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Conybeare and Howson

Commentary on the Bible (1835) The Life and Epistles of St. Paul 

“while the temple-worship, with its exclusion of all but the high priest from the holy of holies, still existed, the way of salvation would not be fully manifest to those who adhered to the outward and typical observances, instead of being thereby led to the antitype.”


“‘The day’ of Christ’s coming was seen approaching at this time by the threatening prelude of the great Jewish war, wherein He came to judge that nation.”

(On Early Date of Revelation)
“Concerning the Book of Revelation I will say nothing, except to invite attention to the arguments by which Doctor MacDonald endeavors to fix its date.  The reasoning seems to me to be very well drawn out, which assigns the writing of this part of the Holy Scripture to a time intermediate between the Gospel and the Epistles of St. John.” (Life and Writings of John, p. xxxiii, Introduction by Dr. J.S. Howson)

(On I Corinthians 10:11)
“The coming of Christ was ‘the end of the ages,’ i.e. the commencement of a new period of the world’s existence. So, nearly the same phrase is used Heb 9:26. A similar expression occurs five times in St. Matthew, signifying the coming of Christ to judgment.’ (Chap. 15)

(On II Corinthians 4:14 ; II Corinthians 5:4)
“Great confusion is caused in many passages by not translating, according to his true meaning, in the first person singular; for thus it often happens that what St. Paul spoke of himself individually, appears to us as if it were meant for a general truth; instances of this will repeatedly occur in the Epistles to the Corinthians, especially the second. We proposed, therefore, to change the pronouns we and us in this passage to into I and me.” (ch. xi.)

(On II Corinthians 5:1-10 ; II Corinthians 5:4)
“Literally, ‘If indeed I shall be found clad, and not stripped of my clothing;’ i.e. ‘If, at the Lord’s coming, I shall be found still living in the flesh.” We know from other passages that it was a matter of uncertainty with St. Paul whether he should survive to behold the second coming of Christ or not. (Compare I Thess. 4:15 and I Cor 15:51.) So, in the next verse, he expresses his desire that his fleshly body should be transformed into a spiritual body, without being unclad by death.” (chap. xvii.)

(On II Corinthians 4:7 to 5:10)
“The whole of this passage (Chap. iv. 7 to chap v.10) shows that St. Paul was suffering from bodily illness when he wrote.” (ch. xvii note)

(On Ephesians 2:7)
“‘In the ages which are coming;’ viz. the time of Christ’s perfect triumph over evil, always contemplated in the New Testament as near at hand.” (in loc.)

(On I Thess. 4:13-17)
“They feared that these departed Christians would lose the happiness of witnessing their Lord’s second coming, which they expected soon to behold.” (ch. xi.)

(On II Thessalonians 2:2)
“That the day of the Lord is come;” adding the following note:—‘Literally, “is present.” So the verb is always used in New Testament.” (Life of Paul, c.x. no. 3)

(On Hebrews 4:9,10)
“that God’s people have never yet enjoyed that perfect rest, therefore its enjoyment is still future (at the time of the writing of Hebrews).” (in loc.)

(On Hebrews 9:8)
“It may be asked, How could it be said, after Christ’s ascension, that the way into the holy place was not made fully manifest? The explanation is, that while the temple-worship, with its exclusion of all but the high priest from the holy of holies, still existed, the way of salvation would not be fully manifest to those who adhered to the outward and typical observances, instead of being thereby led to the antitype.” (chap. xxviii.)

(On Hebrews 10:25)
“‘The day’ of Christ’s coming was seen approaching at this time by the threatening prelude of the great Jewish war, wherein He came to judge that nation.” (Life and Epistles, chap. 28.)

(On Deification of the Caesars)
“The image of the Emperor was at that time the object of religious reverence : he was a deity on earth (Dis aequa potestas, Juv. iv. 71) ; and the worship paid to him was a real worship. It is a striking thought, that in those times (setting aside effete forms of religion) the only two genuine worships in the civilized world were, the worship of a Tiberius or a Nero on the one hand, and the worship of Christ on the other.” (St. Paul, chap. i.)

(On Nero, the Beast)
‘Over this distinguished bench of judges presided the representative of the most powerful monarchy which has ever existed,—the absolute ruler of the whole civilised world. But the reverential awe which his position naturally suggested was changed into contempt and loathing by the character of the sovereign who now presided over that supreme tribunal. For Nero was a man whom even the awful attribute of “power equal to the gods” could not render august, except in title. The fear and horror excited by his omnipotence and his cruelty, were blended with contempt for his ignoble lust of praise and his shameless licentiousness. He had not as yet plunged into that extravagance of tyranny which, at a later period, exhausted the patience of his subjects and brought him to destruction. Hitherto his public measures had been guided by sage advisers, and his cruelty had injured his own family rather than the State. But already, at the age of twenty-five, he had murdered his innocent wife and his adopted brother, and had dyed his hands in the blood of his mother. Yet even these enormities seem to have disgusted the Romans less than the prostitution of the Imperial purple by publicly performing as a musician on the stage and a charioteer in the circus. His degrading want of dignity and insatiable appetite for vulgar applause drew tears from the councillors and servants of his house, who could see him slaughter his nearest relatives without remonstrance.’ (Quoted in The Parousia)

(On Imminency)
“This phrase, used without the article, as having become a familiar expression, generally denotes the termination of the Mosaic dispensation. (See Acts ii. 17; 1 Pet. i. 5, 20; Heb. i. 2.) Thus the expression generally denotes (in the apostolic age) the time present; but here it points to a future immediately at hand, which is, however, blended with the present (see vers. 6, 8), and was in fact the end of the apostolic age. (Compare 1 John ii. 18, ‘It is the last hour.’) The long duration of this last period of the world’s development was not revealed to the apostles: they expected that their Lord’s return would end it, in their own generation; and thus His words were fulfilled, that none should foresee the time of His coming.” (Quoted in The Parousia)

(On I Thessalonians 4:15)
“The early church, and even the apostles themselves, expected their Lord to come again in that very generation. St. Paul himself shared in that expectation, but, being under the guidance of the Spirit of truth, he did not deduce there from any erroneous practical conclusion.” (Chap. xi.) (Notes, in loc.)



Aelian III. A. 6 A.D. 220. Naturalist.
Appian IV. D. 1 A.D. 140. Historian.
Aristides V.E. 4 A.D. 160. Orator.
Aristotle I.C. 1 B.C. 333. Philosopher.
St. Athanasius V.B. 1, etc. A.D. 333. Theologian.
Ausonius V.B. 7 A.D. 380. Poet.
Caesar V. etc. B.C. 55. Historian.
Capitolinus IV. E. 3 A.D. 290. Imperial Biographer.
Catullus V.E. 4 B.C. 33. Poet.
St. Chrysostom V.E. 15, etc. A.D. 380. Theologian.
Cicero I.D. 3, etc. B.C. 55. Orator, etc.
Claudian vi. etc. A.D. 400. Poet-Historian.
St. Clement V.E. 4 A.D. 80. Theologian.
Constantius V.F. 4 A.D. 480. Ecclesiastical
Diodorus Siculus I.E. 11, etc. B.C. 44. Geographer.
Dion Cassius v. etc. A.D. 150. Historian.
Dioscorides I.E. 4 A.D. 80. Physician.
Eumenius V.A. 1 A.D. 310. Imperial Panegyrist.
Eutropius V.A. 1 A.D. 300. Imperial Panegyrist.
Firmicus V.B. 2 A.D. 350. Controversialist.
Frontinus III. A. 1 A.D. 80. Wrote on Tactics.
Fronto IV. D. 2 A.D. 100. Historian.
Gildas vi. etc. A.D. 500. Theologian.
Hegesippus II. F. 3 A.D. 150. Historian.
Herodian IV. E. 3 A.D. 220. Historian.
Herodotus I.C. 3 B.C. 444. Historian, etc.
St. Hilary V.B. 3 A.D. 350. Theologian.
Horace III. A. 7 B.C. 25. Poet.
Itinerary IV. A. 7 A.D. 200.
St. Jerome V.C. 12 A.D. 400. Theologian.
Josephus III. F. 1 A.D. 70. Historian.
Juvenal III. F. 5 A.D. 75. Satirist.
Lampridius IV. E. 1 A.D. 290. Imperial Biographer.
Lucan II. E. 1 A.D. 60. Historical Poet.
Mamertinus V.A. 5 A.D. 280. Panegyrist.
Marcellinus vi. etc. A.D. 380. Historian.
Martial vi. etc. A.D. 70. Epigrammatist.
Maximus II. C. 13 A.D. 30. Wrote Memorabilia.
Mela I.H. 7 A.D. 50. Geographer, etc.
Menologia Graeca V.E. 5 A.D. 550.
Minucius Felix I.E. 2 A.D. 210. Geographer.
Nemesianus IV. C. 15 A.D. 280. Wrote on Hunting.
Nennius vi. etc. A.D. 500. Historian.
Notitia vi. etc. A.D. 406.
Olympiodorus V.C. 10 A.D. 425. Historian.
Onomacritus I.C. 1 B.C. 333. Poet.
Oppian IV. C. 15 A.D. 140. Wrote on Hunting
Origen V.E. 13 A.D. 220. Theologian.
Pliny vi. etc. A.D. 70. Naturalist.
Plutarch I.C. 1 A.D. 80. Historian, etc.
Polyaenus II. E. 8 A.D. 180. Wrote on Tactics.
Procopius V.D. 5 A.D. 555. Wrote on Geography,
Propertius III. 1. 7 B.C. 10. Poet.
Prosper V.F. 4 A.D. 450. Ecclesiastical
Prudentius IV. C. 15 A.D. 370. Ecclesiastical Poet.
Ptolemy v. etc. A.D. 120. Geographer.
Ravenna Geography vi. etc. A.D. 450.
Seneca III. C. 7 A.D. 60. Philosopher.
Sidonius Apollinaris V.F. 3 A.D. 475. Letters.
Solinus I.E. 4, etc. A.D. 80. Geographer.
Spartianus IV. D. 2 A.D. 303. Historian.
Strabo vi. etc. B.C. 20. Geographer.
Suetonius I.H. 10 A.D. 110. Imperial Biographer.
Symmachus IV. C. 15 A.D. 390. Statesman, etc.
Tacitus v. etc. A.D. 80. Historian.
Tertullian V.E. 11 A.D. 180. Theologian.
Theodoret V.E. 4 A.D. 420. Wrote Commentaries.
Tibullus III. A. 7 B.C. 20. Poet.
Timaeus I.D. 2 B.C. 300. Geographer.
Vegetius V.B. 5 A.D. 380. Historian.
Venantius V.E. 4 A.D. 580. Wrote Ecclesiastical
Victor V.A. 9 A.D. 380. Historian.
Virgil III. 1. 7 B.C. 30. Poet.
Vitruvius. I.G. 5 A.D. Wrote on Geography,
Vobiscus. IV. C. 17 A.D. 290. Historian.
Xiphilinus vi. etc. A.D. 1200. Abridged Dio Cassius.
Zosimus V.C. 11 A.D. 400. Historian.


The constant accession of new material, especially from the unceasing
spade-work always going on in every quarter of the island, makes
modern books on Roman Britain tend to become obsolete, sometimes with
startling rapidity. But even when not quite up to date, a well-written
book is almost always very far from worthless, and much may be learnt
from any in the following list:–

BABCOCK ‘The Two Last Centuries of Roman Britain’ (1891).
BARNES ‘Ancient Britain’ (1858).
BROWNE, BISHOP ‘The Church before Augustine’ (1895).
BRUCE ‘Handbook to the Roman Wall’ (1895).
CAMDEN ‘Britannia’ (1587).
COOTE ‘Romans in Britain’ (1878).
DAWKINS ‘Early Man in Britain’ (1880).
‘The Place of the Welsh in English History’ (1889).
DILL ‘Roman Society’ (1899).
ELTON ‘Origins of English History’ (1890).
EVANS, SIR J. ‘British Coins’ (1869).
‘Bronze Implements’ (1881).
‘Stone Implements’ (1897).
FREEMAN ‘Historical Essays’ (1879).
‘English Towns’ (1883).
‘Tyrants of Britain’ (1886).
FROUDE ‘Julius Caesar’ (1879).
GUEST ‘Origines Celticae’ (1883).
HADDAN AND STUBBS ‘Concilia’ (1869).
‘Remains’ (1876).
HARDY ‘Monumenta Historica Britannica’ (1848).
HAVERFIELD ‘Roman World’ (1899), etc.
HODGKIN ‘Italy and her Invaders’ (1892), etc.
HOGARTH (ed.) ‘Authority and Archaeology’ (1899).
HORSLEY ‘Britannia Romana’ (1732).
HUEBNER ‘Inscriptiones Britannicae Romanae’ (1873).
‘Inscriptiones Britannicae
Christianae’ (1876), etc.
KEMBLE ‘Saxons in England’ (1876).
KENRICK ‘Phoenicia’ (1855).
‘Papers on History’ (1864).
LEWIN ‘Invasion of Britain’ (1862).
LUBBOCK, SIR J. ‘Origin of Civilization’ (1889).
LYALL ‘Natural Religion’ (1891).
LYELL ‘Antiquity of Man’ (1873).
MAINE, SIR H. ‘Early History of Institutions’ (1876).
MAITLAND ‘Domesday Studies’ (1897).
MARQUARDT ‘Roemische Staatsverwaltung’ (1873).
MOMMSEN ‘Provinces of the Roman Empire’ (1865).
NEILSON ‘Per Lineam Valli’ (1892).
PEARSON ‘Historical Atlas of Britain’ (1870).
RHYS ‘Celtic Britain’ (1882).
‘Celtic Heathendom’ (1888).
‘Welsh People’ (1900).
ROLLESTON ‘British Barrows’ (1877).
‘Prehistoric Fauna’ (1880).
SCARTH ‘Roman Britain’ (1885).
SMITH, C.R. ‘Collectanea’ (1848), etc.
TOZER ‘History of Ancient Geography’ (1897).
TRAILL AND MANN ‘Social England’ (1901).
USHER, BP. ‘British Ecclesiastical Antiquity’ (1639).
VINE ‘Caesar in Kent’ (1899).
WRIGHT ‘Celt, Roman and Saxon’ (1875).



350 (?) Pytheas discovers Britain [I.D. 1]
100 (?) Divitiacus Overlord of Britain (?)
[II. B. 4]
Gauls settle on Thames and Humber
(?) [I.F. 4]
Posidonius visits Britain [I.D. 3]
Birth of Julius Caesar [II. A. 6]
58 Caesar conquers Gaul [II. A. 9]
56 Sea-fight with Veneti and Britons
[II. B. 3]
55 First invasion of Britain [II.
C., D.]
Cassivellaunus Overlord of Britain
(?) [II. F. 3]
Mandubratius, exiled Prince of
Trinobantes, appeals to Caesar (?)
[II. E. 10]
54 Second Invasion of Britain [II.
E., F., G.]
52 Revolt of Gaul. Commius, Prince
of Arras, flies to Britain and
reigns in South-east [III. A. 1]
44 Caesar slain [II. G. 9]
32 Battle of Actium [III. A. 6] Augustus.
About this time the sons of Commius
reign in Kent, etc., Addeomarus
over Iceni, and Tasciovan
at Verulam [III. A. 1]
A.D. About this time the Commian
princes are overthrown [III.
A. 2]
Cymbeline, son of Tasciovan, becomes
Overlord of Britain [III.
A. 4]. Commians appeal to
Augustus [III. A. 5]
14 Death of Augustus Tiberius.
29 Consulship of the Gemini. The
Crucifixion (?)
37 Death of Tiberius Caligula.
40 (?) Cymbeline banishes Adminius,
who appeals to Rome [III. A. 5]
Caligula threatens invasion [III.
A. 6]
41 Caligula poisoned [III. A. 9] Claudius.
Death of Cymbeline (?). His son
Caradoc succeeds
43 Antedrigus and Vericus contend
for Icenian throne: Vericus appeals
to Rome [III. A. 9]
44 Claudius subdues Britain [III. B.]
Cogidubnus, King in South-east,
made Roman Legate [III. C. 8]
45 Triumph of Claudius [III. C.
1, 2]
47 Ovation of Aulus Plautius, conqueror
of Britain. [III. C. 2]
48 Vespasian and Titus crush British
guerrillas [III. C. 3]
50 Britain made “Imperial” Province.
Ostorius Pro-praetor
[III. C. 9]
Icenian revolt crushed [III. D.
Camelodune a colony [III. D. 8]
51 Silurian revolt under Caradoc
[III. D. 7, 8]
52 Caradoc captive [III. D. 9]
53 Uriconium and Caerleon founded
[III. D. 12]
54 Death of Ostorius [III. D. 11]
55 Didius Gallus Pro-praetor. Last
Silurian effort [III. D. 13]
Death of Claudius [III. D. 13] Nero.
56 (?) Aulus Plautius marries Pomponia
Graecina [V.E. 10]
61 Suetonius Paulinus Pro-praetor
[III. E. 7]

Massacre of Druids in Mona [III.
E. 8, 9]
Boadicean revolt [III. E. 2-13].
St. Peter in Britain (?) [V.E. 5]
62 Turpiliannus Pro-praetor. “Peace”
in Britain [III. E. 13]
63 (?) Claudia Rufina Marries Pudens
[V.E. 9]
64 Burning of Rome. First Persecution.
St. Paul in Britain (?)
[V.E. 4]
65 Aristobulus Bishop in Britain (?)
[V.E. 5]
68 Death of Nero (June 10) Galba.
Galba slain (Dec. 16) Civil War between
69 Otho slain (April 20) Otho and Vitellius.
Vitellius slain (Dec. 20)
British army under Agricola Vespasian.
pronounces for Vespasian
[III. F. 1]
70 Cerealis Pro-praetor. Brigantes
subdued by Agricola [III. F. 1]
Destruction of Jerusalem [IV.
C. 5]
75 Frontinus Pro-praetor. Silurians
subdued by Agricola [III. F. 2]
78 Agricola Pro-praetor. Ordovices
and Mona subdued [III. F. 3]
79 Agricola Latinizes Britain [III. Titus.
F. 4]. Vespasian dies
80 Agricola’s first Caledonian campaign
[III. F. 5].
81 Agricola’s rampart from Forth to Domitian.
Clyde [III. F. 7]. Titus dies
82 Agricola invades Ireland (?) [III.
F. 5]
83 Agricola advances into Northern
Caledonia [III. F. 5]
First circumnavigation of Britain
[III. F. 7]
84 Agricola defeats Galgacus [III.
F. 6], resigns and dies [III. F. 7]

95 Second persecution. Flavia Domitilla
[V.E. 11]
96 Domitian slain Nerva.
98 Nerva dies Trajan.
117 Trajan dies Hadrian.
120 Hadrian visits Britain and builds Wall
[IV. D. 1]
Britain divided into “Upper” and
“Lower” [IV. D. 3]
First “Britannia” coinage [IV. D. 4]
138 Hadrian dies Antoninus Pius.
139 Lollius Urbicus, Legate in Britain,
replaces Agricola’s rampart by turf
wall from Forth to Clyde [IV. D. 5]
140 Britain made Pro-consular [IV. E. 5]
161 Antoninus dies Marcus Aurelius.
180 British Church organized by Pope
Eleutherius (?) [V.E. 12]
Marcus Aurelius dies Commodus.
181 Caledonian invasion driven back by
Ulpius Marcellus [IV. E. 1]
184 Commodus “Britannicus” [IV. E. 1]
185 British army mutinies against reforms
of Perennis [IV. E. 1]
187 Pertinax quells mutineers [IV. E. 3]
192 Pertinax superseded by Junius Severus
[IV. E. 3]
Death of Commodus Interregnum.
193 Pertinax slain by Julianus and Albinus. Pertinax; Julianus;
Julianus slain Albinus; Severus.
Severus proclaimed. Albinus Emperor in
Britain [IV. E. 3]
197 British army defeated at Lyons. Severus.
Albinus slain [IV. E. 3]
201 Vinius Lupus, Pro-praetor, buys off
Caledonians [IV. E. 4]
208 Caledonian invasion. Severus comes to
Britain [IV. E. 5]
209 Severus overruns Caledonia [IV.
E. 5]
210 Severus completes Hadrian’s Wall
[IV. E. 6]
211 Severus dies at York [IV. G. 2] {Caracalla.
212 Geta murdered [IV. G. 2] Caracalla.
215 (?) Roman citizenship extended to
British provincials [IV. G. 2]
(?) Itinerary of Antonius [IV. A. 7]
217 Caracalla slain Macrinus.
218 Macrinus slain Helagabalus.
222 Helagabalus slain Alexander Severus.
235 Alexander Severus slain Maximin.
238 Maximin slain Gordian.
244 Gordian slain Philip.
249 Philip slain Decius.
251 Decius slain Gallus.
254 Gallus slain {Valerian.
258 Postumus proclaimed Emperor in
Britain [V.A. 1]
260 Valerian slain Gallienus.
265 Victorinus associated with
Postumus [V.A. 1]
268 Gallienus slain Tetricus.
269 Tetricus slain Claudius Gothicus.
270 Claudius Gothicus dies Aurelian.
273 (?) Constantius Chlorus marries
Helen, a British lady [V.A. 6]
274 Constantine the Great born at
York [V.A. 6]
275 Aurelian slain Tacitus.
276 Tacitus slain Florianus.
Florianus slain Probus.
277 Vandal prisoners deported to
Britain [V.A. 1]
282 Probus slain Carus.
283 Carus dies Numerian.
284 Numerian dies Carinus.
285 Carinus dies {Diocletian.
286 Carausius, first “Count of the
Saxon Shore,” becomes Emperor
in Britain [V.A. 3]
292 Constantine and Galerius “Caesars”
[V.A. 5]
294 Carausius murdered by Allectus
[V.A. 4]
296 Constantius slays Allectus and
recovers Britain [V.A. 7, 8]
Britain divided into four “Diocletian”
Provinces [V.A. 9]
303 Tenth Persecution. Martyrdom
of St. Alban [V.A. 11]
305 Diocletian and Maximian abdicate {Constantius.
[V.A. 12] {Galerius.
306 Constantius dies at York [V.A.
13]. Constantine, Galerius,
Maxentius, Licinius, etc., contend Interregnum.
for Empire [V.A. 14]
312 Constantine with British Army
wins at Milvian Bridge, and
embraces Christianity [V.A. 14] Constantine.
314 Council of Arles [V.E. 14]
325 Council of Nicaea [V.B. 1]
{Constantine II.
337 Constantine dies {Constantius II.
340 Constantine II. dies
343 Constans and Constantius II. visit
Britain [V.B. 1]
350 Constans slain. Usurpation of Constantius II.
Magnentius in Britain [V.B. 3]
353 Magnentius dies [V.B. 3]
358 Britain under Julian. Exportation
of corn [V.B. 4]
360 Council of Ariminum [V.E. 14]
361 Death of Constantius [V.B. 6] Julian.
362 Lupicinus, Legate in Britain, repels
first attacks of Picts
and Scots [V.B. 5]
363 Julian dies {Valentinian.
365 Saxons, Picts, and Scots ravage
shores of Britain [V.B. 7]
366 Gratian associated in Empire {Valens.
367 Great barbarian raid on Britain
Roman commanders slain [V.
B. 7]
368 Theodosius, Governor of Britain,
expels Picts and Scots [V.
B. 7]
369 Theodosius recovers Valentia [V.
B. 7]
374 Saxons invade Britain [V.B. 8]
375 Valentinian dies {Gratian.
{Valentinian II.

378 Valens slain. Theodosius associated {Valentinian II.
in Empire {Theodosius.

383 Gratian slain. British Army proclaims {Valentinian II.
Maximus and conquer {Theodosius.
Gaul [V.C. 1]
387 British Army under Maximus take
Rome [V.C. 1]
388 Maximus slain. First British
settlement in Armorica (?) [V.
C. 1]
392 Valentinian II. slain. Penal laws Theodosius.
against Heathenism
394 Ninias made Bishop of Picts by
Pope Siricius (?) [V.F. 1]
395 Death of Theodosius {Arcadius.
396 Stilicho sends a Legion to protect
Britain (?) [V.C. 1]
402 Theodosius II. associated in Empire {Honorius.
{Theodosius II.
406 Stilicho recalls Legion to meet
Radagaisus [V.C. 2]
‘Notitia’ composed (?) [V.C. 3-9]
German tribes flood Gaul [V.C. 2]

407 British Army proclaim Constantine
III. and reconquer Gaul [V.C.

408 Arcadius dies. Constantine III. {Honorius.
recognized as “Augustus” {Theodosius II.
{Constantine III.
410 Visigoths under Alaric take Rome
[V.C. 11]

411 Constantine III. slain {Honorius.
{Theodosius II.
413 (?) Pelagian heresy arises in Britain
[V.F. 3]

415 (?) Rescript of Honorius to the Cities
of Britain [V.C. 11]

423 Death of Honorius Theodosius II.

425 Valentinian III., son of Galla {Theodosius II.
Placidia, Emperor of West [V.D. 3] {Valentinian III.

429 (?) SS. Germanus and Lupus sent to
Britain by Pope Celestine (?)
[V.F. 4]

432 (?) St. Patrick sent to Ireland by
Pope Celestine [V.F. 2]

435 (?) Roman Legion sent to aid Britons (?)

436 (?) Roman forces finally withdrawn (?)

446 Vain appeal of Britons to Actius (?)
[V.D. 2]

447 (?) The Alleluia Battle [V.F. 4]

449 (?) Hengist and Horsa settle in
Thanet (?) [V.D. 3]

450 (?) English defeat Picts at Stamford
(?) [V.B. 2]
Theodosius II. dies Valentinian III.

455 (?) Battle of Aylesford begins English
conquest of Britain (?) [V.D. 2]

(Roman Britain: Gallantry of Titus, Misgovernment of Nero)

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02 Nov 2003




The Seventh-Day Adventists (www.whiteestate.org) sell a book, SKETCHES FROM THE LIFE OF PAUL, written in 1883 by their alleged prophetess Ellen G. White which they claim was divinely inspired, yet contains extensive copied material from Conybeare and Howson’s book, LIFE & EPISTLES OF SAINT PAUL, without giving any standard literary credits whatever to Conybeare and Howson’s earlier work. Digging into a little late 19th century history, I discovered the two authors did challenge Ellen G. White on her plagerism. To avoid a damaging (to the Seventh-Day Adventist church) court case the SDA publishing house complied and removed the book from sale. However, I quess they feel that time has erased things so they now include it again in her list of published writings for sale.

Date:23 Jun 2004Time:05:02:24


My brother inlaw is Seventh_Day Adventis. I sent him a Video, which had claims that Ellen White copied from Conybeare and Howson book. But their experts have done a great deal of research, and that this is not true and there was no copy-right rules then and no records of this issue. If you know of any records of this PLEASE let me know I would greatly appeciate. Paul Germain WWW.Pger@juno.com or Phone # 805-495-6938. Thanks.

Date: 06 Mar 2006
Time: 10:38:28


” SKETCHES FROM THE LIFE OF PAUL, written in 1883 by their alleged prophetess Ellen G. White which they claim was divinely inspired, yet contains extensive copied material from Conybeare and Howson’s book, LIFE & EPISTLES OF SAINT PAUL, without giving any standard literary credits whatever to Conybeare and Howson’s earlier work. Digging into a little late 19th century history, I discovered the two authors did challenge Ellen G. White on her plagerism.”

And yet when we look for this “extensive copied material” we find about 12.2%. There is no way that Conybeare and Howson could have threatenedf EGW with a lawsuit because English authors weren’t covered by American copyright law. The alleged research stated above never happened.

Date: 19 Apr 2009
Time: 11:36:48

Your Comments:

I hyave studied the whole of both Conbeare and Howson’s work and Ellen White’s Sketches. The average amount of literary similarity is only 3.04%. I have an ebook on it at http://www.adventists4truth.com/ebooks.html.