Chapter 1: Introduction: Christian Zionism Defined
At its simplest, Christian Zionism has been defined as ‘Christian support for Zionism.’1 In Der Judenstaat, published in 1896, Theodor Herzl forcefully articulated the aspirations of Jewish Zionists for their own homeland, although the Zionist dream was largely nurtured and shaped by Christian Zionists long before it was able to inspire widespread Jewish support in the 1940’s.2
At the First Zionist Congress which Herzl convened a year later in Basle, the Zionist aspiration was formulated in a call for a, ‘publicly secured and legally assured homeland for the Jews in Palestine.’3 At the 27th Zionist Congress held in Jerusalem in 1968, Zionism was defined in terms of five principles:
So, for example, in 1967, following the passing of U.N. Resolution 242 in protest at Israel’s occupation of the West Bank, and Palestinian Jerusalem, when the entire international community closed their embassy’s in Jerusalem, the International Christian Embassy moved to Jerusalem expressly to show solidarity with Israel. They and other Christian Zionists believe that the modern State of Israel, and Zionism in general, are divinely mandated, the fulfilment of God’s promise to Abraham. ‘I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.’ (Genesis 12:3)7 So, Hal Lindsey could assert, ‘The center of the entire prophetic forecast is the State of Israel.”8
Christian Zionists see themselves as defenders of, and apologists for, the Jewish people, and in particular, the State of Israel. This support involves opposing those deemed to be critical of, or hostile toward Israel.9 It is rare therefore to find Christian Zionists who feel a similar solidarity with the Palestinians.
The most well known and influential Christian Zionist organisations include the International Christian Embassy Jerusalem (ICEJ); the Church’s Ministry Among Jewish People, also known as The Israel Trust of the Anglican Church within Israel (CMJ or ITAC); Christian Friends of Israel (CFI); Intercessors For Britain (IFB); Prayer Friends of Israel (PFI); Bridges for Peace (BFP); The American Messianic Fellowship (AMF); The Messianic Jewish Alliance America (MJAA); Jews for Jesus (JFJ); the Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary; and the Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ). These organisations, in varying degrees, and for a variety of reasons, some contradictory, are part of a broad coalition, which is shaping the content of the Christian Zionist agenda today.
Contemporary British Christian leaders such as Derek Prince10, David Pawson11, Lance Lambert12, Walter Riggans13, along with Americans like Jerry Falwell14, Pat Robertson15, Hal Lindsey16, Mike Evans17, Charles Dyer18, John Walvoord19, Dave Hunt20, and the German, Basilea Schlink21, have had considerable influence in popularising an apocalyptic premillennial dispensational eschatology and Zionist vision among Western Christians.
That their teachings warrant the description ‘Armageddon Theology’22 is evident from the provocative titles of many of their most recent publications.23 The beliefs and practices of the most influential of these organisations and individuals will be examined in depth in later chapters. This introduction attempts to map out the main historical and theological facts that have given shape and definition to the term.
Louis Hamada traces what he sees as the correlation between Jewish and Christian Zionism.
Encouragement: Supporting Jewish believers in Jesus in all possible ways.
Education: To help Christians to appreciate the biblical, Jewish roots of the Christian faith.31
This third aspect of their ministry was further modified in 1995 to emphasise not merely the Jewish roots of the Christian faith, but its living abiding relevance now, together with their concern, like that of the Council for Christians and Jews (CCJ), to confront anti-Semitism. The third ‘aim’ therefore now reads, To help Christians to appreciate the biblical, Jewish roots of the Christian faith and life. The concern to combat anti-Semitism.32
Whether this justifies defending the State of Israel from criticism for its continued occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is a controversial and sensitive point within CMJ. Material obtained in 1990 from Emmanuel House in Jaffa indicates that the commitment of some members of CMJ leadership to ‘restorationism’, that is, the active encouraging of Jewish people to move to Eretz Israel, including the Occupied Territories, appears to remain an important, if not explicit or well publicised aspect of their ministry. Their leaflet explaining the ministry of Emmanuel House states,
Not to be out done by Christian Zionist organisations preoccupied with the fulfilment of biblical prophecy in Israel during what are regarded as the ‘End Times’, Riggans, under the section of the Report, outlining ‘CMJ Issues’, and in the context of the primary tasks of evangelism and encouragement, writes,
In a ‘Resource Pack’ produced in 1996 for group study as well as to answer objections to the work of CMJ, material is included under the bold heading, ‘The State of Israel: Why should we support it?’37
Christian Friends of Israel (CFI) likewise insists on the unconditional necessity of ‘Standing with Israel’ and bringing blessing to her as a nation, though in their case, primarily through prayer and humanitarian projects rather than by evangelism.
The Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ) may also be regarded as a Zionist organisation. While prohibiting proselytism of Jews by Christians associated with CCJ, its members, nevertheless, show more concern to defend the actions of the Israeli Government than with the claims of Christ. For example, when Said Aburish’s The Forgotten Faithful was published in 1993, Beryl Norman wrote an intemperate rebuttal in the Church Times, criticising him for being,
AMFI is, according to its own literature, a ‘conservative evangelical ministry committed to seeing the Lord’s purposes fulfilled by building bridges of understanding between Christian and Jewish Communities’.44 Their Articles of Belief defines those ‘purposes’ to include a scenario of the future which is pre-tribulational, premillennial dispensationalism.
Jews for Jesus (JFJ) was founded in 1973 by Moishe Rosen51 to ‘proclaim the message of Messiah to all people.’ They claim to be,
7. Christian believers are instructed by Scripture to acknowledge the Hebraic roots of their faith and to actively assist and participate in the plan of God for the ingathering of the Jewish People and the restoration of the nation of Israel in our day.
8. The Lord in His zealous love for Israel and the Jewish People blesses and curses peoples and judges nations based upon their treatment of the Chosen People of Israel.
10. According to God’s distribution of nations, the Land of Israel has been given to the Jewish People by God as an everlasting possession by an eternal covenant. The Jewish People have the absolute right to possess and dwell in the Land, including Judea, Samaria, Gaza and the Golan.58
In an amplification of those resolutions, the religio-political agenda of ICEJ is made quite explicit.
2. As a faith bound to love and forgiveness we are appreciative of the attempts by the Government of Israel to work tirelessly for peace. However, the truths of God are sovereign and it is written that the Land which He promised to His People is not to be partitioned… It would be further error for the nations to recognise a Palestinian state in any part of Eretz Israel.
3. To the extent the Palestinian Covenant or any successor instrument calls for the elimination of Israel or denies the right of Israel to exist within secure borders in Eretz Israel, it should be abolished.
4. The Golan is part of biblical Israel and is a vital strategic asset necessary for the security and defence of the entire country.
C. The Islamic claim to Jerusalem, including its exclusive claim to the Temple Mount, is in direct contradiction to the clear biblical and historical significance of the city and its holiest site, and this claim is of later religio-political origin rather than arising from any Qur’anic text or early Muslim tradition.
7. While Gentile believers have been grafted into that household of faith which is of Abraham (the commonwealth of Israel), replacement theology within the Christian faith, which does not recognise the ongoing biblical purposes for Israel and the Jewish People, is doctrinal error.
8. Regarding Aliyah, we remain concerned for the fate of imperilled Jewish People in diverse places, and seek to encourage and assist in the continuing process of Return of the Exiles to Eretz Israel. To this end we commit to work with Israel and to encourage the Diaspora to fulfil the vision and goal of gathering to Israel the greater majority of all Jewish People from throughout the world.59
It is significant that many of the staff working for the International Christian Embassy apparently worship at the Anglican, Christ Church, near the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem, which, coincidentally, is the headquarters of the Church’s Ministry Among Jewish People (CMJ) in Israel. Ray Lockhart, the vicar of Christ Church, when invited to comment on the work of ICEJ, refused to express any criticism of it.60
In what is a useful summary, Walter Riggans, General Director of CMJ, claims Christian Zionists generally agree on three cardinal beliefs, allowing for a wide diversity of views as to their theological significance eschatologically, as well as their implications for Christian practice.
Christians should not only support the idea of a Jewish state, but (at least in general terms) support its policies. ‘…in the most modest of ways I would suggest that Christians as Christians must give support in principle to the State of Israel as a sign of God’s mercy and faithfulness, and as a biblical mark that God is very much at work in the world…’ 61
In qualifying this definition, Colin Chapman argues that an important distinction needs to be made between ‘Christian Zionism’ and ‘Biblical Zionism’. He recognises that Biblical Zionism could accept the existence of the State of Israel, and be willing to work and pray for its security on political or humanitarian grounds without needing to do so on theological grounds.
Christian Zionism, is however, rooted, in varying degrees, in the theological conviction that the Bible mandates a restoration of the Davidic kingdom as the focus of God’s rule on earth. In broad terms therefore they see in contemporary events, the hand of God protecting his chosen people, the Jews. The founding of the State of Israel in 1948 is regarded as the fulfilment of Biblical prophecy. Eretz Israel, not always well defined geographically, is nevertheless seen as theirs by unconditional divine right given under the Abrahamic covenant. Jerusalem is inevitably seen as the eternal and undivided capital of the Jewish State.62
Christian Zionism has, in general terms, arisen from within Evangelicalism, and Fundamentalism in particular. Within that narrower circle, Christian Zionism is invariably associated with, although not exclusively, a dispensational reading of Biblical history and a premillennial eschatology. It would be useful therefore to amplify the meaning of these four theological terms.
The term ‘Evangelicalism’ denotes a broad spectrum of theological opinion arising out of the Reformation, Puritanism and Revivalism. Tertullian was one of the first to use the term around 200 AD. in his defence of biblical truth against Marcion. Martin Luther used the term to describe John Hus, but it was Thomas More who introduced the word to the English language. In a ‘vitriolic attack’ on William Tyndale in 1532, More referred to those ‘evangelicalles’.63 The distinctive doctrines of Evangelicalism include a belief in the supreme authority of scripture over tradition (sola Scriptura); in the literal interpretation of scripture; adherence to the historic creeds; the need for a personal faith in Jesus Christ for salvation and holiness; and a belief in the imminent, visible and personal return of Jesus Christ. Differences exist between ‘open’ and ‘conservative’ evangelicals as to the relative importance of such doctrines as infallibility and inerrancy. Evangelicalism is represented, and generally accepted, within all the main Protestant denominations and in Britain an increasing number of senior ecclesiastical posts are now held by evangelicals including Archbishop George Carey.64
Evangelicalism has become a popular subject for analysis, not least among proponents. ‘The overwhelming majority of them present the picture of a Christian movement which is sweeping all before it, triumphing over both liberalism and ritualism.’65
Within Western evangelicalism there are many strands defined by adherents as much as by opponents. These include those of fundamentalist, conservative, open and liberal. This spectrum has sometimes been simplified into the three categories of right, centre and left.66 The fastest growing and most influential of these is fundamentalism, also known in the United States as the ‘Evangelical Right’. Fundamentalism draws its support primarily from the Baptist, Pentecostal and Independent Bible churches associated with individuals such as Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, Hal Lindsey and Mike Evans.67
The term ‘fundamentalist’ derives from a series of tracts entitled ‘The Fundamentals’ published from 1910 onwards in an attempt by American conservative evangelicals to defend the basis of historic Christianity and repudiate what they saw as ‘modernism’ and theological liberalism. The term ‘fundamentalism’ was first used by Curtis Lee Laws, the editor of the Baptist Watchman Examiner, in 1918 to describe the movement within Baptist circles dedicated to such a position.68
Christian fundamentalism is the most active, exclusive, intolerant, and conservative wing of evangelicalism, both theologically and politically.71 The popularity of what is also known as the New Christian Right (NCR) is, in part, due to its near monopoly of Christian satellite, television and radio stations and programmes; the espousal, within its charismatic wing, of a success oriented ‘health and wealth’ gospel; and its propensity to provide simplistic, infallible, biblical panaceas for the world’s problems.72
The sympathies of the NCR for Israel and Zionism are compounded by an implacable antagonism toward communism and Islam. Donald Bridge, for instance, in describing the significance of Jerusalem to Jews, Christians and Moslems, claims,
Fundamentalist Christian Zionists are often outspoken and tend to advocate the annexation of the entire West Bank by Israel; support the lobby for other nations to return their embassies to Jerusalem as the undivided and eternal capital of the Jews; are committed to the building of the Third Jewish Temple and the re-institution of the priesthood and temple sacrifices as a precursor to the return of the Messiah.77 They have also helped facilitate the return or ‘restoration’ of Jews from around the world to Israel, especially those living in Russia and Eastern Europe, and deliberately encouraged their re-settlement in the Occupied Territories.78
There is a large and growing number of books written by evangelical and fundamentalist Christian Zionists presenting a largely pro-Israel yet apocalyptic scenario.79 Within contemporary Christian fundamentalism the most influential theological interpretation of history is known as premillennial dispensationalism.
Traditionally there have been three mutually exclusive interpretations of the references to a millennial reign of Christ in Revelation 20 depending on whether it is understood literally or figuratively. These are amillennial, postmillennial, and premillennial.80 Premillennialists hold to the belief that Christ will return prior to the millennium. Premillennialists are themselves divided on the question as to when the so called ‘rapture’ will occur.81 Four distinct, mutually exclusive, positions have and continue to be held, the cause of some rather acrimonious disagreement within premillennialist circles.
J. N. Darby82 influenced by Edward Irving83 and followed by C. I. Scofield84 and the early dispensationalists such as Lewis S. Chafer85 and Charles Ryrie86 held to this position. Ryrie describes pre-tribulationism as ‘normative dispensational eschatology’ and ‘a regular feature of classic dispensational premillennialism’.87 Gerstner acknowledges that virtually all Dispensationalists are also Pre-tribulationists.88
Pre-tribulationist premillennialists believe that Jesus Christ will return at any moment to secretly ‘rapture’ the church before the Tribulation begins on earth. After seven years of tribulation, Christ will return with His saints to overcome the Antichrist and his forces and establish God’s millennial Jewish kingdom on earth. One popular exponent of this position is Tim LaHaye.
Mid-tribulationists assert instead that Christians will experience the first half of the Tribulation, that is three and a half years of persecution, and then at the midpoint of the Tribulation they will be raptured. Those who argue for such a position do so on the basis of Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 12:4 which include the phrase “time, times and half a time.” This is taken to mean a period of three and a half years of tribulation, before the rapture.92
Authors such as J. Barton Payne, George Ladd and R. H. Gundry are classical premillennialists and not dispensationalists. They believe the church will experience seven years of tribulation before Christ returns.93 Unlike Pretribulationists, they regard the references to the suffering of the ‘saints’ in Revelation as referring to Christians and not Jews who have come to believe in Messiah after the church has been raptured.94
1.3.4 Pre-Wrath Tribulational
Marvin J. Rosenthal has literally incurred the ‘wrath’ of some pre-tribulationists95 because of his controversial book, ‘The Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church’96. In this Rosenthal insists, based on his ultra-literalist hermeneutic, that the seven year period during which the Antichrist will supposedly arise, also known as the seventieth week of Daniel 9:24-27, must be separated into three not two.
John Nelson Darby is regarded as the father of dispensationalism100, although William Kelly Edward Irving played no small part in the restoration of premillennial speculations out of which Darby’s dispensationalism arose.101 It was C. I. Scofield, however, that brought Darby’s eccentric theology into mainstream evangelicalism.
The publication of the Scofield Reference Bible in 1909 by the Oxford University Press was something of a innovative literary coup for the movement, since for the first time, overtly dispensationalist notes were added to the pages of the biblical text. Others before Darby and Scofield had used the term ‘dispensation’ to describe the progressive revelation of God’s purposes in biblical history. What distinguished Darby’s innovative scheme was the conviction that these dispensations were irreversible and progressive.102 While such a dispensational chronology of events was largely unknown prior to the teaching of Darby and Scofield103, the Scofield Reference Bible became the leading bible used by American Evangelicals and Fundamentalists for the next sixty years.104
The ‘proof text’ of dispensationalism is the Authorised translation of 2 Timothy 2:15, in which the Apostle Paul calls upon Timothy to, ‘… rightly divide the word of truth.’ Scofield took this as the title for his first book which is a defence of this novel way of ‘dividing’ Scripture into discrete dispensations.105
Following Darby and Scofield, dispensationalists claim to find in Scripture evidence of seven distinct dispensations106 during which mankind has been tested in respect of specific revelation as to the will of God. In each, mankind, including in the sixth dispensation, the church, has failed. These dispensations began with Creation and will end, it is claimed, in an exclusive Jewish kingdom on earth. Ryrie offers the clearest outline of dispensationalism.107
|Innocency||Genesis 1:3-3:6||Keep Garden…||Curses…|
|Conscience||Genesis 3:7-8:14||Do Good||Flood|
|Civil Government||Genesis 8:15-11:9||Fill earth…||Forced scattering..|
|Patriarchal Rule||Genesis 11:10-Exodus 18:27||Stay in Promised Land||Egyptian bondage..|
|Mosaic Law||Exodus 19:1 – John 14:30||Keep the Law…||Captivities|
|Grace||Acts 2:1- Revelation 19:21||Believe in Christ…||Death…|
|Millennium||Revelation 20:1-15||Believe & Obey…||Death…|
These dispensations are seen by proponents as ‘providing us with a chronological map to guide us’108, leading the more fundamentalist to insist that the world is about to end.109 Gerstner concedes that the church has always understood biblical revelation to be progressive. However,
3. A third aspect… concerns the underlying purpose of God in the world… namely, the glory of God… To the normative dispensationalist, the soteriological, or saving, program of God is not the only program but one of the means God is using in the total program of glorifying Himself.115
Lewis Sperry Chafer, the founder of Dallas Theological Seminary, elaborates further on this dichotomy between Israel and the church,
Not surprisingly, dispensationalists refute the supposition inherent in all other non-dispensational theologies, and especially reformed covenantalism, that the ethical law of the Pentateuch applies as much now as then, and that God has one purpose for all people, namely their salvation through Jesus Christ, bringing both Jews and Gentiles into one people, the church, and that in and through Him the earthly will be transformed into the heavenly. Chafer, in particular, criticises non-dispensational theology for giving a spiritual interpretation to what he sees as earthly realities.122
It is for this reason many Christian Zionists are happy to disavow evangelism among Jews believing ‘all Israel will be saved’ when or after Christ returns,132 and why the International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem, proudly welcomes the Israeli Prime Minister to speak at their annual gatherings. It also explains why dispensationalists such as John Walvoord, Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson have in the past been happy to attend joint worship services with Jewish Rabbi’s since both Jews and Christians are seen as ‘descendants of Abraham’ and ‘chosen under the terms of [God’s] covenants.’133
Sandeen observes that dispensationalism has, ‘a frozen biblical text in which every word was supported by the same weight of divine authority.’134 Bass goes further insisting that,
Notwithstanding such serious criticisms, dispensationalism increasingly came to replace the simpler form of historic premillennialism.137 Writing in 1958, Norman Kraus could observe how,
Tracing the development of Christian Zionism from the mid-19th and early 20th Century, the premillennial dispensationalist preoccupation with a distinctly Jewish millennium preceded by a pre-tribulation rapture of the church and an end-time gathering of the remnant of Israel, came to replace the simpler form of historic premillennialism.148
Ryrie is sceptical, unwilling to concede to such revisionism. He prefers to describe the position of theologians such as Blaising and Bock as ‘neo-dispensationalist’ or ‘covenant dispensationalist’, for holding, for instance, to a ‘slippery’ hermeneutic.157 Ryrie similarly insists on distinguishing normative dispensationalism from ‘Ultradispensationalism’. This is rooted in the teaching of Ethelbert W. Bullinger (1837-1913) and his successor Charles H. Welch, who, according to Ryrie, have merely carried dispensationalism to its ‘logical extremes’. Ultradispensationalists hold for instance, that the church did not begin at Pentecost but in Acts 28 when Israel was set aside; the Great Commission of Matthew and Mark is Jewish and therefore not for the church; the Gospels and Acts describe the dispensation of the Law; only the Pauline prison epistles, that is Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians, relate to the church Age; water baptism is not for the church Age; and Israel, not the church, is the Bride of Christ.158 Their teachings are perpetuated today by the Berean Bible Society, Berean Expositor, Berean Publishing Trust159 and Grace Mission.
Despite these attempts to redefine and reshape the dispensationalism of Darby and Scofield, many remain unconvinced.160 As an outsider, James Barr insists in all its variations, ‘Dispensationalism is a totally fundamentalist scheme.’161
Following Darby and Scofield’s literalistic hermeneutic and rigid distinction between Israel and the church, most contemporary dispensationalists regard the founding of the State of Israel as evidence of divine intervention, that the Jews remain God’s ‘chosen people’; having a divine right to the Middle East in perpetuity. Crucial to the dispensationalist reading of biblical prophecy is the conviction that the period of tribulation is imminent along with the secret rapture of the church and the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount. This will signal the return of the Lord to restore the Kingdom to Israel centred on Jerusalem. This pivotal event is also seen as the trigger for the start of the war of Armageddon in which large numbers of Jews will suffer and die.162
Clearly such views, whether promulgated by academics from respectable Christian theological institutions like Dallas Theological Seminary and the Moody Bible Institute, or by Jewish fanatics such as Baruch Ben-Yosef and the Temple Mount Yeshiva,163 the consequences could be devastating as these fundamentalists have considerable political influence seeking the endorsement of their divinely ordained and predetermined apocalyptic visions of the future. Karen Armstrong traces the pervading legacy of the Crusades on the contemporary Middle East, claiming Christian Zionists, ‘have returned to a classical and extreme religious crusading.’164
Ominously, Charles Colson, the former senior aide to president Richard Nixon, claimed in 1988 that the United States Government had contingency plans for a scenario in which Jewish fanatics would capture the Temple Mount, destroy the Dome of the Rock and rebuild the Jewish Temple, caught live by American Christian television channels based in Jerusalem. Based on State records, Colson speculated that if Israeli military forces refused to intervene to maintain the existing status quo, the United States would be forced to do so.165
1.5 Reasons for this research
Kenneth Leech offers this critical assessment of Christian fundamentalism and also some grounds for its evaluation.
They have experienced as a people, how,
As a consequence, a significant number of Palestinians continue to leave their homeland out of desperation, fear and intimidation. The very real danger is the creation of what Archbishop George Carey once described as ‘an empty Christian Disney World.’ At this critical time there is a newly emerging and distinctive Palestinian theology, distinct from other forms of Liberation Theology, which is offering an alternative, indeed a contrary reading of the Scriptures to that of Christian Zionism. It is reflected in the writings of Naim Ateek, Audeh Rantisi, Riah Abu El-Assal, Elias Chacour and others.170
While evangelicalism and Christian fundamentalism, in particular, have attracted a considerable amount of attention in academic circles,171 their influence upon the rise of Christian Zionism appears to have escaped serious consideration apart from a few notable exceptions.172 Indeed Marsden concedes that,
1. To assess the main historical, theological and political factors in the rise of contemporary Christian Zionism.
2. To examine and classify discrete types of contemporary Christian Zionism distinguished on the basis of their historical roots, theological perspective, ecclesiastical loyalties and political ramifications, in particular, with regard to the indigenous church of Israel/Palestine.
3. Specifically to discover how Christian Zionist organisations justify biblically and theologically their support for the State of Israel, as demonstrated in their views as to Israel’s legitimate international borders; justification of Israel’s continued illegal occupation of the West Bank; claim to Jerusalem as their eternal undivided city (the status and extent of Jerusalem); aspirations regarding the Temple Mount (hopes for the rebuilding of the Third Temple); and their attitude toward the continued denial of Palestinian aspirations to autonomy, self determination and statehood.
The theological presuppositions upon which this research is based are reflected in the following sentiment,
Revised 31 August 1998
1 Colin Chapman, Whose Promised Land, Israel or Palestine? rev. edn. (Oxford, Lion, 1992), p.277.
2 Sharif, Non-Jewish, back cover.
3 Cited in Sharif, Non-Jewish, p. 1.
4 Cited in Sharif, Non-Jewish., p. 7; see also Uri Davis, The State of Palestine (Reading, Ithaca, 1991), p. 28.
5 Sharif, Non-Jewish., p. 1 & 120.
6 Uri Davis, Israel, An Apartheid State (London, Zed, 1987)
7 Rob Richards, Has God Finished with Israel? (Crowborough, Monarch, 1994), p.177.
8 Cited in ‘The Church and Israel’ by Michael Horton, Modern Reformation (May/June 1994), p. 1.
9 Hal Lindsey, The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam, 1989). Lindsey accuses those who oppose dispensationalism of anti-Semitism, ‘…the same error that founded the legacy of contempt for the Jews and ultimately led to the Holocaust of Nazi Germany.’ (back page).
10 Derek Prince, The Last Word of the Middle East (Fort Lauderdale, Derek Prince Ministries International, 1982); The Destiny of Israel and the Church (Milton Keynes, Word, 1992).
11 David Pawson, Jerusalem-The Next 1,000 Years (audio tape DP.1115, Ashford, Anchor Recordings).
12 Lance Lambert, The Battle for Israel (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1975); The Uniqueness of Israel (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1980).
13 Walter Riggans, Israel and Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988); The Covenant with the Jews: What’s So Unique About the Jewish People? (Tunbridge Wells, Monarch, 1992).
14 Merrill Simon, Jerry Falwell and the Jews (Middle Village, New York, Jonathan David, 1984).
15 Pat Robertson, The New Millennium, 10 Trends That Will Impact You and Your Family By The Year 2000 (Dallas, Word, 1990); The Secret Kingdom: Your Path to Peace, Love and Financial Security, rev. edn. (Dallas, Word, 1992).
16 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980’s Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995).
17 Mike Evans, Israel, America’s Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); The Return (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1986).
18 Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991); World News and Biblical Prophecy (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1993)
19 John Walvoord, Israel in Prophecy (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1962); The Nations in Prophecy. (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1967
20 Dave Hunt, The Cup of Trembling: Jerusalem and Bible Prophecy (Eugene, Origen, Harvest House, 1995)
21 Basilea Schlink, Israel, My Chosen People, rev. edn. (Basingstoke, Marshall Pickering, 1987); Israel at the Heart of World Events (Darmstadt-Eberstadt, Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, 1991).
22 Donald Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995)
23 Notably, Hal Lindsey, The 1980’s Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995); Mike Evans, Israel, America’s Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); John F. Walvoord, Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990); Moishe Rosen, Beyond the Gulf War, Overture to Armageddon (San Bernardino, Here’s Life Publishers, 1991); Dave Hunt, Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983).
24 Louis Bahjat Hamada, Understanding the Arab World (Nashville, Nelson, 1990), p. 189.
25 George H. Stevens, Go, Tell My Brethren: A Short Popular History of Church Missions to Jews (London, Olive Press, 1959), 13
26 Kelvin Crombie, For the Love of Zion: Christian witness and the restoration of Israel (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1991), p. 3.
27 Dean Hugh M’Neile was a colleague of Louise Way. See his The Collected Works: Volume 2. The Prophecies Relative to the Jewish Nation (London: Christian Book Society 1878), first published 1830.
28 Stevens, Go., p. 13.
29 Crombie, For., p. 260.
30 Church’s Ministry Among Jewish People (CMJ), Shalom, 3 (1995), p. 1.
31 CMJ, Shalom, 3 (1994), p. 1.
32 CMJ, Shalom, 3 (1996), p. 1.
33 Israel Trust of the Anglican Church, Immanuel House, Tel Aviv 1866-1990 (Tel Aviv, ITAC, 1990)
34 The Church’s Ministry Among Jewish People. General Director’s Annual Report 1996 (CMJ, St Albans, 1996).
35 General Director’s Annual Report 1996 (CMJ, St Albans, 1996)
36 Walter Riggans, Israel and Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988), p. 19.
37 The Church’s Ministry Among Jewish People, Always be Prepared to Give an Answer Resource Pack (CMJ, St Albans, 1996)
38 Christian Friends of Israel, Standing with Israel, information leaflet, n.d.
39 Clarence H. Wagner, ‘Who are we?’ Bridges for Peace, Jerusalem, September 1996.
40 Beryl Norman, ‘The Churches in the Middle East’ Church Times, 18 June 1993.
41 Beryl Norman in correspondence, following her letter to the Church Times, 1993.
42 Harold R. Cook, ‘William Eugene Blackstone’ The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. J.D. Douglas (Exeter, Paternoster, 1974), p. 134.
43 William E. Blackstone, Jesus is Coming (Chicago, Fleming Revell, 1916)
44 American Messianic Fellowship International, ‘What is AMF’ Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
45 American Messianic Fellowship International, ‘Articles of Belief’ Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
46 The Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), ‘What is the MJAA?’ Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
47 MJAA, ‘What does MJAA believe?’ Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
48 MJAA, ‘What are the ministries of MJAA?’ Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
49 MJAA Position Paper, ‘Messianic Jews Say: “The Land Belongs to Israel!”‘ published in HaAretz, 20 March 1992. MJAA. Internet: http://www.mjaa.org. obtained, 29 October 1996.
50 MJAA, ‘Messianic.,’
51 Moishe Rosen, Overture to Armageddon? Beyond the Gulf War (San Bernardino, California, Here’s Life Publishers, 1991)
52 Jews for Jesus (JFJ), Jews for Jesus Briefing Bulletin, ‘”Billy Graham was Misunderstood” Says Jews for Jesus Leader’, Internet: http://www.jews-for-jesus.org, obtained 29 October 1996.
53 JFJ, Doctrinal Statement, Internet: http://www.jews-for-jesus.org, obtained 29 October 1996.
54 JFJ, Doctrinal.,
55 David L. Larsen, Jews, Gentiles, and the Church: A New Perspective on History and Prophecy (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Discovery House Publishers, 1995)
56 JFJ, Publications Page. obtained, 29 October 1996.
57 MECC, What, p. 11.
58 International Christian Zionist Congress Proclamation, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem. 25-29 February 1996.
59 International Christian Zionist Congress Proclamation, International Christian Embassy, Jerusalem. 25-29 February 1996.
60 Interview with Ray Lockhart, vicar of Christ Church, Jerusalem, 1994.
61 cited in Chapman, Whose., p. 278.
62 Lance Lambert, ‘The Eternal Significance of Jerusalem.’ Out of Zion: 2nd Quarter, 1996. Christian Friends of Israel.
63 Mark Thompson, ‘Saving the Heart of Evangelicalism.’ The Anglican Evangelical Crisis ed. by Melvin Tinker (Fearn, Ross-shire, Christian Focus, 1995), p. 29.
64 D.W. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain, A History from the 1730’s to the 1980’s, (London, Unwin Hyman, 1989), pp. 1-19; Kenneth S. Kantzer & Carl, F.H. Henry eds, Evangelical Affirmations (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990).
65 Mark Thompson, ‘Saving’., p.28. For example: Clive Calver, He Brings us Together: Joining Hands Where Truth and Justice Meet (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1987); Alistair E. McGrath, Evangelicalism and the Future of Christianity (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1994); Derek J. Tidball, Who are the Evangelicals? Tracing the Roots of Today’s Movements (London, Marshall Pickering, 1994)
66 Richard Quebedeaux, The Worldly Christians (New York, Harper & Row, 1978)
67 Wagner, Beyond., p. 3.
68 Bruce Shelley, ‘Fundamentalism’, The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. J.D. Douglas (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1974), p. 397.
69 Two important international and inter-cultural studies are, Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalists Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago, 1991), and Bruce B. Lawrence, Defenders of God, The Fundamentalist Revolt Against the Modern Age (San Francisco, Harper & Row, 1989). The most important accounts of American Protestant fundamentalism have been written by George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1980); and Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1991); Ernest Robert Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism, British and American Millenarianism 1800-1930 (Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1970); Nancy Ammerman, Bible Believers, Fundamentalists in the Modern World (New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1987);. For a British perspective, see also James Barr, Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1981); Escaping from Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1984); Kathleen C. Boone, The Bible Tells Them So, The Discourse of Protestant Fundamentalism (London, SCM, 1989); and Martyn Percy, Words, Wonders and Power: Understanding Contemporary Christian Fundamentalism and Revivalism (London, SPCK, 1996).
70 David A. Rausch, Communities in Conflict, Evangelicals and Jews ((Valley Forge, Trinity Press International, 1991); Fundamentalist Evangelicals and Anti-Semitism (Valley Forge, Trinity Press International, 1993).
71 Michael Lienesch, Redeeming America: Piety & Politics in the New Christian Right (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press, 1993); Garry Wills, Under God: Religion and American Politics (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1990); Steve Bruce, ‘The Moral Majority, The Politics of Fundamentalism in Secular Society.’ In Studies in Religious Fundamentalism ed. Lionel Caplan (London, Macmillan. 1987), pp. 177-194; The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right, Conservative Protestant Politics in America 1978-1988 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1988);
72 Steve Bruce, Pray TV, Televangelism in America (London, Routledge, 1990);
73 Donald Bridge, Travelling Through the Holy Land (London, Christian Focus, 1998), pp. 55-56, 70.
74 Gerald Butt, ‘The glory and the dream’ Church Times, 1 November 1996, p. 8.
75 cited in the Independent on Sunday, 13 January 1991.
76 Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991), p. 1.
77 Thomas Ice & Randall Price, Ready to Rebuild, The Imminent Plan to Rebuild the Last Days Temple (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1992); Winkie Pratney & Barry Chant, The Return (Chichester, Sovereign World, 1988), p. 180-191.; Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (Basingstoke, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1971), p. 55f.
78 Riggans, Israel., p. 19.
79 Notably, Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980’s Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle. (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995); Charles C. Ryrie, The Final Countdown (Wheaton, Illinois, 1982); Mike Evans, Israel, America’s Key to Survival (Plainfield, New Jersey, Haven, n.d.); Walter Riggans, Israel & Zionism (London, Handsell, 1988); Lance Lambert, The Uniqueness of Israel rev. ed. (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1995); John F. Walvoord, Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1990); Moishe Rosen, Beyond the Gulf War, Overture to Armageddon (San Bernardino, Here’s Life Publishers, 1991); Kelvin Crombie, For the Love of Zion, Christian witness and the restoration of Israel (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1991); David Dolan, Israel, The Struggle to Survive (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1992); Thomas Ice and Randall Price, Ready to Rebuild, The Imminent Plan to Rebuild the Last Days Temple (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1992); Rob Richards, Has God finished with Israel? (Crowborough, Monarch, 1994); Dave Hunt, Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983).
80 Robert G. Clouse, (ed) The Meaning of the Millennium (Downers Grove, Illinois, IVP, 1977); Stanley J. Grenz, The Millennial Maze: Sorting Out Evangelical Options (Downers Grove, Illinois, IVP, 1992)
81 J.N. Darby, ‘The Rapture of the Saints and the Character of the Jewish Remnant,’ Collected Writings Prophetic. I, Vol. II, pp. 153-155; John F. Walvoord, The Rapture Question rev. edn. (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1979); Hal Lindsey, The Rapture (New York, Bantam Books, 1983)
82 J.N. Darby, ‘The Rapture of the Saints and the Character of the Jewish Remnant,’ Collected Writings Prophetic. I, Vol.II, pp. 153-155.
83 Unconvincingly denied by John Walvood in The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975), p. 48, but corroborated by Iain Murray, The Puritan Hope (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1971), p. 200; and F. Roy Coad, A History of the Brethren Movement (Exeter, Patrernoster, 1968), pp. 128ff.
84 Joseph M. Canfield, The Incredible Scofield and his Book (Vallecito, California, Ross House Books, 1988), pp. 126ff.
85 Lewis S. Chafer, Dispensationalism (Dallas, Seminary Press, 1936)
86 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995)
87 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., (1995), p. 148.
88 Gerstner, Wrongly., (1991), p. 18.
89 Tim LaHaye, No Fear of the Storm, Why Christians Will Escape All the Tribulation (Sisters, Oregon, Multnomah, 1992), back cover. See also John Walvoord, The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975); The Blessed Hope and the Kingdom (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1976); The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979); John L. Bray, The Origins of the Pre-Tribulation Rapture Teaching (Lakeland, Florida, J.L. Bray Ministries, 1982)
90 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970) p. 136.
91 Joseph M. Canfield, The Incredible Scofield and his Book (Vallecito, California, Ross House Books, 1988), p. 127. See further, Richard R. Reiter, The Decline of the Niagara Bible Conference and Breakup of the United Premillennial Movement Unpublished paper, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1976, p. 2. See also, Reiter, The Rapture Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century American Fundamentalism unpublished paper, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1980.
92 J. O. Buswell, A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 393-450; N.B. Harrison, The End (Minneapolis, Harrison, 1941). See also M. J. Erickson, Contemporary Opinions in Eschatology (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1977, pp. 164-168.
93 J. Barton Payne, The Imminent Appearing of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1962); George Eldon Ladd, The Blessed Hope, A Biblical Study of the Second Advent and the Rapture (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1956); R. H. Gundry, The Church and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1973)
94 See Revelation 14:12; 16:6; 17:6; 18:24.
95 Tim LaHaye, No Fear of the Storm, Why Christians Will Escape All the Tribulation (Sisters, Oregon, Multnomah, 1992), pp. 15, 95ff.
96 Marvin Rosenthal, The Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1990); and Marvin Rosenthal & Kevin Howard, Examining the Pre-Wrath Rapture of the Church (Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1994)
97 Rosenthal, Pre-Wrath., p. 294.
98 Rosenthal, Pre-Wrath., p. 295.
99 Rosenthal, Pre-Wrath., p. 319.
100 Clarence Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1960); Daniel P. Fuller, Gospel and Law: Contrast or Continuum. The Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 1980). Ryrie attempts, unconvincingly, to find latent dispensationalism in the Early Church Fathers and in the writings of others such as Isaac Watts. See Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody, 1965), p. 73. This claim is refuted by John Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991) pp. 7-20.
101 Iain H. Murray, The Puritan Hope: Revival and the Interpretation of Prophecy (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1971), p.191; George E. Ladd, Crucial Questions About the Kingdom of God (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1952), p. 49.
102 John Nelson Darby, ‘The Apostasy of Successive Dispensations.’ Collected Writings., Eccl. 1, Vol. 1, p. 197.
103 Ryrie attempts to trace the lineage of dispensationalism back to Irenaeus, Clement and Augustine. See Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995), p. 63.
104 Wagner, Beyond., p. 4.
105 C. I. Scofield, Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth (Philadelphia, Philadelphia School of the Bible, 1928)
106 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 38.
107 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 54.
108 Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991), p. 189.
109 Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness, Obsession of the Modern Church (Atlanta, American Vision, 1997)
110 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 99.
111 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965), p. 48.
112 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 137.
113 J. N. Darby, The Hopes of the Church of God (London: G. Morrish, n.d.), p. 106.
114 C. I. Scofield, Scofield Bible Correspondence Course, 19th edn. (Chicago, Moody Bible Institute), p. 23.
115 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 39-40.
116 Lewis Sperry Chafer, Dispensationalism (Dallas, Seminary Press, 1936), p. 107.
117 Chafer, Systematic Theology (Dallas, Dallas Seminary Press, 1975), Vol. 4. pp. 315-323, cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 184.
118 Gerstner, ‘Wrongly., p. 185.
119 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 44-45.
120 Allan A. MacRae, “Hath God Cast Away His People? In Prophetic Truth Unfolding Today, ed. Charles L. Feinberg (Westwood, N.J., Revell, 1968), p. 95. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 183.
121 Hal Lindsey, The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam, 1989) back page.
122 Chafer, Dispensationalism., p. 107.
123 Charles C. Ryrie, Dispensationalism rev. edn. (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995), p. 39.
124 Darby, Collected Writings., Vol. 11, p. 363
125 C.I. Scofield, Scofield Bible Correspondence Course (Chicago, Moody Bible Institute), pp. 45-46.
126 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 40.
127 Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Findlay, Ohio, Dunham, 1958), p. 529.
128 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 66.
129 James E. Bear, ‘Dispensationalism and the Covenant of Grace’ Union Seminary Review 49 (1938): 307.
130 John F. Walvoord, The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979), p. 25.
131 Michael Horton, ‘The Church and Israel’ Modern Reformation May/June (1994), p. 1.
132 Derek White, ‘Replacement Theology’, Christian Friends of Israel Newsletter, June 1991. Also Stephen R. Sizer, ‘Anti Missionary Law Will Ban Christian Witness in Israel‘ Evangelicals Now, August (1998), p. 19.
133 Beth Spring, “Some Jews and Evangelicals Edge Close on Israel Issue,” Christianity Today, December 17, 1982, pp. 33-34. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 208.
134 Ernest R. Sandeen, “Toward a Historical Interpretation of the Origins of Fundamentalism,” Church History 36 (1967), 70. Cited in Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 100.
135 Bass, Backgrounds., p. 31.
136 Bass, Backgrounds., p. 151.
137 The definitive works are: Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965)
138 C. Norman Kraus, Dispensationalism in America (Richmond, John Knox Press, 1958), p. 104.
139 Foreword to John Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Tennessee, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991), p. ix.
140 Gerstner, Wrongly., p. 54.
141 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Dispensationalism (Chicago, Moody Press, 1995)
142 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1958)
143 John Walvoord, The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1975); The Blessed Hope and the Kingdom (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1976); The Rapture Question (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1979)
144 Eric Sauer, The Dawn of World Redemption, A Survey of Historical Revelation in the Old Testament (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1951); The Triumph of the Crucified, A Survey of Historical Revelation in the New Testament (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1951); From Eternity to Eternity, The Purpose of God in History (Exeter, Paternoster Press, 1954).
145 The Rise of Babylon, Signs of the End Times (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1991); World News and Biblical Prophecy (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale House, 1993)
146 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (London, Lakeland, 1970); The 1980’s Countdown to Armageddon (New York, Bantam, 1981); Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1983); The Road to Holocaust (New York, Bantam 1989); Planet Earth 2000 A.D. Will Mankind Survive? (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1994); The Final Battle (Palos Verdes, California, Western Front. 1995)
147 Hal Lindsey, The Late Great Planet Earth (Basingstoke, Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1971)
148 The definitive works are: Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965)
149 C. Norman Kraus, Dispensationalism in America (Richmond, John Knox Press, 1958), p. 104.
150 Clarence E. Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1960); Daniel P. Fuller, Gospel and Law, Contrast or Continuum? The Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980); Craig A. Blaising and Darrell L. Bock eds. Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1992); David E. Holwerda, Jesus and Israel, One Covenant or Two? (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1995)
151 Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Moody Press, Chicago, 1995), p. 214; Craig A. Blaising & Darrell L. Bock, ed. Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1992); Progressive Dispensationalism (Wheaton, Victor, 1993); Robert L. Saucy, The Case for Progressive Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1993)
152 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., p. 19.
153 Charles C. Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith (Neptune, New Jersey, Loizeaux Brothers, 1953); Dispensationalism Today (Chicago, Moody Press, 1965); Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism (Moody Press, Chicago, 1995)
154 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., pp. 21-23.
155 Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism., pp. 14-15.
156 Darrell Bock, cited in ‘For the Love of Zion,’ Christianity Today, 9 March 1992, p. 50.
157 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., pp. 171, 175, 178.
158 Ryrie, Dispensationalism., p. 199.
159 Charles Welch and Stuart Allen, Perfection or Perdition, An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews (London, The Berean Publishing Trust, 1973)
160 John H. Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth (Brentwood, Tennessee, Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991)
161 James Barr, Fundamentalism (London,SCM, 1977), p. 197.
162 Hal Lindsey, Israel and the Last Days (Eugene, Oregon, Harvest House, 1983), pp. 20-30.
163 Lisa Pevtzov, ‘Apocalypse Now, Operation Conquest – The Temple Mount Yeshiva’, The Jerusalem Post Magazine, 18 February 1994, p. 6.
164 Armstrong, Holy., p. 377.
165 Charles Colson, Kingdoms in Conflict (London, Hodder, 1988), preface.
166 Kenneth Leech, The Eye of the Storm: Spiritual resources for the pursuit of justice (London, Darton, Longman & Todd, 1992), p. 60.
167 Donald Wagner, Anxious.,
168 Leech, The Eye., p. 205.
169 Stephen R. Sizer, Pilgrimages to the Un-Holy Land. Unpublished MTh dissertation, Oxford University, 1994.
170 Naim Ateek, Justice only Justice (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1990); also, Naim Ateek, Marc Ellis & Rosemary Ruether, Faith and the Intifada, Palestinian Christian Voices, eds. (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1992); Audeh Rantisi, Blessed are the Peacemakers (Guildford, Eagle, 1990); Elias Chacour, Blood Brothers (Eastbourne, Kingsway, 1984); and also, We Belong to the Land (San Francisco, Harper Collins, 1990)
171 George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925 (New York, Oxford University Press 1980); Evangelicalism and Modern America (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans 1984); Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1991); Martin E. Marty & R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalism Observed (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991)
172 The main writers to have specifically addressed Christian Fundamentalist Zionism are Donald E. Wagner, Anxious for Armageddon (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1995); Hassan Haddad and Donald Wagner, All in the Name of the Bible, Selected Essays on Israel and American Christian Fundamentalism (Brattleboro, Vermont, Amana, 1986); David A. Rausch. Zionism within early American Fundamentalism, 1878-1918; a convergence of two traditions (New York: Mellen Press, 1979); Grace Halsell, Prophecy and Politics, Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War (Westport, Connecticut, Lawrence Hill, 1986); Middle East Council of Churches, What is Western Fundamentalist Christian Zionism? rev. edn. (Limassol, Cyprus, MECC, 1988); and Naim Stifan Ateek, Justice and Only Justice, A Palestinian Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, New York, Orbis, 1990)
173 Marsden, Understanding., p. 77.
174 Regina Sharif, Non-Jewish Zionism, its Roots in Western History (London, Zed, 1983)
175 Sharif, Non-Jewish, p. 2.
176 Ray R. Sutton, ‘Does Israel Have a Future?’ Covenantal Renewal (December 1988), p. 3. Cited in Gary DeMar & Peter J. Leithart, The Legacy of Hatred Continues, A Response to Hal Lindsey’s The Road to Holocaust (Fort Worth, Texas, Dominion Press, 1989), p. 54.