A. R. Fausset
Canon of York

Commentary Critical and Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible (1871) | The Book of Revelation


Preterist Commentaries By Historical Preterism


(On Isaiah 64:11 )
“burned–(Psalms 74:7Lamentations 2:7 2Ch 36:19). Its destruction under Nebuchadnezzar prefigured that under Titus.” (in loc.)

(On Daniel 9:27)
“Israel was not actually destroyed till A.D. 79, but it was so virtually, A.D. 33, about three or four years after Christ’s death, during which the Gospel was preached exclusively to the Jews. When the Jews persecuted the Church and stoned Stephen (Acts 7:54-60), the respite of grace granted to them was at an end (Luke 13:7-9). Israel, having rejected Christ, was rejected by Christ, and henceforth is counted dead (compare Genesis 2:17 with Genesis 5:5 Ho 13:1,2), its actual destruction by Titus being the consummation of the removal of the kingdom of God from Israel to the Gentiles (Matthew 21:43).

“Jesus died in the middle of the last week, A.D. 30. His prophetic life lasted three and a half years; the very time in which “the saints are given into the hand” of Antichrist (Daniel 7:25). Three and a half does not, like ten, designate the power of the world in its fulness, but (while opposed to the divine, expressed by seven) broken and defeated in its seeming triumph; for immediately after the three and a half times, judgment falls on the victorious world powers (Daniel 7:25,26). So Jesus’ death seemed the triumph of the world, but was really its defeat (John 12:31). The rending of the veil marked the cessation of sacrifices through Christ’s death (Leviticus 4:6,17 16:2,15Hebrews 10:14-18). There cannot be a covenant without sacrifice (Genesis 8:20 9:17 15:9 Hebrews 9:15). Here the old covenant is to be confirmed, but in a way peculiar to the New Testament, namely, by the one sacrifice, which would terminate all sacrifices (Psalms 40:6,11). Thus as the Levitical rites approached their end, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, with ever increasing clearness, oppose the spiritual new covenant to the transient earthly elements of the old.

for the overspreading of abominations–On account of the abominations committed by the unholy people against the Holy One, He shall not only destroy the city and sanctuary (Daniel 9:25), but shall continue its desolation until the time of the consummation “determined” by God (the phrase is quoted from Isaiah 10:22,23), when at last the world power shall be judged and dominion be given to the saints of the Most High (Daniel 7:26,27). AUBERLEN translates, “On account of the desolating summit of abominations (compare Daniel 11:31 12:11; thus the repetition of the same thing as in Daniel 9:26 is avoided), and till the consummation which is determined, it (the curse, Daniel 9:11, foretold by Moses) will pour on the desolated.” Israel reached the summit of abominations, which drew down desolation (Matthew 24:28), nay, which is the desolation itself, when, after murdering Messiah, they offered sacrifices, Mosaic indeed in form, but heathenish in spirit (compare Isaiah 1:13 Eze 5:11). Christ refers to this passage (Matthew 24:15), “When ye see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place” (the latter words being tacitly implied in “abominations” as being such as are committed against the sanctuary). TREGELLES translates, “upon the wing of abominations shall be that which causeth desolation”; namely, an idol set up on a wing or pinnacle of the temple (compare Matthew 4:5) by Antichrist, who makes a covenant with the restored Jews for the last of the seventy weeks of years (fulfilling Jesus’ words, “If another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive”), and for the first three and a half years keeps it, then in the midst of the week breaks it, causing the daily sacrifices to cease. TREGELLES thus identifies the last half week with the time, times, and a half of the persecuting little horn (Daniel 7:25). SIR ISAAC NEWTON explains the wing (“overspreading”) of abominations to be the Roman ensigns (eagles) brought to the east gate of the temple, and there sacrificed to by the soldiers; the war, ending in the destruction of Jerusalem, lasted from spring A.D. 67 to autumn A.D. 70, that is, just three and a half years, or the last half week of years [JOSEPHUS, Wars of the Jews, 6.6].” (in loc.)

(On Micah 3:12)
Jeremiah 26:18 quotes this verse. The Talmud and MAIMONIDES record that at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans under Titus, Terentius Rufus, who was left in command of the army, with a ploughshare tore up the foundations of the temple.

“mountain of the house–the height on which the temple stands.

“as the high places of the forest–shall become as heights in a forest overrun with wild shrubs and brushwood.” (in loc.)

(On Zecharaiah 11:1-17)

11:1 Open thy doors, O Lebanon–that is, the temple so called, as being constructed of cedars of Lebanon, or as being lofty and conspicuous like that mountain (compare Ezekiel 17:3 Hab 2:17). Forty years before the destruction of the temple, the tract called “Massecheth Joma” states, its doors of their own accord opened, and Rabbi Johanan in alarm said, I know that thy desolation is impending according to Zechariah’s prophecy. CALVIN supposes Lebanon to refer to Judea, described by its north boundary: “Lebanon,” the route by which the Romans, according to JOSEPHUS, gradually advanced towards Jerusalem. MOORE, from HENGSTENBERG, refers the passage to the civil war which caused the calling in of the Romans, who, like a storm sweeping through the land from Lebanon, deprived Judea of its independence. Thus the passage forms a fit introduction to the prediction as to Messiah born when Judea became a Roman province. But the weight of authority is for the former view.

(the highest in the state) are not spared, how much less the fir trees (the lowest)!

in the vintage (compare Joel 3:13), so the forest of Lebanon “is come down,” stripped of all its beauty. Rather, “the fortified” or “inaccessible forest” (MAURER); that is, Jerusalem dense with houses as a thick forest is with trees, and “fortified” with a wall around. Compare Micah 3:12, where its desolate state is described as a forest.

11:3 shepherds–the Jewish rulers.

their glory–their wealth and magnificence; or that of the temple, “their glory” (Mark 13:1Luke 21:5).

young lions–the princes, so described on account of their cruel rapacity.

pride of Jordan--its thickly wooded banks, the lair of “lions” (Jeremiah 12:5 49:19). Image for Judea “spoiled” of the magnificence of its rulers (“the young lions”). The valley of the Jordan forms a deeper gash than any on the earth. The land at Lake Merom is on a level with the Mediterranean Sea; at the Sea of Tiberias it falls six hundred fifty feet below that level, and to double that depression at the Dead Sea, that is, in all, 1950 feet below the Mediterranean; in twenty miles’ interval there is a fall of from three thousand to four thousand feet.

11:4 The prophet here proceeds to show the cause of the destruction just foretold, namely, the rejection of Messiah.

slaughter by the Romans. Zechariah here represents typically Messiah, and performs in vision the actions enjoined: hence the language is in part appropriate to him, but mainly to the Antitype, Messiah. A million and a half perished in the Jewish war, and one million one hundred thousand at the fall of Jerusalem. “Feed” implies that the Jews could not plead ignorance of God’s will to execute their sin. Zechariah and the other prophets had by God’s appointment “fed” them (Acts 20:28) with the word of God, teaching and warning them to escape from coming wrath by repentance: the type of Messiah, the chief Shepherd, who receives the commission of the Father, with whom He is one (Zechariah 11:4); and Himself says (Zechariah 11:7), “I will feed the flock of slaughter.” Zechariah did not live to “feed” literally the “flock of slaughter”; Messiah alone “fed” those who, because of their rejection of Him, were condemned to slaughter. Jehovah-Messiah is the speaker. It is He who threatens to inflict the punishments (Zechariah 11:6,8). The typical breaking of the staff, performed in vision by Zechariah (Zechariah 11:10), is fulfilled in His breaking the covenant with Judah. It is He who was sold for thirty pieces of silver (Zechariah 11:12,13).

11:5 possessors–The buyers (MAURER), their Roman oppressors, contrasted with “they that sell men.” The instruments of God’s righteous judgment, and therefore “not holding themselves guilty” (Jeremiah 50:7). It is meant that they might use this plea, not that they actually used it. Judah’s adversaries felt no compunction in destroying them; and God in righteous wrath against Judah allowed it.

they that sell them–(Compare Zechariah 11:12). The rulers of Judah, who by their avaricious rapacity and selfishness (John 11:48,50) virtually sold their country to Rome. Their covetousness brought on Judea God’s visitation by Rome. The climax of this was the sale of the innocent Messiah for thirty pieces of silver. They thought that Jesus was thus sold and their selfish interest secured by the delivery of Him to the Romans for crucifixion; but it was themselves and their country that they thus sold to the Roman possessors.”

I am rich–by selling the sheep (Deuteronomy 29:19Hosea 12:8). In short-sighted selfishness they thought they had gained their object, covetous self-aggrandizement (Luke 16:14), and hypocritically “thanked” God for their wicked gain (compare Luke 18:11).

11:6 Jehovah, in vengeance for their rejection of Messiah, gave them over to intestine feuds and Roman rule. The Zealots and other factious Jews expelled and slew one another by turns at the last invasion by Rome.

his king–Vespasian or Titus: they themselves (John 19:15) had said, unconsciously realizing Zechariah’s words, identifying Rome’s king with Judah’s (“his”) king, “We have no king but C�sar.” God took them at their word, and gave them the Roman king, who “smote (literally, ‘dashed in pieces’) their land,” breaking up their polity, when they rejected their true King who would have saved them.

even you, O poor of the flock–rather, “in order that (I might feed, that is, save) the poor (humble; compare Zechariah 11:11 Zep 3:12 Matthew 5:3) of the flock”; literally, not you, but, “therefore (I will feed)” (MOORE). See Margin, “Verily the poor.” It is for the sake of the believing remnant that Messiah took charge of the flock, though He would have saved all, if they would have come to Him. They would not come; therefore, as a nation, they are “the flock of (that is, doomed to) slaughter.”

Beauty–The Jews’ peculiar excellency above other nations (Deuteronomy 4:7), God’s special manifestation to them (Psalms 147:19,20), the glory of the temple (“the beauty of holiness,” Psalms 29:2; compare Psalms 27:4 90:17 2 Chronicles 20:21), the “pleasantness” of their land (Genesis 49:15Daniel 8:9 11:16), “the glorious land.”

Bands–implying the bond of “brotherhood” between Judah and Israel. “Bands,” in Psalms 119:61, Margin, is used for confederate companies: The Easterns in making a confederacy often tie a cord or band as a symbol of it, and untie it when they dissolve the confederacy [LUDOVICUS DE DIEU]. Messiah would have joined Judah and Israel in the bonds of a common faith and common laws (Zechariah 11:14), but they would not; therefore in just retribution He broke “His covenant which He had made with all the people.” Alexander, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Pompey were all kept from marring utterly the distinctive “beauty” and “brotherhood” of Judah and Israel, which subsisted more or less so long as the temple stood. But when Jehovah brake the staves, not even Titus could save the temple from his own Roman soldiery, nor was Jurian able to restore it.

to destroy so as not to leave a vestige of them. The three shepherds whom Messiah removes are John, Simon, and Eleazar, three leaders of factions in the Jewish war (DRUSIUS). Or, as Messiah, the Antitype, was at once prophet, priest, and king, so He by the destruction of the Jewish polity destroyed these three orders for the unbelief of both the rulers and people (MOORE). If they had accepted Messiah, they would have had all three combined in Him, and would have been themselves spiritually prophets, priests, and kings to God. Refusing Him, they lost all three, in every sense.

one month–a brief and fixed space of time (Hosea 5:7). Probably alluding to the last period of the siege of Jerusalem, when all authority within the city was at an end (HENDERSON).

11:10 covenant which I made with all the people–The covenant made with the whole nation is to hold good no more except to the elect remnant. This is the force of the clause, not as MAURER, and others translate. The covenant which I made with all the nations (not to hurt My elect people, Hosea 2:18). But the Hebrew is the term for the elect people (Ammim), not that for the Gentile nations (Goiim). The Hebrew plural expresses the great numbers of the Israelite people formerly (1 Kings 4:20). The article is, in the Hebrew, all the or those peoples. His cutting asunder the staff “Beauty,” implies the setting aside of the outward symbols of the Jews distinguishing excellency above the Gentiles (see on Zechariah 11:7) as God’s own people.

truth of the prediction and of Messiah’s mission. He had, thirty-seven years before the fall of Jerusalem, forewarned His disciples when they should see the city compassed with armies, to “flee unto the mountains.” Accordingly, Cestius Gallus, when advancing on Jerusalem, unaccountably withdrew for a brief space, giving Christians the opportunity of obeying Christ’s words by fleeing to Pella.

11:14 The breaking of the bond of union between Judah and Israel’s ten tribes under Rehoboam is here the image used to represent the fratricidal discord of factions which raged within Jerusalem on the eve of its fall, while the Romans were thundering at its gates without. See JOSEPHUS (Wars of the Jews). Also the continued severance of the tribes till their coming reunion (Romans 11:15).

(On II Thessalonians 2:2 and enestemi )
“is immediately imminent, lit., ‘is present;’ is instantly coming.” (Commentary on the Whole Bible, Zondervan, 1977, pg. 1343)

(On The Early Date of Revelation)
“The Epistle of the churches of Lyons and Vienne to the churches of Asia and Phrygia (in EUSEBIUS, [Ecclesiastical History, 5.1-3]), in the persecution under Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 177) quotes Re 1:5 3:14 14:4 22:11, as Scripture.”

“The following arguments favor an earlier date, namely, under Nero: (1) EUSEBIUS [Demonstration of the Gospel] unites in the same sentence John’s banishment with the stoning of James and the beheading of Paul, which were under Nero. (2) CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA’S‘S story of the robber reclaimed by John, after he had pursued, and with difficulty overtaken him, accords better with John then being a younger man than under Domitian, when he was one hundred years old. Arethas, in the sixth century, applies the sixth seal to the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), adding that the Apocalypse was written before that event. So the Syriac version states he was banished by Nero the C�sar. Laodicea was overthrown by an earthquake (A.D. 60) but was immediately rebuilt, so that its being called “rich and increased with goods” is not incompatible with this book having been written under the Neronian persecution (A.D. 64). But the possible allusions to it in Heb 10:37; compare Re 1:4,8 4:8 22:12Heb 11:10; compare Re 21:14Heb 12:22,23; compare Re 14:1Heb 8:1,2; compare Re 11:19 15:5 21:3Heb 4:12; compare Re 1:16 2:12,16 19:13,15Heb 4:9; compare Re 20:1-15; also 1Pe 1:7,13 4:13, with Re 1:11Pe 2:9 with Re 5:102Ti 4:8, with Re 2:26,27 3:21 11:18Eph 6:12, with Re 12:7-12Php 4:3, with Re 3:5 13:8,17:8 20:12,15Col 1:18, with Re 1:51Co 15:52, with Re 10:7 11:15-18, make a date before the destruction of Laodicea possible. Cerinthus is stated to have died before John; as then he borrowed much in his Pseudo-Apocalypse from John’s, it is likely the latter was at an earlier date than Domitian’s reign. See TILLOCH’S Introduction to Apocalypse. But the Pauline benediction (Re 1:4) implies it was written after Paul’s death under Nero.” (introduction to Revelation)

(On Revelation 1:7)
7. with cloudsGreek, “the clouds,” namely, of heaven. “A cloud received Him out of their sight” at His ascension (Ac 1:9). His ascension corresponds to the manner of His coming again (Ac 1:11). Clouds are the symbols of wrath to sinners.

all kindreds . . . shall wail–. Greek, “all the tribes of the land,” or “the earth.” See the limitation to “all,” Re 13:8. Even the godly while rejoicing in His love shall feel penitential sorrow at their sins, which shall all be manifested at the general judgment. (in loc.)

(On Revelation 11:8)
the great cityeight times in the Revelation elsewhere used of BABYLON (Re 14:8 16:19 17:18 18:10,16,18,19,21). In Re 21:10 (English Version as to the new Jerusalem), the oldest manuscripts omit “the great” before city, so that it forms no exception. It must, therefore, have an anticipatory reference to the mystical Babylon. “

“Sodom–The very term applied by Isa 1:10 to apostate Jerusalem (compare Eze 16:48).”

” also our–A, B, C, ORIGEN, ANDREAS, and others read, “also their.” Where their Lord, also, as well as they, was slain. Compare Re 18:24, where the blood of ALL slain on earth is said to be found IN BABYLON, just as in Mt 23:35, Jesus saith that, “upon the Jews and JERUSALEM” (Compare Mt 23:37,38)” (in loc.)

(On Aion/World/Age)
“The phrase “for ever and for ever” {eis tous aionas aionon} occurs 20 times in the New Testament: 16 times of God, once of the saints future blessedness, the three remaining of the punishment of the wicked and the evil one: is it likely it is used 17 times of absolute eternity, yet three times of limited eternity? The term for “everlasting” {“aidiois”} in Jude.v6, “The angels who kept not their first estate He hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgement of the great day,” is from a word meaning absolutely “always” {“aei”}. Gehenna is used by our Lord Matt.5v29,30. 10v28.23v15,33. Luke.12v5.; with the addition “of fire,” Matt.5v22. 18v9. Mark.9v47.; and by James {3v6}.” (“Critical and Expository Bible Cyclopaedia.”, p 281)

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Date: 04 May 2009
Time: 08:40:41

Your Comments:

Dear Sir,

I’m in a bible study whereas our leader is claiming that timothy was co-author with paul in the various epistles. I’m sure you are aware of these books as Peter is introduced in the first few versus along with Pual.
Is it a fact that (according to my instructor) that Timothy did sit side by side and contribute to these book?
As I reseached this subject, I find “no” commentary that confirms this idea. Can you please elaborate on it.

Solomon Henriques: rwhenriques@msn.com

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