statement “I will build my church” means that He would empower and

restore his Yahushua’s brother Ya’aqov, Nasi of the Netzarim Beit Din (President qahal.

of the Ruling Council of Messianic Yehudim) in Yerushalayim, quoted Amos 9:11-12 in

connection with the work of the Messiah,

Acts 15:16

After this I will return, and will build again the of Dawid, which is fallen sukkah

down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and will set it up.

Yahushua came to restore and perform the work of redemption so that the could be qahal

empowered by the He overcame death, so that the can, in Him, Ruach HaQodesh. qahal

have victory over death. He is the representative one; the is the represented many. qahal

He is the bearer and bestower of the Spirit; His receives of the anointing that is qahal

upon Him. Yahushua never intended to destroy or put aside what the Father had been

moulding among the people of Yisra’el for many centuries. He did not come to terminate

the past and start a discontinuous new entity. His work is to the house of Dawid restore

that lay in ruins. Not to displace it.

Why is the above information generally not taught in Christianity? The answer lies in

the domino effect and in human nature. The facts that we are grafted into the same qahal

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that stood Har Sinay, that Messiah Yahushua was rigorously -observent, tachat Torah

upsets the and people’s psychological laziness. It holds as a corollary that we status quo

should reform, and drastically so. Once the domino of a new entity called the “Church”

is disproved and topples over, we need to rid ourselves of a great many associated

untruths: pagan “holy days,” the pagan names with which we dishonour Almighty

YHWH, and more… It also entails that we should re-institute the celebration and

keeping of the Shabbat and the Appointed Times of Almighty YHWH. Not to earn

salvation, but as the lifestyle of the redeemed. People can tolerate change, but hate being

changed. All too few have the guts to make the paradigm shift, and to ask in brokenness

of spirit, “How then shall we live?”


To scorn or despise; to take lightly. In Bereshith 12:3 Almighty YHWH promises

Avraham that those who despise him, take him lightly, will be cursed by Elohim.

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Honorific title higher than that of Rabbi. Gamli’el, under whom Sha’ul studied, was

called Rabban.

Rabban Yochanan ben Zakhai

This pharisee and sage survived the First Jewish Revolt against Rome by being carried

out of the besieged city of Yerushalayim in a coffin. In Yavneh, he guided his followers

in establishing a Judaism that could exist meaningfully without a temple. For this

reason, he is often called the father of rabbinic Judaism. Like the Apostle Sha’ul, he

studied under the highly respected Rabban Gamli’el.

A tale of two rabbis: When Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakhai became terminally ill, his

talmidim gathered around his sickbed. When he saw them, he began to weep. His

disciples said to him,

“Lamp of Israel, pillar of the Right Hand, mighty hammer, why are you weeping?”

He replied and (Berachot 28b Avot de Rabbah of Rabbi Nathan 25):

“…Now that I am to be taken before the Supreme King of Kings, the Set-Apart

One…there are two roads before me—one leading to Gan Eden, and the other

to Gey Hinnom, and I do not know by which road I shall be taken. So shall I not


It is clear that the founder of rabbinic Judaism had absolutely no assurance of salvation at

the end of his life. In contrast, his fellow-student and rabbi, Sha’ul of Tarsus, could say

the following at the end of his life—because he received the redemption that is only

through Messiah Yahushua:

2 Timothy 4:6-8

6For I am already being poured out like a drink offering, and the time has come

for my departure. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have 7

kept the faith.

8Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Master, the

righteous Judge, will award to me in thát day—and not only to me, but also to all

who have longed for his appearing.

Rabbi Yahudah haNasi

A famous rabbi, credited with compiling the traditional oral teachings of Judaism into

the Mishnah, circa 200 YM. In the Talmud, he is simply referred to as “the Rabbi.”



Proud, harlot, broad wall. A term for Egypt, and also for the kingdom of the Antichrist,

which is foreshadowed by ancient Egypt—see Iyov 9:13 & 26:12Tehillim 87:4;

Yeshayahu 30:7 & 51:9.

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In ancient walled cities, prostitutes had rooms in the walls. The walls were called

“broad(s).” For this reason, rachav is a term for a prostitute, while prostitutes are

commonly called “broads.” This is also the reason why the red-light district in

Amsterdam is called “Walletjies.”


Washing Ur’chatz—celebrant washes, one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony

Rochtzah—the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal.


Seat of idolatry in ancient Egypt.

Rapture, pre-tribulational

The 19th century Dispensationalist theologian, John Nelson Darby, was not the

originator of PreTrib rapture theology, as uninformed critics often claim. Let us look at

some proofs.

The approaching Deliverance of the church.

Pierre Jerieu France. 1687.

Peter Jurieu was a French Calvinist preacher and was considered “the Goliath of the

French Protestants.” He wrote in 1687 about the Rapture and the Premillennial return of

the Messiah. Jurieu discussed the coming of Yahushua to translate the prior to tzadeqim

the time He returns in Judgement. He preached in Rotterdam as one of the greatest of

the Reformers in his day. Jurieu refuted the amillennial teaching of his day and clearly

argued for the premillennial position regarding Messiah’s return. He also believed that

Messiah would come in the air to rapture the and return to heaven before the tzadeqim

Battle of Armageddon. His writings disproves the theory that the PreTrib rapture was

first invented by Darby. Over 130 years before Darby, Jurieu spoke of a secret Rapture,

a kind of clandestine coming of Messiah prior to His coming in glory and judgement.

Jurieu wrote of John’s prophecy about the Millennium, “the shall reign with tzadeqim

Messiah a thousand years” and commented,

But to me it seems very evident that this reign shall begin with some miraculous

appearance of our Master in His glory. After which He shall go back to Heaven.

Expanding on his interpretation, he wrote,

There is a first coming of Messiah, and it may be a first Resurrection. Lastly, who

can be certain, that this coming of Messiah, to establish His kingdom upon Earth,

shall not be in that manner, with the voice of an Archangel, and in great

magnificence and Glory? Who can prove, that at that first coming of Messiah He

shall not raise some of the dead, as St. John seems expressly to have foretold?

Writing directly about the coming Rapture he compared it to the resurrection of the Old

Testament when Messiah rose from the grave. He asked, tzadeqim

Why may not Messiah raise some of the who lived during the tzadeqim Yemot

haMashiach, at the coming of His Kingdom, as well as raise some of the ancient

patriarchs, when He arose from the grave?

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Jurieu rejected the view that Messiah will stay in heaven until the final judgement of the

world. He suggested that Messiah will first “come down from heaven” in the air in “a

glorious apparition, returning to heaven.” While these comments are not conclusive,

they do suggest that the idea of Messiah coming in the air for His prior to tzadeqim

Armageddon was under discussion over 300 years ago.

An ancient PreTrib Rapture Statement is found in (c. 374-627): Pseudo-Ephraem

All the and elect of Elohim are gathered together before the tribulation, tzadeqim

which is to come, and are taken to the Master, in order that they may not see at

any time the confusion which overwhelms the world because of our sins.

We conclude that Dispensationalism and the pre-tribulation rapture are not synonymous;

the hope of a pre-tribulation rapture preceded Dispensationalist Systematic theology by

more than a thousand years.


Rabbi Solomon ben Yitzchak. A famous rabbinic commentator who lived in France

around the years 1040 – 1105. He penned a very famous and valuable Torah



Plural: Resha’im.

The wholly wicked, the iniquitous, the perversely wrong. Vessels fit for destruction.


A Sage of the Talmudic era. He lived in Babylonia, and composed today’s form of the

Aleinu prayer.

Rav Sha’ul

A Hebraic way of referring to Sha’ul the Apostle as a teacher.

Reb, Rebbe

Yiddish for Rabbi.


“Heal us…”, one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer.




Scripture portrays beings relationally and not in absolute categories. People, e.g., are

called (righteous ones), (set-apart ones), sinners (ones who miss the tzadeqim qadoshim

mark) and (perversely wrong ones). All these terms express relational states resha’im

and contain ethical value-judgements.

The name and titles of YHWH also have a strong relational content—His personal

Name, YHWH, speaks of escalating manifest being; His title signifies a relation Elohim

of creative and judgmental might that induces awe and reverence; denotes a Adonai

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relation of sovereign, royal power. In contrast, our Greco-Roman heritage often teaches

us wrong, non-relational concepts.

YHWH is our Elohim—He is mighty and we stand in awe of Him. Relationally to me,

the Messiah is —my sovereign master (Psalm 110:1) and my mighty one (El; Adoni v’Eli

Elohim) before whom I tremble in reverential awe (Psalm 45:7); the fulness of YHWH is

manifest bodily in Him (Yochanan 20:28). Relationally to the Father, the Father is the

Elohim of Yahushua the Messiah—cf. Yochanan 17:3 and Revelation 3:212.


Alluding or hinting to.

Replacement Theology

A concept that emerged from the teachings of some non-Jewish leaders of the secondcentury

Church. They taught that YHWH is irrevocably finished with dealing with Israel

as a nation, and that all prophecies about the restoration of Israel pertains in a spiritual

sense to the Church and individual believers.

Resurrection body

Did Sha’ul believe, and does the Scriptures teach, that at the Second Advent living and

dead believers will receive non-material and non-physical bodies, totally devoid of

physical substance? This is indeed the view of some scholars. They define “spiritual

body soma pneumatikon” as meaning “composed of spirit,” as though spirit were —

some ethereal, heavenly substance. According to this view, “spirit” would be the

substance and “body” would be the form of the resurrection body.

In his book Raised Immortal: Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament,

Murray Harris defines the spiritual body as follows:

“The spiritual body is the organ of the resurrected person’s communication with

the heavenly world. It is a somatic form fully responsive to the Christian’s

perfected spirit and perfectly adapted to its heavenly environment.”

Harris’ definition of the “spiritual body” as an organ suitable for a “heavenly

environment” is largely based on the popular assumption that the redeemed will spend

eternity in heaven and not on this earth. Since heaven is supposed to be a “spiritual”

place, the redeemed must be fitted with a “spiritual body” suitable for the spiritual

environment of heaven. This popular belief rests on the assumption that YHWH will

condemn this earth to eternal desolation and create, instead, a new “heavenly” world for

the habitation of the . Such an assumption raises serious questions about the tzadeqim

wisdom of Elohim in creating this planet to sustain human and subhuman life, only to

discover later that it is not the ideal place for the eternal habitation of the redeemed. To

remedy the problem, Elohim eventually would create a “heavenly planet” and equip the

resurrected with a “spiritual bodies” suitable for such a heavenly environment. tzadeqim

Such a vision is inspired by Greek dualism rather than by Biblical realism.

It must be admitted that Sha’ul’s language in this passage, if not examined in the larger

context of his writings, can lead a reader to a non-material view of the resurrection body.

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Such a view is discredited first of all by the comparison which Sha’ul himself makes

between Messiah’s resurrection and that of the believer (Col 1:181 Cor 15:20).

If Messiah is the “first fruits of those who have fallen asleep” (1 Cor 15:20), then

resurrected believers will have bodies similar to that of Messiah. The comparison cannot

be pressed too far in view of the fact that at His resurrection Messiah resumed also those

divine qualities which He had temporarily laid aside during His Incarnation (Phil 2:7).

Yet the fact remains that Messiah’s resurrection body was certainly physical, since He

was touched (John 20:1727), and He ate food (Luke 24:38-43).

Spirit Led.

More telling is Sha’ul’s use of the same two words (physical-psychikos/spiritualpneumatikos)

in the same epistle: “The unspiritual [physical-psychikos] man does not

receive the gifts of the Spirit of YHWH, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to

understand them because they are spiritually discerned. The spiritual [pneumatikos] man

judges all things, but is himself to be judged by no one” (1 Cor 2:14-15).

It is obvious that the spiritual man in this passage is not a non-physical person. Rather, it

is someone who is guided by the Set-apart Spirit, in contradistinction from someone who

is guided by natural impulses. Similarly, the present physical body described in

1 Corinthians 15:44 is one which is subject to the law of sin and death, while the future

resurrection body is one which will be directed by the Set-apart Spirit. The resurrection

body is called “spiritual” because it is ruled not by carnal impulses but by the Set-apart

Spirit. This is not an anthropological dualism between “physical-psyche” and “spiritualpneuma,”

but a moral distinction between a life led by the Set-apart Spirit and one

controlled by sinful desires.

Anthony Hoekema clearly brings out this point:

Spiritual (pneumatikos) here does not mean non-physical Rather, it means

someone who is guided by the Set-apart Spirit, at least in principle, in distinction

from someone who is guided only by his natural impulses. In a similar fashion,

the natural body described in Corinthians 15:44 is one which is part of this 1

present, sin-cursed existence; but the spiritual body of the resurrection is one

which will be totally, not just partially, dominated and directed by the Set-apart


This insight helps us also to understand Sha’ul’s statement a few verses later:

Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of YHWH, nor does the perishable

inherit the imperishable ( Cor 15:50). 1

It is evident here Sha’ul is not saying that the resurrection body will be non-physical,

because, writing to the Romans, he says:

Romans 8:9

But you are not in the flesh, you are in the Spirit, if the Spirit of YHWH really

dwells in you.

By the phrase “not in the flesh” Sha’ul obviously did not mean that believers who were

led by the Set-apart Spirit already had discarded their physical bodies. Rather, he means

that already in the present life they were by the (Romans 8:4– guided Ruach HaQodesh

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8). If Sha’ul could speak of Christians as not being “in the flesh,” already in the present

life, his reference to the absence of “flesh and blood” in the Kingdom of YHWH cannot

mean the absence of physical bodies. It simply means the absence of the natural, carnal

limitations and sinful inclinations of the present life because the redeemed will be led

fully by the Spirit. G. C. Berkouwer insightfully explains that

“the ‘spiritual body’ does not have to do with what we sometimes call

‘spiritualising.’ ‘Spiritualising.’ always presupposes a dualism, which in turns

carries with it a devaluation of the body, which is nowhere to be found in Sha’ul’s

teachings. He speaks of the body as ‘controlled by the pneuma [Spirit].’ This

Spirit is already at work within man’s body, but only in the resurrection will it

completely rule man’s life…This transition does not disqualify the body, but it

does indicate a break. This break is not between the lostness of the body and

the soul’s liberation from it, for the Spirit of YHWH already lives within man’s

concrete earthly existence.”18

Berkouwer continues explaining that the break will be between perishable and

imperishable bodies.19

Physical Body Is Not Evil.

If YHWH at the Second Advent were to change our present physical bodies into bodies

consisting of non-physical and non material substance, then, as Anthony A. Hoekema

perceptively points out,

…the devil would have won a great victory since YHWH would then have been

compelled to change human beings with physical bodies such as he had created

into creatures of a different sort, without physical bodies (like the angels). Then

it would indeed seem that matter had become intrinsically evil so that it had to be

banished. And then, in a sense, the Greek philosophers would have been

proved right. But matter is not evil; it is part of YHWH’s good creation.20

In the creation story, Elohim seven times expresses His satisfaction over the perfection

of His material creation by saying “it was good” (Genesis 1:4101218212531).

Then on the seventh day He rested to celebrate the completion of His perfect creation

(Genesis 2:1-3). To celebrate the good news of His perfect creation, complete

redemption, and final restoration of this world, YHWH gave the Sabbath to the human

family (Exodus 20:11Deuteronomy 5:15Luke 4:16-2113:10-13Hebrews 4:9). It is

impossible to think that ultimately YHWH will change the entire structure and nature of

the human body to be radically dissimilar to how Adam was before he fell.

If the resurrection/translation body were to be radically different from the original

creation body, then YHWH would be admitting that His original design of the human

body had some flaws; it was not really perfect, after all. He would be admitting that His

original model of male and female physical beings did not adequately reflect “his

[YHWH’s] own image” (Genesis 1:27). To remedy the problem, YHWH would then be

compelled to create a new type of human beings, presumably “unisex,” so they would

not get into trouble anymore. This reasoning is absurd, to say the least, for anyone who

believes in the omniscience and immutability of YHWH. Changing models and

structures is normal for human beings who learn by mistakes, but it would be abnormal

and inconsistent for an Elohim who knows the end from the beginning.