JEWISH SOURCES – Comments from Josephus, the Talmud, Midrashim, and Apocalyptic Literature. Contemporary Jewish literature is also collected under the classification. Though many early Christians are Jewish, they are classified under “Early Church”.
DEAD SEA SCROLLS – Materials Unearthed From Judean Wilderness (From roughly second century B.C. to A.D.68 – Color coded with Jewish Sources)
Where Fulfillment Transitions From AD70 to Future –
Almost All Future, Except Matthew 24:1,2 and Luke 21:24b
FUTURIST – A) Umbrella term covering all systems of nonfulfillment-based theology, including most contemporary forms of Historicism and Premillennialism, and some Postmillennialism. B) This class, though represented by authors throughout the centuries, wasn’t systematized until the Reformation era. C) Generally believes that some “end times” prophecy may have been fulfilled in the first century, but only in a typological sense, which foreshadowed ultimate fulfillment “in the future.” Dispensationalism specifically believes that “the rapture” might be any moment now, leading to the Great Tribulation and ultimately ushering in the Millennial Age.
EARLY CHURCH (EC) – A) Views espoused by all Christian sources during the first thousand years of church history, during which the only systematizing being done was in Catholic and Orthodox circles. B) This class includes all the earliest church fathers, historians and pseudepigraphic writers, dating back to the writings of the New Testament. C) Sources could be considered “Historicist” or “Futurist” but very rarely “Preterist” in any developed way (Eusebius would be the most likely to be considered Preterist) (Broadest in Years, Broadest in Doctrine – First Thousand Years of Church History – Pret-related comments color-coded with “Historical Preterism” due to similarities)
HISTORICAL PRETERISM (HP) – A) Umbrella term covering all those who believe that only a slight amount of Bible prophecy was totally fulfilled in the early centuries of the Christian era. Determined by looking at where authors find a “transition” from the past to the future using the Olivet Discourse of Matthew 24/25 and the Apocalypse of John. B) This class has roots dating back to the first century, such as in the writings of Barnabus and Clement of Rome, and finds greater development in the writings of Justin Martyr and Eusebius. The Catholic and Orthodox churches maintained HP through the Middle Ages. Today’s contemporary forms were largely developed in the writings of Calvin, Luther, Grotius and Lightfoot. C) Teaches that some of the Bible’s “end times” prophecies were fulfilled by AD70, but that the substantial portion of prophetic fulfillment is yet to be revealed at the “last day.” Transitions in the Middle of Matthew 24, or in the Middle of the Apocalypse of John.
MODERN PRETERISM (MP) – A) Umbrella term covering all those who believe that the majority of Bible prophecy was totally fulfilled in the early centuries of the Christian era. Determined by looking at where authors find a “transition” from the past to the future using the Olivet Discourse of Matthew 24/25 and the Apocalypse of John. Differs from Full Preterism in that it does not make the Parousia, the General Judgment, nor the General Resurrection events solely of the past. B) According to known literature, this class emerged during the Reformation or Counter Reformation and can be seen in a fully developed form at the beginning of the 17th century in the writings of the Jesuit Alcasar — although many believe that the “Preterist Assumption” seen throughout church history reveals the ancient and medieval equivalents of the Modern Preterist view. (perhaps systematized the most consistenty in 310 by Eusebius in “Theophany“). C) Teaches that the bulk of “end times” prophecy has sole application to ancient Israel, but that some regards the “last day” — sometimes that “end” being personal, not global, in nature. Transitions somewhere in Matthew 25, or near the end of the Apocalypse of John.
FULL PRETERISM/“SYSTEMATIC HYPER PRETERISM” (HyP) = A) That view which makes AD70 the terminal date for certain key Bible prophecies. Includes, but is not limited to, all preterist views which declare that the consummation of the ages, and the utter terminal date for all Bible prophecy, in AD70. Included in the HyP classification is that view of “The Second and Only Coming of Jesus in AD70”. Those with dangerous doctrines based upon total AD70 fulfillment – such as Noyes – are likewise grouped in this classification. B) According to known literature, this system did not emerge until the middle of the 19th century, though individual HyP doctrines can be seen in the writings of earlier Preterist Universalists. The earliest known systematic Hyper Preterist book was written in 1845, though the author later abandoned the view. C) Believes that all Bible prophecy was totally fulfilled by AD70; or that the Parousia, General Judgment and General Resurrection were fulfilled then — which places this class outside of general church “orthodoxy.” (Narrowest Range in Time and Doctrine – Earliest Known Representatives, Townley (1845) and Desprez (1854), both left the view)