Home>2015-33-Main Body-Bibliography

Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation
An Introduction to The Parousia: A Careful Look at the New Testament Doctrine of the Lord’s Second Coming
by James Stuart Russell (1878) // Written by 
Todd Dennis, Curator


Google Book Search

Google Books | Bibliography of Judaism and Christianity | Rare Books at DTS | Archive.org Book Search : Apocalypse Turpin Library (DTS) Rare Online Books Collection

AD70 Resurrection Fundamentally Different / The Best Eschatology is a Proper Christology

The (New) History of Full Preterism (.WMV)

Fulfilled Prophecy Bibliography | FREE ONLINE BOOKS HERE | A Dictionary of the Writers on the Prophecies (PDF) | Works Relating to Jews in the New York Library (PDF) | All PDF Book Files Now in One Directory

Archeology/Epig/Numis/Papyrology | Bibliography | Biographies | Foreign | History: First Century | Josephus | Preterist Universalism

Organized Chronologically

  • 1858:  David Brown: Christ’s Second Coming, Will it be Pre-millennial?  That those words point ultimately to the personal advent of Christ and the final judgment, I have not the least doubt. But the first question ought to be, What is the direct and primary sense of the prophecy? Those who have not directed their attention to prophetic language will be startled if I answer, The coming of the Lord here announced is his coming in judgment against Jerusalem”

  • 1870: The Fall of Jerusalem and the Roman Conquest of Judea “It was while gazing on this magnificent city that our Lord delivered his solemn prophecy of its approaching downfall.”


Organized Chronologically / Not Including Universalists or Hyper Preterists


  • BROWN, ALEXANDER, of Aberdeen. “The Great Day of the Lord.”

  • COWLES, Professor HENRY, of Oberlin, U.S.A. “The Revelation of John.”

  • CROSBY, ALPHEUS, D.D., of Boston, U.S.A.

  • FARRAR, FREDERIC, W., D.D.  “The Early Days of Christianity” 1882.

  • GOODHART, C. A., M.A. “The Christian’s Inheritance.” Nisbet, 1891.

  • GROTIUS, HUGO. “Annotations.” 1644.

  • HAMMOND, HENRY. “Annotations.” 1653.

  • HAMPDEN-COOK, E., M.A. “The Christ Has Come.” 1894.

  • HARRIS, J. TINDALL. “The Writings of the Apostle John.” Hodder. HINDS,

  • William Hewson – The Oblation and Temple of Ezekiel’s Prophetic Visions ; and, a Brief and Practical Exposition of The Apocalypse, or Revelation of St. John (An interesting book… perhaps Idealist, perhaps Hyper Preterist… haven’t read in entirety to determine with certainty.  If anyone would like to read and offer an explanation of Hewson’s doctrine, it would be much appreciated.)

  • SAMUEL, M.A. “The Catechist’s Manual.” 1829.

  • HOOPER, JOSEPH, of Bridgwater.

  • KING, ALEXANDER. “The Cry of Christendom for a Divine Eirenikon.”

  • LEE, SAMUEL, D.D., of Cambridge, Translator of Eusebius’s “Theophania.”

  • MAURICE, F. D., M.A. “The Apocalypse.” 1861.

  • MURRAY, JAMES, of Torquay.

  • MURRAY, J. O. F., M.A., in the Cambridge ” Companion to the Bible.” 1893.

  • NEWTON,THOMAS, D.D. ” Dissertations on the Prophecies.” 1754.

  • NISBETT, N., of Ash, Kent. “The Triumphs of Christianity over Infidelity displayed, or the Coming of the Messiah the True Key to the Right Understanding of the most difficult passages in the New Testament.” Rivingtons, 1802.

  • PECKINS, W. N., of Torquay,

  • RATTRAY, THOMAS, of Toronto. “The Regal Advent.” 1878.

  • RUSSELL, JAMES STUART, D.D. “The Parousia.” 1878.

  • STARK, ROBERT, of Torquay.

  • STEPHENSON, J. A., “Christology of the Old and New Testaments,” 1838.

  • TERRY, MILTON S., D.D. “Biblical Hermencutics.” Hunt & Eaton, Now York. 1883.

  • URMY, WILLIAM S., D.D., of San Francisco. “Christ Came Again.” Eaton & Mains, New York. 1900.

  • WARREN, ISRAEL P., D.D., of Maine, U.S.A. “The Parousia.” 1879.

  • WILKINSON, W. J. P., of Exeter.

Organized Alphabetically / Includes Pre-AD70 Revelation Dating Advocates, Master Scholar List, Historical Studies, “Second Temple Judaism” Studies

    • Abanes, Richard, End Time Visions: The Doomsday Obsession (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998).

    • Abauzit, Firmin, Essai sur 1’Apocalypse (Geneva: 1730).

    • Abbott and Abbott – Illustrated New Testament (1878) On Acts 2:19-20 “These, also, are figurative expressions, referring to the portentous events which preceded the destruction of Jerusalem.”

    • Abraham ben David, A compendious and most marueilous historie of the latter tymes of the Iewes comm weale, ca. 1110-ca. 1180. trans. and rep. several times last being 1st trans. edit. [London, R. Jugge] 1567. 357 p. The wonderful and most deplorable history of the latter times of the Jews: with the destruction of the city of Jerusalem. Which history begins where the Holy Scriptures end. (Adams & Wilder Leominster, Mass; 1803).

    • Alford, Henry, The New Testament for English Readers (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, n.d.)

    • Ashcraft, Morris. Hebrews – Revelation in The Broadman Bible Commentary; Clifton J. Allen, Gen. ed.), vol. 12 (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1972).

    • Aquinas, Thomas, Saint, Catena Aurea: A Commentary on the Four Gospels ; On the Eternality of the World

    • Aube, B.

    • Auberlen, Karl August, Daniel and Revelation in Their Mutual Relation (Andover: 1857).

    • Baillie, RobertA Dissuasive From the Errors of the Time – The thousand years of Christ his visible Reign upon earth, is against Scripture(1645).

    • Balyeat, Joseph: Babylon – The Great City of Revelation 

    • Bartlet, James Vernon , The Apostolic Age: Its Life, Doctrine, Worship, and Polity (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, [1899] 1963)

    • Baur, Ferdinand Christian , Church History of the First Three Centuries, 3rd ed. (Tubingen: 1863).

    • G.R. Beasley-Murray, Jesus and the Kingdom of God. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986).

    • – “The Kingdom Of God In The Teaching Of Jesus,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 35.1 (1992).

    • – A Commentary On Mark 13, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1957.

    • – Jesus & the Future, London: Macmillan, 1954

    • Bell, Jr., Albert A. “The Date of John’s Apocalypse. The Evidence of Some Roman Historians Reconsidered,” New Testament Studies 25 (1978).

    • Benware, Paul N, Understanding an End Times Comprehensive Prophecy Approach. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1995).

    • Bertholdt, Leonhard , Htitorisch-kritische Einleitung in die sammtlichen kanonishen u. apocryphischen Schriften des A. und N. Testaments, vol. 4 (1812 -1819).

    • Beyschlag, Willibald , New Testament Theology, trans. Neil Buchanan, 2nd Eng. ed. (Edinburgh: T. &T. Clark, 1896).

    • Bigg, Charles , The Origins of Christianity, ed. by T. B. Strong (Oxford: Clarendon, 1909).

    • Bleek, Friedrich , Vorlesungen und die Apocalypse (Berlin: 1859); and An Introduction to th New Testament, 2nd cd., trans. William Urwick (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1870); and Lectures on the Apocalypse, ed. Hossbach (1862).

    • Briggs, C. A. “The Origin and History of Premillenarianism”, Lutheran Quarterly, IX 1879.

    • Brown, Dr. John. Expository Discourses on First Peter, Edinburgh: Haddington (1722-1787).

    • Boyer, Paul, When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. (Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London: Harvard University Press, 1992).

    • Brown, AlexanderAlexander Brown Index (1893).

    • Boatman, Russell, What the Bible Says About the End Time (Joplin, MO: College Press, 1980).

    • Bohmer, Heinrich , Die Offenbarung Johannis (Breslau: 1866).

    • Bousset, JacqueThe Continuty of Religion (1670). “The Eagle of Meaux” (1670) “Titus, enlightened enough to know that Judea perished by a manifest effect of the justice of God, knew not the crime which God had willed to punish so terribly.  It was the most heinous of all crimes, a crime then unheard-of, namely, Deicide, which therefore gave occasion to a vengeance such as the world had never seen. But if we only open our eyes and consider the course of things, neither that crime of the Jews nor its punishment can remain hidden from us.”

    • Bousset, WilhelmRevelation of John (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck, 1896).

    • Brown, Ordo Saeclorum

    • Bruce, Frederick F. , New Testament History (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969).

    • Buck,Rev. D.D.  – Our Lord’s Great Prophecy and its Parallels Throughout the Bible (1856 PDF) Providing a Harmony of the Bible’s Olivet Discourses

    • Bultmann, Rudolf (1976).

    • Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias

    • Byron, Lord George Gordon: Poem: On the Day of the Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus (1815)

    • Carey, John, Eyewitness to History, Remarkable First-Hand Accounts of the Events that Shaped Civilization: From the Siege of Jerusalem.  (N.Y. Avon Pub., 1990).

    • Carpenter, W. Boyd , The Revelation of St. John, in vol. 8 of Charles Ellicott, cd., Ellicott’s Commentary on the Whole Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, rep. n.d.).

    • Carrington, Philip. The Meaning of the Revelation (London: SPCK, 1931).

    • Cassian, John, Cassian, JohnThe Conferences of John Cassian

    • Walter Chamberlain: The National Restoration and Conversion of the Twelve Tribes of Israel (1854) “The mistake of the Professor and those who hold his sentiments lies here — that they are not careful to remember that the spiritual exposition of certain prophecies for the edification of the Church is perfectly permissible, and harmonises with the literal interpretation of the same for the benefit of Israel.” (p. 21)   “there are, probably, many learned Hebrews who will be astonished to hear that he who propounded them has maintained that all prophecy, extending to Israel as a nation, has already been fulfilled.”

    • Cheetham, S. , A History of the Christian Church (London: Macmillan, 1894).

  • Church, Alfred John (1829-1912). The Story of the Last Days of Jerusalem, From Josephus, (with illustrations), London: 1880.

    • Clarke, William Newton , An Outline of Christian Theology (New York: Scribners, 1903).

    • Clouse, Robert, The Meaning of the Millennium (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1977).

    • Cohen, Abraham, Ph.D. Everyman’s Talmud, New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1949.

    • Conybeare and Howson, “The Life and Epistles of St. Paul” (1870).

    • CowlesHenry, The Revelation of St. John (New York: Appleton, 1871).

    • Crampton, W. Gary , Biblical Hermeneutics (n. p.: by the author, 1986).

    • Crebs, Berry Stewart , The Seventh Angel (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1938).

    • Credner, Karl August , Einleitung in da Neuen Testaments (1836).

    • Daley, Brian E., S.J. The Hope of the Early Church, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    • Davidson, Samuel, The Doctrine of the Last Things (1882); “The Book of Revelation” in John Kitto, Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature (New York: Ivison & Phinney, 1855); An Introduction to th Study of the New Testament (1851); Sacred Hermeneutics (Edinburgh: 1843).

    • De Pressense, Edmund , The Early Years of Christianity, trans. Annie Harwood (New York: Philips and Hunt, 1879).

    • Derenbourg,—. Histoire De La Palestine Depuis Cyrus Jusqu’a Adrien, Paris: 1867 (first part of his “L’Histoire et la geographie de la Palestine d’apres les Thalmuds et les autres sources rabbiniques”), pp. 255-295. (A history of the Jewish War from Rabbinic sources).

    • De Wette, W. M. L. , Kure Erklamng hr Offmbarung (Leipzig: 1848).

    • Döpp, Heinz-Martin – Die Deutung der Zerstörung Jerusalems und des Zweiten Tempels im Jahre 70 in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten n. Chr (“The interpretation of the destruction Jerusalem and the second temple in the year 70 in the first three centuries”)

    • Dusterdieck, Friedrich , Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Revelation of John, 3rd ed., trans. Henry E. Jacobs (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1886).

    • Eckhardt, K. A. , Der Id da Johannes (Berlin: 1961).

    • Edmundson, G. The Church In Rome In The First Century, 1913.

    • Efroymson, D, The Patristic Connection. In: Antisemitism and the Foundations of Christianity. (Ed: Davies, A Paulist Press, New York, 98-117, 1979).

    • Bart Ehrman – Jesus, Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (2000 PDF)

    • Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried , Commentaries in Apocalypse (Gottingen: 1791).

    • Ephrem the Syrian, Ephrem the Syrian : Hymns (many 4th century preteristic gems : faces gnosticism issues)

    • Erbes, Die Oflenbawzg 0s Johannis (1891).

    • Eusebius, Demonstratio Evangelica ; The Theophany

    • –  The Ecclesiastical History, Trans. by Cruse, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1971.

    • Ewald, G. H. A. , Commentaries in Apocalypse (Gottingen: 1828).

    • Farrar, F. W. History of Interpretation, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1886.

    • Field, Grenville O. , Opened Seals – Open Gates (1895).

    • Fitzmeyer, J. A. , “Review of John A. T. Robinson’s Redating the New Testament” (1977-78).

    • Ford, J. Massyngberde , Revelation. Anchor Bible (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975).

    • France, R. T. Jesus & The O. T., London: 1971.

    • Fuller, Robert, Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

    • Furneaux, Rupert, The Roman Siege of Jerusalem,  (N.Y., David McKay, 1972).

    • Gebhardt, Hermann , The Doctrine of the Apocalypse, trans. John Jefferson (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1878).

    • Giblin, C.H. The Destruction of Jerusalem according to Luke’s Gospel (AB 107, Biblical Institute Press / Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1985).

    • Gibbs, Jeffrey, Jerusalem and Parousia (Concordia Publishing House, 2001).

    • Giesler, J.C.L.  (1820).

    • Glasgow, James , The Apocalypse Translated and Expounded (Edinburgh: 1872).

    • Gould, E. P. The Gospel According To St. Mark. Edinburgh: 1896.

    • Grant, Robert McQueen, A Historical Introduction to the New Testament (New York: Harper & Row, 1963).

    • Gray, James Comper , in Gray and Adams’ Bible Commentary, vol. V (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1903).

    • Green, Samuel G. , A Handbook of Church History from the Apostolic Era to the Dawn of the Reformation (London: Religious Tract Society, 1904).

    • Guenke, Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand , Introduction to the New Testament (1843); and Manual of Church History, trans. W. G. T. Shedd (Boston: Halliday, 1874).

    • Gulston, Charles. Jerusalem: The Tragedy & The Triumph, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978.

    • Gwatkin, Henry Melville , Early Church History to A.D. 313, vol. 1 (London: Macmillan)

    • Hall, Michael, Apocalypse Then – Not Now 

    • Hall, S,  Melito of Sardis. On Pascha and Fragments (OECT, Oxford, 1979).

    • Hall. Universalism Against Itself. p.91.

    • Harbuig (1780).

    • Hardouin (1741)

    • Harenberg, Johann, Erkiarung (1759).

    • Harris, Murray J. From Grave To Glory, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1990.

    • Harris, Murray J. Raised Immortal, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1983.

    • Hartwig, H. G. , Apologie Der Apocalypse Wider Falschen Tadel Und Falscha (Frieberg: 1783).

    • Hase, Karl August von , A History of the Christian Church, 7th cd., trans. Charles E. Blumenthal and Conway P. Wing (New York: Appleston, 1878).

    • Hausrath.

    • Hayhow,Stephen F. , “Matthew 24, Luke 17 and the Destruction of Jerusalem,” Christianity and Society 4:2 (April 1994).

    • “Hegesippus” On the Ruin of the City of Jerusalem (370-375) “About which the Jews themselves bear witness, Josephus a writer of histories saying, that there was in that time a wise man, if it is proper however, he said, to call a man the creator of marvelous works, who appeared living to his disciples after three days of his death in accordance with the writings of the prophets, who prophesied both this and innumerable other things full of miracles about him, from which began the community of Christians and penetrated into every tribe of men nor has any nation of the Roman world remained, which was left without worship of him. If the Jews don’t believe us, they should believe their own people.”

    • Henderson, Bernard W. , The Life and Prim-pate of the Emperor Nero (London: Methuen, 1903).

    • Hendriksen, William, More than Conquerers (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1940).

    • Hentenius. [secondary source]

    • Henty, G.A.For The Temple (1888) – “In all history there is no drama of more terrible interest than that which terminated with the total destruction of Jerusalem.”

    • Herder, Johann Gottfrieded von , Das Buch von der Zukunft des Herrn, des Neuen Testaments Siegal (Rigs: 1779).

    • Herrell, V.S., The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ A Verse by Verse Exegesis

    • Herrenschneider, J. S. , Tentamen Apocalypseos illustrandae (Strassburg: 1786).

    • Hilgenfeld, Adolf , Einleitung in das Neun Testaments (1875).

    • Hill, David , New Testament Prophecy (Atlanta: John Knox, 1979)

    • Hitzig.

    • Holtzmann, Heinrich Julius , Die Offenbamng des Johannis, in Bunsen’s Bibekoerk (Freiburg: 1891).

    • Hort, F. J. A., The Apocalypse of St. John: 1-111, (London: Macmillan, 1908); and Judaistic Christianity (London: Macmillan, 1894).

    • Hug, John Leonhard , Introduction to the New Testament, trans. David Fosdick, Jr. (Andover: Gould and Newman, 1836).

    • Hurte, William , A Catechetical Commentary on the New Testament (St. Louis: John Burns, 1889).

    • Immer, A. , Hermeneutics of the New Testament, trans. A. H. Newman (Andover: Draper, 1890).

    • Israel, Gerard and Lebar, Jacques. When Jerusalem Burned, New York: William Morrow & Co., 1973.

    • John Jahn – Lectures on the The History of the Hebrew Commonwealth from the earliest times to the destruction of Jerusalem A.D. 72, with a continuation to the time of Adrian (1815)

    • Jerome – Commentary on Daniel (408) “And so there are many of our viewpoint who think that Domitius Nero was the Antichrist because of his outstanding savagery and depravity.”

    • Jones, R. Bradley, The Great Tribulation (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1980).

    • Keim, Theodor , Rom und das Christenthum.

    • Kelly, J. N. D., F.B.A. Early Christian Doctrines, San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1978.

    • Kerr, Alan R. – The Temple of Jesus’ Body: The Temple Theme in the Gospel of John (2002) “This book is a study of the Johannine Christian response to the fall of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 ce. A crucial text in this investigation is Jn 2.13-22 and its context, which provide a lens through which other texts in John are viewed. Kerr’s examination of the Temple festivals of Passover, Tabernacles, Dedication suggests that in Jesus fulfils and replaces these, while in the case of the Sabbath he effects a transformation. The overall conclusion is that the Johannine Jesus replaces and fulfils the Jerusalem Temple.”

    • Koppe, Theodor , History of Jesus of Nazareth, 2nd cd., trans. Arthur Ransom (London: William and Norgate, 1883).

    • Krenkel, Max , Der Apostel Johannes (Leipzig: 1871).

    • Kurtz, Johann Heinrich , Church History, 9th cd., trans. John McPherson (3 vols. in 1) (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, pp. 41ff. 1888)

    • Kyle, Richard, The Last Days Are Here Again: A History of the End Time (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Erdmans Publishing Company, [1993] 1995).

    • Lechler, Victor , The Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times: Their Diversity and Union Life and Doctrine (3rd cd., vol. 2, trans. A. J. K. Davidson, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, pp. 166ff. 1886).

    • Lewin, Isaac. The Siege of Jerusalem By Titus, London: 1863. Shengold (N.Y.) or Hebrew Publishing (N.Y.).

    • Lewis, Daniel J., 3 Crucial Questions about the Last Days (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998).

    • Lightfoot, Joseph B.  “Galatians” ;   Biblical Essays (London: Macmillan, 1890).

    • Lucke, Gottfried C. F. , Versuch einer vollstandigen Einleitung in die Offenbarung Johannis, 2nd ed. (Bonn: 1852).

    • Luthardt, Christoph Ernst , Die Offenbarung Johannis (Leipzig: 1861).

    • Macdonald, James M. , The Life and Writings of St. John (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1877).

    • Marsh, Rev. John, An Epitome of General Ecclesiastical History, from the earliest period to the present time. With an Appendix, giving a condensed History of the Jews, from the destruction of Jerusalem to the present day.

    • Mathison, et al – When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper-Preterism

    • Maurice, Frederick Denisen , Lectures on the Apocalypse, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1885).

    • M’Ilvaine, Charles Pettit , The Evidences of Christianity (Philadelphia: Smith, English & Co., 1861).

    • Momigliano, A. D. , Cambridge Ancient History (1934).

    • Morgan, Charles Herbert , et. al., Studies in the Apostolic Church (New York: Eaton and Mains, pp. 210ff. 1902).

    • Moule, C. F. D. , The Birth of the New Testament, 3rd ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).

    • Neander, Johann A. General History of the Christian Religion & Church, Boston: Wiley & Putnam, 1870. (9 vols.) rev. ed. by Joseph Torrey; trans. from German; reprint of 1858 ed., AMS Press Inc., 56 E. 13th St., NYC, NY 10003.

    • Newcombe, Jerry, Coming Again.. But When? (Colorado Springs, Chariot Victor, 1999).

    • Niermeyer, A. , Over de echteid der Johanneisch Schriften (Haag: 1852).

    • Paley, WilliamEvidences of Christianity (1851) “The general agreement of the description with the event, viz. with the ruin of the Jewish nation, and the capture of Jerusalem under Vespasian, thirty-six years after Christ’s death, is most evident; and the accordancy in various articles of detail and circumstances has been shown by many learned writers. This part of the case is perfectly free from doubt.”

    • Park, Jaemin – Caught Up in God’s Presence  (2001) by Protea Publishing Co.  ISBN: 1883707331

    • Pate, C. Marvin and Haines, CalvinDoomsday delusions: What’s wrong with Predictions About the End of the World (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1995).

    • Pate, C. Marvin: The End of the Age

    • Pierce, Robert L., The Rapture Cult (Signal Mtn., TN: Signal Point Press, 1986).

    • Pieters, Albertus. “Chiliasm in the Writings of the Apostolic Fathers”, The Calvin Forum, IV, 1938.

    • Plummer, Alfred (1891).

    • Plumptere, Dean  (1877).

    • Plumtree, Edward Hayes , A Popular Exposition of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia, 2nd ed. (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1879).

    • Poythress, Vern S. Understanding Dispensationalists. (Phillipsburg, NJ.: P& R Publishing, 1987, 1994).

    • Ramsay, W.M., “The Church in the Roman Empire before A.D. 170” (1904).

    • Randell, T. , “Revelation” in H. D. M. Spence &Joseph S. Exell, eds., The Pulpit Commentary, vol. 22 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, rep. 1950).

    • Ratton, James J. L. , The Apocalypse of St. John (London: R. & T. Washbourne, 1912).

    • Reville, Jean, Reu. d. d. Mondes (Oct., 1863 and Dec., 1873).

  • Riley, Henry A.The restoration at the second coming of Christ. A summary of millenarian doctrines – With an introd. by Rev. J.A. Seiss

  • Rivers, Francine –  A Voice in the Wind (1998) – Francine Rivers “The city was silently bloating in the hot sun, rotting like the thousands of bodies that lay where they had fallen in street battles.”

  • Roberts, J. W., The Revelation to John (Austin, TX: Sweet, 1974).

  • RobinsonEdward, Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 3 (1843).

  • RobinsonJohn A. T.Redating the New Testament (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976).

  • Russell, D.S.  The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1964).

  • Sanday, W. The Gospels in the Second Century (1875) – “In the relation of the Gospels to the growth of the Christian society and the development of Christian doctrine, and especially to the great turning-point in the history, the taking of Jerusalem, there is very considerable internal evidence for determining the date within which they must have been composed.”

  • Schleusner, Johann Friedrich .

  • Scholten, J. H., de Apostel Johannis in Klein Azie (Leiden: 1871).

  • Schwegler, Albert, Da Nachapostol Zeitalter (1846).

  • Schurer, Emil, ” A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ” (5 vol. 1886).

  • ScottJ.J.:The Apocalypse, or Revelation of S. John the Divine (London: John Murray, 1909).

  • SeargentDavid: “Millennium Now” (ImprintBooks, 2003).

  • Selwyn, Edward Gordon, The Christian Prophets and the Apocalypse (Cambridge: 1900); and The Authorship of the Apocalypse (1900).

  • Sharman, Henry Burton – The Teaching of Jesus About the Future (1908 PDF)

  • Sheldon, Henry C., The Early Church, vol. 1 of History of the Christian Church (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, pp. 112ff. 1894).

  • Silver, Daniel Jeremy. A History of Judaism, Vol.1, New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1974.

  • William Henry Simcox The Revelation of St. John Divine. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1893).

  • Snowdon, James (1919).

  • Smith, AdamThe Theory of Moral Sentiments

  • Smith, D. Moody, “A Review of John A. T. Robinson’s Redating the New Testament,” Duke Divinity School Review 42: 193-205. (1977).

  • Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age (3rd ed: Oxford and London: pp. 234ff. 1874).

  • Stephenson, J.A.  (1838).

  • StierRudolf Ewald(1869).

  • Stonehouse, N. B. The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church, 1929. This book presents evidence from Patristic sources of the first six centuries for the 70 AD application of Revelation. Available from Calvin College or Westminster College (libraries).
  • StrongAugustus H. , Systematic Theology (Old Tappan, NJ: Revell, [1907] 1970).

  • Sweet, J. P. M. Revelation, Westminster Press. Also published in London: SCM Press, Pelican Commentaries, 1979.

  • Swete, Henry Barclay. The Apocalypse of St. John. Eerdmans: 1951.

  • Tacitus. The Histories, Trans. by Kenneth Wellesley, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1972.

  • Taylor, Charles, “Commentary On Revelation” (Things which must shortly come to pass) (Netadvantage Christian Publishers Lenoir City, Tennessee, 1997).

  • Thiersch, Die Kirche im apostolischm Zeitalter.

  • Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu, Commentary on the Gospel of John (1827).

  • Tillich, Introduction to the New Testament.

  • Torrey, Charles Cutler, Documents of the Primitive Church, (ch. 5); and The Apocalypse of John (New Haven: Yale, 1958).

  • Ussher, James – The Annals of the World “In the years 1650-1654, James Ussher set out to write a history of the world from creation to A.D. 70. In its pages can be found the fascinating history of the ancient world from the Genesis creation through the destruction of the Jerusalem temple.”

  • VanGemeren, Willem, A. Interpreting the Prophetic Word (Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan, 1990).

  • Volkmar, Gustav, Conmentur zur 0fienbarung (Zurich: 1862).

  • Weiss, Bernhard, A Commentary on the New Testament, 2nd cd., trans. G. H. Schodde and E. Wilson (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, vol. 4. 1906)

  • Wessinger, Catherine, “Millennialism With and Without the Mayhem”. In Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (eds.), Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements (New York and London: Routledge, 47-59.  1997.)

  • Westcott, Brooke Foss, The Gospel According to St. John (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, [1882] 1954).

  • Wieseler, Karl , Zur Auslegung und Kritik der Apok. Literatur (Gottingen: 1839).

  • Williams, MatthewPan ddinystriwyd Jerusalem gan Titus ymmerawdwr Rhufain, yr hyn a ddigwyddodd yn y flwyddyn 70 o oedran Crist (1799 Welsh)

  • Wilson, S.G.,  Related Strangers: Jews and Christians 70-170 C.E. Fortress Press, Minneapolis. (1995)

  • Wood, James D. The Interpretation of the Bible: An Historical Introduction, London: Duckworth, 1958. (first edition).

  • Wordsworth, Charles, The New Testament, vol. 2 (London: 1864).

  • Workman, Herbert B., Persecution in the Early Church (London: Oxford, [1906] 1980).

  • Wright, Charles Henry Hamilton, Zechariah and His Prophecies (Minneapolis, MN: Klock and Klock, [1879] 1980)

  • Young, Robert, Commentary on the Book of Revelation; and Critical Comments on the Holy Bible (London: Pickering & Inglis, , p. 179. 1885)

  • Zullig, C. F. J., Die Ofienbamng Johannis erklarten (Stuttgart: 1852).


    • Steven J. Frierson – Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John : Reading Revelation in the Ruins (2001) After more than a century of debate about the significance of imperial cults for the interpretation of Revelation, this is the first study to examine both the archaeological evidence and the Biblical text in depth. Friesen argues that a detailed analysis of imperial cults as they were practiced in the first century CE in the region where John was active allows us to understand John’s criticism of his society’s dominant values. He demonstrates the importance of imperial cults for society at the time when Revelation was written, and shows the ways in which John refuted imperial cosmology through his use of vision, myth, and eschatological expectation.”

  • N. B. Stonehouse – The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church (1929) This book presents evidence from Patristic sources of the first six centuries for the 70 AD application of Revelation. Available from Calvin College or Westminster College libraries.

  • J.G. Tinius – Die Offenbarung Johannis, durch Einleitung, Uebersetzung und Erklarung (1839)

Derek Daschke: City of Ruins: Mourning the Destruction of Jerusalem Through Jewish Apocalypse (2010)

PAST AND PRESENT STATE OF PALESTINE ; Christ’s Second Coming not fulfilled at the Destruction of Jerusalem.—This is the title of a little pamphlet aiming to establish that the second coming of Christ could not, as some suppose, have taken place at the period of the destruction of Jerusalem. The author proves clearly to our mind that the issue of the destruction of Jerusalem was very different from the effects that were to result to the Jews at Christ’s second coming, and that the promises to them, connected with that event, have not yet been fulfilled. The author proves first of all—and it is really a sad token that such a proof is required— that Christ did not certainly appear on earth during that period. He then proceeds to narrate the events we are led to expect before our Lord’s coining. He mentions the works and signs of Antichrist, and his appearance, and argues—and we herein agree with him—that he has not yet come, and that the description given of him is only in part applicable to any of the supposed Antichrists. One of the signs is, the Jews will receive him; for our Saviour says,’ ‘If another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.” Now if the Jews had ever received such an one, they could not still be looking for Messiah, as they are to this day.

The coming of Christ is to be immediately after the tribulation of those days. Those days, our author says, are not yet ended ; they will close with the tribulation of the last days, after which Jesus will immediately appear. Christ is to come after the Jews are converted ; now if He had come at the destruction of Jerusalem, how is it that the veil continues unto the present day ? Christ is to light for Israel. He certainly did not fight for them at the destruction of Jerusalem. .Again, a resurrection must attend our Lord’s return to this earth, and the judgment must take place after He has come. The author demonstrates that these things have not yet taken place, but most surely will be fulfilled.

We have given a very meagre outline of this little book, as we are pressed for want of space. But even this mere sketch will suffice to show that the contents are interesting and varied, and worthy to be studied.”  (The Scattered nation and Jewish Christian magazine, vol. II)

A response to: The Second Advent: Or, what do the Scriptures teach respecting the Second Coming of Christ, the End of the World, the Resurrection of the Dead, and the General Judgment ?

Philip Mauro wrote 35 books of which three were later published as one volume (Expository Readings in Romans in 1913). The Number of Man (1909) is included as a bonus item.  Bible Chronology and Patmos Visions were eventually published as revised, expanded publications (The Wonder of Bible Chronology and Of Things Which Must Soon Come to Pass, both in 1936). Both are still in print today and freely available. Mauro later retracted his 1913 book, Looking for the Saviour and for that reason it was not included in the collection of book manuscripts. The rest are all here:

(1) Reason to Revelation (1905); (2) The World and Its God (1905); (3) Man’s Day (1908); (4) Life in the Word (1909); (5) The “Wretched Man” and His Deliverance (1910); (6) God’s Gospel and God’s Righteousness (Romans 1:1–5:11) (1910); (7) God’s Gift and Our Response (Romans 5:12–8:13) (1910); (8) God’s Love and God’s Children (Romans 8:14–16:27) (1910) – 6, 7 and 8 later appeared in one publication, see Number 11; (9) God’s Pilgrims (1912); (10)  God’s Apostle and High Priest (1913); (11) Expository Readings in Romans (1913) (see 6,7 and 8 previously); (12) The Last Call to the Godly Remnant (1914); (13) Baptism (1914); (14) “After This”: or the Church, the Kingdom and the Glory (1918); (15) The Kingdom of Heaven: What Is It? And When? And Where? (1918); (16) Bringing Back the King (1919); (17) A Kingdom Which Cannot Be Shaken (1919); (18) God’s Present Kingdom (1919); (19) Our Liberty in Christ, a Study in Galatians (1920); (20) Ruth, the Satisfied Stranger (1920); (21) Evolution at the Bar (1922); (22) James: The Epistle of Reality (1923); (23) The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation (1923, revised 1944); (24) Which Version? Authorized or Revised? (1924); (25) How Long to the End? (1927); (26) The Gospel of the Kingdom (1928); (27) The Hope of Israel (1929); (28) The Church, the Churches and the Kingdom (1936)

TITLES INCLUDED IN “COLLECTED SHORTER WRITINGS” The Collected Shorter Writings is approximately 300 pages long and should by itself be a collector’s dream: 30 manuscripts of which some can only be classified as extremely rare or scarce while others are classics. A terrific compilation.

(1) A Personal Testimony (1909); (2) The Truth about Evolution (1905); (3) God’s Way in Sickness (1907); (4) Eternal Relationships (1908); (5) The Present State of the Crops (1908); (6) Modern Philosophy (1909); (7) The Foundations of Faith (1909); (8) The Characteristics of the Age and Their Significance (1909); (9) The Christian’s Choice: Self-Life or Christ-Life. Which? (1910); (10) Concerning Spiritual Gifts (1910); (11) The Order of the Star in the East (1915); (12) Concerning Fellowship in Breaking Bread (1915); (13) Shall We Smite with the Sword? (1917); (14) Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem; (15) The “Character” of Matthew’s Gospel (1919); (16) The House of God (1919); (17) Watch. Be Ready. (1919); (18) By What Means? (1919); (19) More Than a Prophet (1919); (20) Speaking in Tongues (1920); (21) The Sign of the Prophet Jonah (1923); (22) Paul and the Mystery (1923); (23) Never Man Spake Like This Man (1923); (24) Dispensationalism Justifies the Crucifixion (1927); (25) The Kingdom Heresies of S. D. Gordon (1930); (26) A Letter to a Dispensationalist (1933); (27) What is the Millennium of Revelation 20? (1944); (28) Things Pertaining to the Kingdom of God (1979); (29) Gog and Magog (1981); (30) The Prayer in Gethsemane (1981).

BONUS ITEMS (1) The Number of Man (1909) (essentially the same theme as Man’s Day of 1908 but nevertheless included in the Library); (2) A Chronological Timeline of the Bible (compiled from the charts in The Wonder of Bible Chronology); (3) The 430 years of Exodus 12:4041 and Galatians 3:17 and The 400 years of Genesis 15:13 and Acts 7:6  (compiled from the charts in The Wonder of Bible Chronology).

  • David Vaughn Elliott: Nobody Left Behind (2004)  http://www.nobodyleftbehind.net/contents.html

    “Nobody Left Behind” examines modern-day theories of end-time prophecies in the light of clear Bible teaching. It helps the reader distinguish truth from theory by looking at Bible verses in context. While “Nobody Left Behind” is partly a reaction to the popular “Left Behind” novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins, it is much more than that. It offers a detailed study of the historical fulfillment of some of the most exciting prophecies in Scripture: the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple in A.D. 70, the rise of the Antichrist, and the arrival of God’s kingdom on earth, among others. To the extent that “Nobody Left Behind” is a critique of the popular “Left Behind” novels, it is based on several sources. Mr. Elliott has examined the colorful fold-out chart, “A Visual Guide to the Left Behind Series,” which gives LaHaye and Jenkins’ brief outline of Revelation, showing where each novel of the series fits in. More importantly, Mr. Elliott carefully considered Tim LaHaye’s newest Revelation commentary, “Revelation Unveiled.” This updated edition of LaHaye’s commentary appeared in 1999, and it was offered, as expressed on the back cover, as “The biblical foundation for the best-selling Left Behind series.” In addition, Mr. Elliott digested novel #1 of the series, “Left Behind, A Novel of the Earth’s Last Days,” which introduces most of the leading characters and issues. He has also read #2 of the series, “Tribulation Force.” Reading the remaining novels is unnecessary. Tim LaHaye’s Revelation commentary is a more important source for critiquing the novels than the novels themselves.

    “Nobody Left Behind” respectfully examines the claimed biblical foundation for the “Left Behind” series. This “foundation” is a view of Bible prophecy called futurism, a view which teaches that the great bulk of Bible prophecies have not yet been fulfilled but rather are awaiting fulfillment any day now. Mr. Elliott’s critique is thus not just an examination of one set of novels but rather an examination of the entire view of Bible prophecy that underlies those novels.

    “Nobody Left Behind” offers 334 pages of compelling biblical and historical evidence that various “end-time” prophecies have actually already been wonderfully fulfilled. This alternative view, commonly called the historical view or historicism, was the most popular view among Bible believers for several centuries before the twentieth century. However, times have changed, and many Bible believers today are not even aware that the views set forth in the “Left Behind” series are relatively new.

    If you desire a greater understanding of God’s prophetic Word, “Nobody Left Behind” is for you. If you are looking for prophecy studies that are in depth yet easy to understand, “Nobody Left Behind” is your book of choice. If you want to find out if the “Left Behind” novels are true to the Bible, “Nobody Left Behind” will offer you the facts for making your decision. If you are seeking a book on Bible prophecy that will open your eyes to historical reality all the while enriching your faith, “Nobody Left Behind: Insight into ‘End-Time’ Prophecies” is the book you should read.

    The book is well-documented, includes quotations from ancient Christian and Jewish writers, offers extensive Scripture and subject indexes, and contains attractive illustrations and detailed charts to aid the reader.

HISTORIE, DE-, van de deerlyke distructie ende ondergank der stad Jerusalem. Door den keyzer Verspasiaen, met veele en verscheidene geschiedenissen der Joden (1732)   “Rare early chapbook edition of the account of the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, based on “De Bello Judaico” by Flavius Josephus. The version popular in the Northern Netherlands however, entirely differs from the version popular in the Southern Netherlands, at least after 1621 when the old version was forbidden in the Southern Netherlands. After 1621 the version in the Southern Netherlands was titled “De verderffenisse of destructie van Jerusalem” and edited by the famous Flemish historian Adriaen van Meerbeeck (1563-1627). In the Northern Netherlands the old version remained in use, still unexpurgated of wild anecdotes and curious legends, like Pilatus together with the Jews defending Jerusalem, and during the siege the starved women ate their children, and gave Pilatus a quarter of each child to eat. Or the story that after the Romans had conquered the city, Pilatus was brought to trial, but all the Jews were slaughtered by the Romans who searched for gold in their stomachs. The present chapbook is one of the rarest, both in the Northern and Southern Netherlands.”

– Book Reviews

  • Todd Dennis: Church-State Relations and the Book of Revelation (2013) In many ways, The Parousia throws the chains off eighteen centuries of biblical interpretation, reflected in one thousand years of English literature.
    • Roderick Edwards: A Review and Response to WSTTB (2009) “Since 2004, hyperpreterists have sought to respond to the response but as of yet the hyperpreterists have been unsuccessful in not only publishing a response but even in getting together in enough unity to write a response.  At this present time, there are at least 3 separate teams by hyperpreterists that seek to publish a response.”
  • Norman L. Geisler – A Friendly Response to Hank Hanegraaff’s Book, The Last Disciple (2006) “Of course even partial preterists are “futurists” regarding the Second Coming and Resurrection. But they reject the futurist understanding of the bulk of Book of Revelation. “

  • Norman L. Geisler – A Response to Steve Gregg’s Defense of Hanegraaff (2007) “In brief, Gregg’s attempt to rescue the partial preterist position he shares with Hank Hanegraaff is a failure. It rests upon a methodologically unorthodox way of interpreting Scripture. If this same method were used on the Gospel narratives of the resurrection of Christ, the preterist would also be theologically unorthodox. Thus, while partial preterism itself is not heretical, its hermeneutic is unorthodox, and if applied consistently, would lead to heresy, as indeed it does in full preterism.”



  • Ice, Thomas and Gentry, Kenneth, The Great Tribulation: Past or Future? Two Evangelicals Debate the Question (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1999).

  • LaHaye, Tim, “The Signs of the Time Imply His Coming,” in 10 Reasons Why Jesus is Coming Soon: Ten Christian Leaders Share Their Thoughts (Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 1998)

  • Spargimino, Larry –  The Anti-Prophets: The Challenge of Preterism


  • Anonymous: The Fall of Jerusalem and The Roman Conquest of Judea (1855)  “One of the most stirring episodes in the history of the world is furnished by the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans under Titus, its capture, and its destruction . . . Her tale of splendour now is told & done”

  • Applebaum, Shimon : “The Zealots: the Case for Reevaluation,” The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 61. (1971), pp. 155-170.

  • Avigad, Nahman : “Jerusalem in Flames—the Burnt House Captures a Moment in Time,” BAR Nov-Dec. 1983.

  • Barnes, Arthur Stapylton , Christianity at Rome in the Apostolic Age (Westport, CT: Greenwood, [1938] 1971).

  • Berlin, Andrea M. and J. Andrew Overman, eds., The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History, and Ideology. London: Routledge, 2002. ISBN: 0 415 25706 9 (cloth).

  • Billington, Clyde E. The Jews and Rome after the Fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D

  • 2005: Nigel Cawthorne – History’s Greatest Battles: Masterstrokes of War (PDF) Jerusalem, Defending the Temple – AD70 (p. 31-)  “By crushing Jewish resistance in Jerusalem, the Romans consolidated their eastern empire, driving Jews out of their homeland in a diaspora that has religious and political consequences to this day.”

  • John Carling – The Doomed City (1910 PDF)

  • Church, AlfredStory of the Last Days of Jerusalem (1881 PDF)

  • Cohen, Shaye J. D. and Michael Satlow, “Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple,” BAS on-line (Ancient Israel 1999).

  • d’Huys, Victor : “How to describe Violence in Historical Narrative,” Ancient Society 18 (1987), 209-50.

  • James Drummond – The Jewish Messiah: A Critical History of the Messianic Idea Among the Jews from the Rise of the Maccabees to the Closing of the Talmud (1877 PDF)

  • Edmundson, George , The Church in Rome in the First Century (London: Longman’s and Green, 1913).

  • Faulkner, Neil : Apocalypse: The Great Jewish Revolt against Rome, AD 66-73. Charleston SC: Tempus, 2002. ISBN 0 7524 1968 4 (cloth).

  • Feldman, Louis H. : “Financing the Colosseum,” Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 2001

  • Fisher, George P. , The Beginnings of Christianity, with a View to the State of the Roman World at the Birth of Christ (New York: Scribners, 1916).

  • Goodman, Martin : The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66-70. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1987. ISBN 0 521 44782 8 (pbk).

  • S.W. Fullom: The Last Days of Jerusalem – A Song of Zion (1871 PDF)

  • Hengel, Martin : The Zealots: Investigations into the Jewish Freedom Movement etc. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1989. ISBN 0 567 29372 6 (pbk)

  • Israel, Gerard and Jacques Lebar, When Jerusalem Burned: The Catasrophic Day When the Romans Destroyed the Great Temple and Jerusalem Itself.  (N.Y. William Morrow,   8vo 177. 1973.)

  • Klette, E. TheodorDie Christenkatastrophe unter Nero (1907 – German)

  • Laitin, David D. : “National Revivals and Violence,” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 36 (1995), 3-43.

  • Mason, Steve : “Figured Speech and Irony in the Works of T. Flavius Josephus,” “Contradiction or Counterpoint: Josephus and Historical Method,” Introduction to the Judean War, commentary to War 2.1-166, possibly other items as needed—distributed electronically.

  • McLaren, James S. : “The Coinage of the First Year as a Point of Reference for the Jewish Revolt (66-70 CE),” Scripta Classica Israelica 22 (203), 135-52.

  • Meshorer, Yaakov : “The Holy Land in Coins,” BAR March 1978—final paragraphs on Iudaea Capta coins.

  • Millman, HenryHistory of the Jews

  • Mitchell, John – The Temple of Jerusalem: A Revelation “When the Temple was destroyed, they say, the world fell into disorder and nothing has ever gone right since.”

  • Mommsen, Theodor , Roman History, vol. 5.

  • Morgan: AD69, The Year of the Four Emperors “Certain years ring out, numbers signifying plateau events, such as 1066 for England or 1776 for the United States. For the Roman Empire, one of those numbers is 69 A.D., the year that saw, in the person of four different emperors, the end of the original line of rulers that had traced its lineage, family-style, back to Julius Caesar and Octavian/Augustus. “

  • Nir, Rivka  The Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the “Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch” “The Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a pseudepigraphic apocalyptic work ascribed to Baruch, son of Neriah and the scribe of Jeremiah. Its overt content concerning the last days of the First Temple period disguises a description of the fall of the Second Temple in 70 C.E.  Contrary to the general scholarly view, this book attempts to show that the internal structure and central ideas of 2 Baruch must be understood in a Christian context. This theological identity is reflected mainly in traditions which describe the destruction of Jerusalem and the three apocalyptic visions which depict the coming of the Messiah and the eschatological redemption. These two main themes, which stood at the very core of the dispute between Judaism and Christianity and clearly reflect the basic differences in the outlooks of the two faiths, can be criteria to uncover the theological identity of the work. The author’s conclusion sheds light on the Christian character of other pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic books”  (EJL 20  Society of Biblical Literature – SBL, viii + 318 pages, Paper, English, 2003).

  • Pierre and His Family, The Destruction of Jerusalem (1827).

  • Price, Jonathan J. : Jerusalem under Siege: the Collapse of the Jewish State, 66-70 CE. Leiden: Brill, 1992. ISBN 90 04 09471 7 (cloth)

  • Rayner, William, The Last Days  (London – 1968) “This is the story of the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans and of their strange, empty victory at Masada, the last remaining strong-hold of the Jews. It is also the story of the increasing desperation of the Jews, their disillusion and despair when the expected climax of the Last Days fails to come and their faith in the Holy One is shaken. The story is woven from familiar Biblical writings and from events vouched for by historians, both Roman and Jewish, events since confirmed by the finding of archaeologists. The author has combined extensive research with a vivid, creative imagination to produce a book of religious, historical and dramatic interest mounting to the violent yet poignant finale.”

  • Rebekah HynemanJerusalem, At the Destruction of the Temple (1845).

  • Shaw, Brent D. : “Bandits in the Roman Empire,” Past and Present 105 (1984), 3-52.

  • Sion, Danny : “Gamla: Portrait of a Rebellion,” BAR Jan/Feb 1992.

  • van Hooff, A. J. L. : “Ancient Robbers: Reflections Behind the Facts.” Ancient Society 19 (1988), 105-24.

  • Weigall, Arthur, Nero: Emperor of Rome (London: Thornton Butter-worth, 1930).

  • Ziolkowski, Adam : “Urbs direpta, or How the Romans Sacked Cities,” in John Rich and Graham Shipley, War and Society in the Roman World (London: Routledge, 1993), 69-91.



  • Bentwich, Norman: Josephus  (1914) “Yet did they occasion the fulfilment of prophecies relating to their country. For there was an ancient oracle that the city should be taken and the sanctuary burnt when sedition should affect the Jews.” Josephus shares the pagan outlook of the Roman historian Tacitus, who is horrified at the Jewish disregard of the omens and portents which betokened the fall of their city, and speaks of them as a people prone to superstition (what we would call faith) and deaf to divine warnings (what we would call superstition). Josephus and his friends were looking for signs and prophecies of the ruin of the people as an excuse for surrender; the Zealots, men of sterner stuff and of fuller faith, were resolved to resist to the end, and would brook no parleying with the enemy.”

  • William Reuber Farmer – Zealots, Maccabees and Josephus (1956)

  • Josephus FlaviusJosephus, The Essential Writings, translated by Paul L. Maier (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1988).

  • Jacques Lebar & Gérard Israel (1970) “The story is of an event which concerns the Jewish people and all men adhering to monotheism, and which occurred nineteen hundred years ago, in the year 70 on the day which is, by the Hebrews calendar, the ninth day of the month of Ab (July-August).  On that day the Roman soldiers burned and destroyed the Temple at Jerusalem.  on that day the Jewish soul was struck at its very core.. The history of the West is also tied to the event of the 9th of Ab, 70.  In the destruction of the Temple, which Jesus had frequented, the first Christians saw the proof of the arrival of a new world..  Unlike other great events in Antiquity, and even in times nearer to our own, all the consequences of the battle and fall of Jerusalem have not yet run their course.” (GOOGLE | FROOGLE)

  • Maier, Paul L. – Josephus: The Essential Works, 1988  – Search within this “Full-color edition with updated text, charts and maps” – Textbook Quality for Jewish History as Translated from Josephus‘ Works

  • Mattern, Susan : Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. ISBN

  • Rajak, Tessa : Josephus: the Historian and his Society. 2nd. edn. London: Duckworth, 2002. ISBN 0 7156 3170 5 (pbk).

  • Mader, Gottfried : Josephus and the Politics of Historiography: Apologetic and Impression Management in the Bellum Judaicum. Leiden: Brill, 2000. ISBN 90 04 11446 7 (cloth)

  • Mason, Steve, Josephus and the New Testament, 2nd edn. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2003. |  “Will the Real Josephus Please Stand Up?” BAR 23 (1997).

  • Horsley, Richard A. : “Josephus and the Bandits,” Journal for the Study of Judaism 10(1979), 37-63.

  • Millar, Fergus :  “Last Year in Jerusalem,” in Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome, ed. Edmondson, Mason, Rives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005 forthcoming.

  • Shepard, William: Our Young Folks’ Josephus (1884 PDF) A simplified retelling of Josephus’ great history of Israel. Covers from the time of Abraham until the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. “Jump back in time to a place where historical accounts of the Hebrews are brought to life in an exciting narrative style. The history of Ancient Israel is revealed in a first-hand account from the great historian Flavius Josephus. Our Young Folks’ Josephus is a compilation of his two greatest works, Antiquities of the Jews and The Jewish Wars. You’ll marvel at the history that is played–out before your eyes. A journey that begins with the call of Abraham and ends with the destruction of Jerusalem and the fall of Massada…this is a must-have for any bookshelf.”

James Ussher – The Annals of the World

7000.  This was the end of the Jewish affairs and happened as predicted by Jesus in the gospels. FINIS

“In the years 1650-1654, James Ussher set out to write a history of the world from creation to A.D. 70. In its pages can be found the fascinating history of the ancient world from the Genesis creation through the destruction of the Jerusalem temple.”

  • Anderson, John. The Last Days (video). Sparta, NC: Lighthouse Productions.

  • Beeson, Ulrich R. The Revelation, published by the author, 1956.

  • Blessing, William L. Showers of Blessing, Feb. 1979, (698th issue).

  • Brown, Alexander (of Aberdeen). The Great Day of the Lord, London: Eliot Stock, 1894.

  • Camp, Franklin. The Work of the Holy Spirit in Redemption, Roberts & Son Publications, Box 1807, Birmingham, Alabama. 1974.

  • Canon Press. And It Came To Pass, Third Annual CEF Symposium. Moscow, ID: Canon Press, 1993.

  • Chilton, David. The Days of Vengeance, Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, Texas. 1987.

  • Chilton, David. The Great Tribulation, Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, Texas. 1987.

  • Chilton, David. Paradise Restored, Ft. Worth: Dominion Press, Texas. 1985.

  • Clarke, William Newton. An Outline of Christian Theology, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1903 (12th edition), originally pub. 1894.

  • Cowles, Henry (1803-1881) (of Oberlin, USA). The Revelation of John, New York: Appleton, 1882-1890.

  • Dale, R. W. The Coming of Christ, 1878 sermon-out of print.

  • DeMar, Gary. Last Days Madness, Obsession of the Modern Church. Atlanta, GA: American Vision, 1994.

  • Farrar, F. W. The Early Days of Christianity, Cassell and Company, Ltd., London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, 1905.

  • Goodhart, C. A. The Christian’s Inheritance, Nisbet, 1891.

  • Groh, Ivan. Jesus Has Returned To Planet Earth, Pub. by Inspirational Publications, Peterborough, NH 03458. 1984.

  • Grotius. Annotations, 1644.

  • Guild, E. E. The Universalist’s Book of Reference, Boston: Universalist Publications, 1853.

  • Hamilton, James. Light On The Last Days, Printed by K. & R. Davidson, Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland. 1962.

  • Hammond, Henry (1605-1660). A Paraphrase & Annotations Upon the N.T., (1st edition-1653) London: J. Macock & M. Flesher for Richard Royston, 1681 (5th edition corrected).

  • Hampden-Cook, Ernest. The Christ Has Come, London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., (Third Edition 1905). (First Edition 1894). Was Reprinted by Old Paths Publications, Lancaster, CA (1978). 

  • Harris, J. Tindall. The Writings of the Apostle John, Hodder.

  • Herder, Johann Gottfried Von (1744-1803). Maranatha, Das Buch Von Der Zukunft Des Herrn, Des. N. Testaments Siegel, Riga, 1779. It is also in a work by the author called, Sammtliche Werke, pub. in 1877-1909. Stuttgart & Tubingen, 1852.

  • Hinds, Samuel. The Catechist’s Manual, 1829.

  • Hurte, William. The Restoration N. T. Commentary in Question & Answer Form—A Catechetical Commentary, Old Paths Publishing Co., Rosemead, CA. 1964.

  • King, Alexander. The Cry of Christendom for a Divine Eirenikon.

  • Lightfoot, John. A Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica, originally written 1675, reprinted by Baker Books, Grand Rapids, 1979, and more recently by Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass.

  •  Mandrell, J. I and Fly, Earl. The Fly-Mandrell Debate, Newbern, TN: 1955. (unpublished). Mandrell affirmed 70 AD fulfillment.

  • Mattill, A. J., Jr. Luke and the Last Things, Dillsboro, NC: Western North Carolina Press, 1979.

  • Maurice, F. D. The Apocalypse, 1861, also The Kingdom of Christ, (2 vols.) London: 1958 (edited by A. R. Vidler).

  • Moore, Asher. Universalist Belief, or the Doctrinal Views of Universalists, Boston: Thomas Whittemore, 1846.

  • Morris, Marion. Christ’s Second Coming Fulfilled, Winchester, Indiana: Wm. Mitchell Printing Co., 1917.

  • Murray, J.O.F. See Cambridge Companion to the Bible, 1893.

  • Newton, Bishop Thomas. Dissertations on the Prophecies, (3 vols.). 1754-1758.

  • Nisbett, N. (of Ash-Next-Sandwich, Kent) The Triumph of Christianity Over Infidelity, Rivingtons, 1802.

  • Power, John H. An Exposition of Universalism, or An Investigation of That System of Doctrine, Cincinnati: The Methodist Book Concern, 1843.

  • Rattray, Thomas (of Toronto). The Regal Advent, 1878.

  • Russell, James Stuart. The Parousia, A Critical Enquiry Into the N.T. Doct. of Our Lord’s Second Coming, Bradford, Pennsylvania: Kingdom Publications, 1996.

  • Sotak, Max H., Th.D. Prophetic Bible Studies, Denver, CO: pub. by the author, 1993.

  • Stephenson, J. A. Christology of the Old & New Testaments, 1838.

  • Terry, Milton S. Biblical Hermeneutics, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. Originally published by Hunt & Eaton, New York, 1883.

  • Urmy, Wm. S. Christ Came Again, New York: Eaton/Mains, 1900.

  • Vanderwaal, Cornelius. Hal Lindsey and Biblical Prophecy, Paideia Press, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, 1978.

  • Warren, Israel Perkins. The Parousia, Portland, Maine: Hoyt, Fogg and Dohhany, 1879.

  • Wettstein (Wetstenii), Joannis Jacobi. Novum Testamentum Graecum, Amsterdam. 1751. Reprinted by Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria. 1962. Available in Calvin College Library.

  • Weymouth, Richard F. New Testament In Modern Speech, Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1978.

  • Wright, Gerald. Second Peter Three: Jewish Calamity or Universal Climax? Star Bible and Tract Corp., Fort Worth, Texas, 1976.

  • Young, Robert (1822-1888). Commentary on Revelation, pub. before 1885, and Concise Commentary on the Bible, London: Pickering & Inglis.

  • Züllig, F. J. Die Offenbarung Johannis (The Revelation of John), Stuttgart: 1834. Republished in two volumes in 1840.


  • Adams, Jay. The Time Is At Hand. Pres./ Ref., Philadelphia, 1966.

  • Balyeat, Joseph R. Babylon, The Great City of Revelation, Sevierville, TN: Covenant House Books, 1995.

  • Beeson, Ulrich R. (Listed Above).

  • Chilton, David. (Listed Above).

  • Clarke, William Newton. (Listed Above).

  • Cowles, Henry. (Listed Above).

  • Dollinger, Dr. First Age of the Church, vol. 2, pp. 79-96.

  • Farrar, F. W. (Listed Above).

  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr., Th.D. The Beast of Revelation, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, 1989.

  • Gentry, Kenneth L., Jr., Th.D. Before Jerusalem Fell, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, 1989.

  • Hampden-Cook, Ernest. (Listed Above).

  • Hartwig, F. G. Apoligie der Apocalypse wider falschen Tadel und falsches. Lob. Anonym. Freiberg: 1780-83.

  • Hawk, Ray. The Book of Revelation and Hal Lindsey, 1978. He also wrote an article on Armageddon.

  • Herder, Johann Gottfried Von. (Listed Above).

  • Hurte, William. (Listed Above).

  • Lightfoot, John. (Listed Above).

  • Maurice, F. D. (Listed Above).

  • McDonald, James Madison (1912-1876). The Life and Writings of St. John, New York: 1877. New Edition in 1880. Edited by J. S. Howson, Gordon Press Publications, P.O. Box 459, Bowling Green Sta., NYC, NY 10004. 1977.

  • Michaelis, John David. (Cambridge: Archdeacon, 1793-1802), Introduction to the New Testament, vol. 4, pp. 503,504. His Sacred Books of the New Testament is also good.

  • Russell, James Stuart. (Listed Above).

  • Stuart, Moses. Commentary on the Apocalypse, (2 vols.), pub. by Allen: Andover, Mass., 1845. New Edition with extra materials pub. in 1864. Also see his Commentary on Hebrews.

  • Terry, Milton S. (Listed Above).

  • Vanderwaal, Cornelius. (Listed Above).

  • Wallace, Foy E. The Book of Revelation, pub. by the author, Nashville, TN, 1966.

  • Wettstein, J. J. (Listed Above).

  • Wordsworth, Charles (Of Cambridge). Commentary on the Bible, mult. vols., 1866? and Lecture on the Apocalypse, (available from AMS Press, Inc.; NYC, NY).

  • Young, Robert. (Listed Above).

  • Züllig, F. J. (Listed Above).



Greg Bahnsen (1984) “A partial list of scholars who have supported the early date for Revelation, gleaned unsystematically from my reading, would include the following 18th and 19th writers not already mentioned just above: John Lightfoot, Harenberg, Hartwig, Michaelis, Tholuck, Clarke, Bishop Newton, James MacDonald, Gieseler, Tilloch, Bause, Zullig, Swegler, De Wett, Lucke, Bohmer, Hilgenfeld, Mommsen, Ewald, Neander, Volkmar, Renan, Credner, Kernkel, B. Weiss, Reuss, Thiersch, Bunsen, Stier, Auberlen, Maurice, Niermeyer, Desprez, Aube, Keim, De Pressence, Cowles, Scholten, Beck, Dusterdiek, Simcox, S. Davidson, Beyschlag, Salmon, Hausrath. Continuing on into the 20th century we could list Plummer, Selwyn, J.V. Bartlet, C.A. Scott, Erbes, Edmundson, Henderson, and others. If one’s reading has been limited pretty much to the present and immediately preceding generations of writers on Revelation, then the foregoing names may be somewhat unfamiliar to him, but they were not unrecognized in previous eras. When we combine these names with the yet outstanding stature of Schaff, Terry, Lightfoot, Westcott, and Hort, we can feel the severity of Beckwith’s understatement when in 1919 he described the Neronian dating for Revelation as “a view held by many down to recent times.”[40] By many indeed! It has been described, as we saw above, as “the ruling view” of critics,” by “the majority of modern critics,” by “most modern scholars,” and by “the whole force of modern criticism.” The weight of scholarship placed behind the Neronian option for the dating of Revelation has been staggering. In our won day it has gained the support of such worthies as C.C. Torrey, J.A.T. Robinson, and F.F. Bruce and has been popularized by Jay Adams.[41] In 1956 Torrey could write about the number 666, “It is now the accepted conclusion that the beast is the emperor Nero.”[42]” (Historical Setting for the Dating of Revelation)


  • Beeson, Ulrich R. (Listed Above). p. xxxvi and 7.

  • Camp, Franklin. (Listed Above).

  • Gardiner, George E. The Corinthian Catastrophe, Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1974.

  • Hawk, Ray. (Listed Above).

  • Lunsford, Jack. “And He Shall Confirm the Covenant…For One Week”, article in the Firm Foundation, Vol. 95, No. 21, May 23, 1978, Austin, Texas.

  • M’Ilvaine, Charles Pettit. (Listed Above).

  • Need, Ovid.  “Tongues”

  • Russell, James Stuart. (Listed Above).

  • Vanderwaal, Cornelius. (Listed Above)

  • Woods, Guy. Woods-Franklin Debate (on Pentecostalism), Birmingham, Alabama: Roberts & Son, 1974.


  • Beeson, Ulrich R. (Listed Above).

  • Camp, Franklin. (Listed Above).

  • Chilton, David. (Listed Above).

  • Hawk, Ray. (Listed Above).

  • M’Ilvaine, Charles Pettit. (Listed Above).

  • Robinson, John A. T. (Listed Above).

  • Russell, James Stuart. (Listed Above).

  • Vanderwaal, Cornelius. (Listed Above).


  • Chilton, David (Listed Above)

  •  DeMar, Gary (Listed Above)

  • Lightfoot, John. (Listed Above).

  • Owen, Dr. “Sermon on 2 Peter 3:11” in Works, folio, 1721.

  • Russell, James Stuart. (Listed Above).

  • Terry, Milton S. (Listed Above).

  • Vanderwaal, Cornelius. Search the Scriptures, Vol.10, Paideia Press, 1979.

  • Wright, Gerald. (Listed Above).

  • Young, Robert. (Listed Above).

The Middle Ages

“As Alvin E. Ford has pointed out, the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were witness to a flurry of texts in the Vengeance of Our Lord tradition: “Verse versions, prose versions, chansons de geste, mystery plays, book-length documents and one-page résumés, all attest to the widespread diffusion of the apocryphal Vengeance of Our Lord throughout the medieval Christian world.” Of Old and Middle French prose versions alone, Ford identifies fifty-four (and counting) manuscripts, “representing nine independent but interrelated traditions,” the primary works being La Vengeance de Nostre-Seigneur and Roger d’Argenteuil’s Bible en François.18 Wright, studying the representation of Jerusalem’s destruction in medieval drama, comments (p. 1) on the surprising popularity of the story in drama during this same period:

From their first appearance in the mid-fourteenth century until as late as 1622, plays of the destruction of Jerusalem are known to have been performed in six different languages (German, French, Italian, Spanish, English, and Latin) to the delight of audiences in dozens of communities scattered across the Continent. Indeed, French performance records indicate that, over the course of more than two centuries, only the story of Christ’s Passion was staged more frequently than the Vengeance of Our Lord. By the late sixteenth century, dramatizations of the siege of Jerusalem, most of which required from two to four days to perform, had spread from their earliest homes in Thuringia and Burgundy to the Tirol, Savoy, the Italian Briançonnais, Switzerland, England, and Castile.

Even within the relatively small corpus of late Middle English poetry, we have at least four extant poems that focus primarily on the Vengeance of Our Lord: the alliterative poem of Siege of Jerusalem here edited, two versions (one short, one long) of the rhyming-couplet Titus and Vespasian, and a translation of Roger d’Argenteuil’s Bible en François. ” Edited by Michael Livingston


  • Alliterative Morte Arthure. In King Arthur’s Death: The Middle English Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Alliterative Morte Arthure. Ed. Larry D. Benson, rev. Edward E. Foster. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994. [See also Morte Arthure.]

  • Aquinas, Thomas. Catena aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers by S. Thomas Aquinas. Trans. Mark Pattison, J. D. Dalgrins, and T. D. Ryder. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1841-45.

  • Aston, Margaret. “The Impeachment of Bishop Despenser.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 38 (1965), 127-48.

  • Augustine, bishop of Hippo. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustin. In Schaff, A Select Library, vol. 1.

  • —. St. Augustin’s City of God and Christian Doctrine. In Schaff, A Select Library, vol. 2.

  • —. St. Augustin: Homilies on the Gospel of John; Homilies on the First Epistle of John; Soliloguies. In Schaff, A Select Library, vol. 7.

  • —. Saint Augustin: Expositions on the Book of Psalms. In Schaff, A Select Library, vol. 8.

  • The Avowyng of Arthur. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Ed. Thomas Hahn. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

  • Barnie, John. War in Medieval Society: Social Values and the Hundred Years’ War, 1337-99. London: Wiedenfield and Nicolson, 1974.

  • Bell, David N. A Cloud of Witnesses: An Introductory History of the Development of Christian Doctrine. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Institute Publications, 1989.

  • —. Many Mansions: An Introduction to the Development and Diversity of Medieval Theology. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Institute Publications, 1996.

  • Benson, C. David. “A Chaucerian Allusion and the Date of the Alliterative ‘Destruction of Troy.'” Notes and Queries 219 (1974), 207.

  • Benson, Larry D. “The ‘Rede Wynde’ in ‘The Siege of Jerusalem.'” Notes and Queries 205 (1960), 363-64.

  • Bernard, of Clairvaux. The Works of Bernard of Clairvaux. Vol. 7: Treatises III. Trans. Conrad Greenia. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1977.

  • Boethius. The Consolation of Philosophy. In Boethius. Ed. and trans. H. F. Stewart, E. K. Rand, and S. J. Tester. Loeb Classical Library 74. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

  • Brandon, S. G. F. The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church: A Study of the Effects of the Jewish Overthrow of A. D. 70 on Christianity. London: S. P. C. K., 1951.

  • Breisach, Ernst. Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

  • Brewer, Derek. “The Arming of the Warrior in European Literature and Chaucer.” In Chaucerian Problems and Perspectives. Ed. Edward Vasta and Zacharias P. Thundy. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979. Pp. 221-43.

  • Bronner, Ethan. “Portent in a Pasture? Appearance of Rare Heifer in Israel Spurs Hopes, Fears.” Boston Globe. Sunday, April 6, 1997. Pp. A1, A22.

  • Brown, Carleton, and Rossell Hope Robbins, eds. The Index of Middle English Verse. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

  • Carter, Henry Holland. A Dictionary of Middle English Musical Terms. Indiana University Humanities Series 45. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1961.

  • Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. W. W. Skeat. Second edition. Oxford: University Press, 1899.

  • —. The Riverside Chaucer. Third edition. Gen. ed. Larry D. Benson. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.

  • The Chester Mystery Cycle. Ed. R. M. Lumiansky and David Mills. 2 vols. EETS s.s. 3, 9. London: Oxford University Press, 1974-86.

  • Chism, Christine. “The Siege of Jerusalem: Liquidating Assets.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 28 (1998), 309-40.

  • —. Alliterative Revivals. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. [See chapter 5: “Profiting from Precursors in The Siege of Jerusalem.”]

  • Cleanness. In The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript: Pearl, Cleanness, Patience, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Ed. Malcolm Andrew and Ronald Waldron. Rev. ed. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1996.

  • Conzelmann, Hans. History of Primitive Christianity. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1973.

  • Cursor mundi: A Northumbrian Poem of the XIVth Century in Four Versions. Ed. Richard Morris, et al. EETS 57, 59, 62, 66, 68, 99, 101. London: Oxford University Press, 1961-66.

  • Cutler, John L., and Rossell Hope Robbins, eds. Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.

  • Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. Trans., with commentary, Charles S. Singleton. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Bollingen Series 80. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

  • Davis, Paul K. Besieged: An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001.

  • Day, Mabel. “Strophic Division in Middle English Alliterative Verse.” Englische Studien 66 (1931), 245-48.

  • Dean, James M., ed. Medieval English Political Writings. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1996.

  • Delany, Sheila. Review of Bonnie Millar, The Siege of Jerusalem in its Physical, Literary and Historical ContextsSpeculum 76 (2001), 1081-82.

  • Destruction of Troy. See The “Gest hystoriale.”

  • Duggan, Hoyt N. “Strophic Patterns in Middle English Alliterative Poetry.” Modern Philology 74 (1977), 223-47.

  • —. “The Shape of the B-Verse in Middle English Alliterative Poetry.” Speculum 61 (1986), 564-92. [Argues for a strict ME form of the b-verse.]

  • —. “The Authenticity of the Z-text of Piers Plowman: Further Notes on Metrical Evidence.” Medium Ævum 56 (1987), 25-45.

  • —. “Final –e and the Rhythmic Structure of the B-Verse in Middle English Alliterative Poetry.” Modern Philology 86 (1988), 119-45.

  • Eusebius, of Caeserea. Ecclesiastical History. Ed. and trans. Kirsopp Lake. Loeb Classical Library 153. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964.

  • Everett, Dorothy. “The Alliterative Revival.” In Essays on Middle English Literature. Ed. Patricia Kean. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955. Pp. 46-96.

  • Finlayson, John. “Morte Arthure: The Date and a Source for the Contemporary References.” Speculum 42 (1967), 624-38.

  • Florence de Rome. Ed. A. Wallensköld. 2 vols. SATF 98-99. Paris, 1907.

  • Furneaux, Rupert. The Roman Siege of Jerusalem. New York: D. McKay Co., 1972.

  • The “Gest hystoriale” of the Destruction of Troy: An Alliterative Romance Translated from Guido de Colonna’s “Hystoria Troiana” Edited from the Unique Manuscript in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. Ed. George A. Panton and David Donaldson. EETS o.s. 39, 56. London: N. Trübner, 1869-74.

  • Gospel of Nicodemus. In The Middle-English Harrowing of Hell and Gospel of Nicodemus. Ed. William Henry Hulme. EETS e.s. 100. London: Oxford University Press, 1907.

  • Gower, John. Confessio Amantis. Ed. Russell A. Peck, with Latin translations by Andrew Galloway. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000-04.

  • Gransden, Antonia. Historical Writing in England II: C.1307 to the Early Sixteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

  • Growth, Peter. “Pontius Pilate.” In A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Gen. ed. David Lyle Jeffrey. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1992. Pp. 622-24.

  • Guddat-Figge, Gisela. Catalogue of the Manuscripts Containing Middle English Romances. Munich: W. Fink, 1976.

  • Hall, Thomas N. “Medieval Traditions about the Site of Judgment.” Essays in Medieval Studies 10 (1993), 79-97.

  • Hamel, Mary. “The Siege of Jerusalem as a Crusading Poem.” In Journeys toward God: Pilgrimage and Crusade. Ed. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1992. Pp. 177-94.

  • Hanna, Ralph, III. “Contextualising The Siege of Jerusalem.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 6 (1992), 109-21.

  • —. Pursuing History: Middle English Manuscripts and Their Texts. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. [See chapter 5: “On Stemmatics.”]

  • —, and David Lawton. See Siege of Jerusalem.

  • Hebron, Malcolm. The Medieval Siege: Theme and Image in Middle English Romance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. [See chapter 5: “The Siege of Jerusalem.”]

  • Higden, Ranulf. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis; Together with the English Translations of John Trevisa and of an Unknown Writer of the Fifteenth Century. Ed. Joseph Rawson Lumby. Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores (Rolls Series) 41. 9 vols. London: Longman & Co., 1865-86.

  • Hornstein, Lillian Herlands. “Miscellaneous Romances.” In A Manual of the Writings in Middle English 1050-1500. Ed. J. Burke Severs and Albert E. Hartung. 10 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967-.

  • Hulbert, J. R. “The Text of The Siege of Jerusalem.” Studies in Philology 28 (1930), 602-12.

  • Jacobs, Nicholas. “Alliterative Storms: A Topos in Middle English.” Speculum 47 (1972), 695-719.

  • Jacobus de Voragine. Legenda aurea. Ed. Johan Georg Theodor Grässe. Dresden: Impensis Librariae Arnoldianae, 1846.

  • —. The Golden Legend. Trans. Granger Ryan and Helmut Ripperger. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

  • —. Legenda aurea: Edizione critica. Ed. Giovanni Paolo Maggioni. 2 vols. Rev. ed. Millennio Medievale 6, Testi 3. Florence: SISMEL, Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1998.

  • Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Trans. William Whiston. Baltimore: Armstrong and Plaskitt, 1830.

  • Kaluza, Max. “Strophische Gliederung in der mittelenglischen rein alliterirenden Dichtung.” Englische Studien 16 (1892), 169-80.

  • Keen, Maurice H. The Laws of War in the Late Middle Ages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965.

  • Keiser, George R. “Edward III and the Alliterative Morte Arthure.” Speculum 48 (1973), 37-51.

  • King Edward and the Shepherd. In Middle English Metrical Romances. Eds. Walter Hoyt French and Charles Brockway Hale. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1930.

  • Knighton, Henry. Knighton’s Chronicle, 1337-1396. Ed. and trans. Geoffrey Howard Martin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

  • Kölbing, Eugen, and Mabel Day. See Siege of Jerusalem.

  • Langland, William. Piers Plowman: The A Version, Will’s Visions of Piers Plowman and Do-Well. Ed. George Kane. London: Athlone Press, 1960.

  • Large, David Clay. Between Two Fires: Europe’s Path in the 1930s. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1990.

  • Lawton, David. “Titus Goes Hunting and Hawking: The Poetics of Recreation and Revenge in The Siege of Jerusalem.” In Individuality and Achievement in Middle English Poetry. Ed. O. S. Pickering. Woodbridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1997.

  • —. “Sacrilege and Theatricality: The Croxton Play of the Sacrament.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 33 (2003), 281-309.

  • Lindberg, Carter. The European Reformations. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

  • Livingston, Michael. “The Seven: Hebrews, Hellenists, and Heptines.” Journal of Higher Criticism 6 (1999), 32-63.

  • Maidstone, Richard. Richard Maidstone’s Penitential Psalms: Ed. from Bodl. MS Rawlinson A 389. Ed. Valerie Edden. Middle English Texts 22. Heidelberg: C. Winter Universitäts-verlag, 1990.

  • —. Concordia (The Reconciliation of Richard II with London). Ed. David R. Carlson, with verse translation by A. G. Rigg. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2003.

  • Mandeville, John. The Defective Version of Mandeville’s Travels. Ed. M. C. Seymour. EETS o.s. 319. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

  • Matthews, William. The Tragedy of Arthur: A Study of the Alliterative “Morte Arthure.” Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.

  • McIntosh, Angus, M. L. Samuels, and Michael Benskin, eds., with the assistance of Margaret Laing and Keith Williamson. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. 4 vols. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1986.

  • Mézières, Philippe de. Letter to King Richard II: A Plea made in 1395 for Peace between England and France. Ed. and trans. G. W. Coopland. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1975.

  • Middle English Dictionary. Gen. eds. Hans Kurath and Sherman M. Kuhn. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952-2003.

  • The Middle English Prose Translation of Roger d’Argenteuil’s Bible en françois: Edited from Cleveland Public Library, MS Wq091.92-C.468. Ed. Phyllis Moe. Middle English Texts 6. Heidelberg: Winter, 1977.

  • Millar, Bonnie. “The Role of Prophecy in the Siege of Jerusalem and Its Analogues.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 13 (1999), 153-78.

  • —. The Siege of Jerusalem in Its Physical, Literary and Historical Contexts. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000.

  • Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Gen. ed. Watson E. Mills. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1990.

  • Moe, Phyllis. “The French Source of the Alliterative Siege of Jerusalem.” Medium Ævum 39 (1970), 147-54.

  • Morey, James. Book and Verse: A Guide to Middle English Biblical Literature. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

  • Morte Arthure: A Critical Edition. Ed. Mary Hamel. Garland Medieval Texts 9. New York: Garland Publishing, 1984. [Discusses the dating of the Siege and its relationship to the Alliterative Morte Arthure, pp. 46-58. See also Alliterative Morte Arthure.]

  • Mum and the Sothsegger. In Richard the Redeless and Mum and the Sothsegger. Ed. James M. Dean. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000.

  • Neilson, George. “Huchown of the Awle Ryale,” the Alliterative Poet. Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons, 1902.

  • Nicholson, Roger. “Haunted Itineraries: Reading the Siege of Jerusalem.” Exemplaria 14 (2002), 447-84.

  • Oakden, J. P., with Elizabeth R. Innes. Alliterative Poetry in Middle English: A Survey of the Traditions. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1935. [See pp. 44-46 and 85-111.]

  • Palmer, J. J. N. England, France and Christendom, 1377-99. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1972.

  • Parlement of the Thre Ages. In Wynnere and Wastoure and The Parlement of the Thre Ages. Ed. Warren Ginsburg. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1992.

  • Pearsall, Derek. Old English and Middle English Poetry. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1977.

  • Peck, Russell A. “Willfulness and Wonders: Boethian Tragedy in the Alliterative Morte Arthure.” In The Alliterative Tradition in the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Bernard S. Levy and Paul E. Szarmach. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1981. Pp. 153-82.

  • —. “Social Conscience and the Poets.” In Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages. Ed. Francis X. Newman. Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 39. Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1986. Pp. 113-48.

  • Perroy, Édouard. L’Angleterre et le Grand Schisme d’Occident: Étude sur la Politique Religieuse de l’Angleterre sous Richard II (1378-99). Paris: J. Monnier, 1933.

  • Pollard, Alfred W., and G. R. Redgrave. A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640. Second ed., rev. and enlarged. 3 vols. London: Bibliographical Society, 1976-91.

  • Pratt, John H. Chaucer and War. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000.

  • Price, Merrall Llewelyn. “Imperial Violence and the Monstrous Mother: Cannibalism at the Siege of Jerusalem.” In Domestic Violence in Medieval Texts. Ed. Eve Salisbury, Georgiana Donavin, and Merrall Llewelyn Price. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002. Pp. 272-98.

  • Price, Patricia. “Integrating Time and Space: The Literary Geography of PatienceCleannessThe Siege of Jerusalem, and St. Erkenwald.” Medieval Perspectives 11 (1996), 234-50.

  • Rhoads, David M. Israel in Revolution, 6-74 C. E.: A Political History Based on the Writings of Josephus. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976.

  • Saul, Nigel. Richard II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

  • Scattergood, V. J. “Chaucer and the French War: Sir Thopas and Melibee.” In Court and Poet: Selected Proceedings of the International Courtly Literature Society [Liverpool 1980]. Ed. Glyn S. Burgess. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1981. Pp. 287-96.

  • Schaff, Philip, et al., ed. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. 14 vols. New York: Christian Literature, 1886-90; rpt. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1991-97.

  • Schermann, Theodorus. Prophetarum Vitae Fabulosae: Indices Apostolorum Discipulorumque. Leipzig: Teubneri, 1907.

  • The Siege of Jerusalem. Ed. Eugen Kölbing and Mabel Day. EETS o.s. 188. London: Oxford University Press, 1932. [Based on copy L.]

  • —. Ed. Thorlac Turville-Petre. In Alliterative Poetry of the Later Middle Ages: An Anthology. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1989. Pp. 158-69. [Based on copy D, but limited to lines 521-724.]

  • —. Ed. Ralph Hanna and David Lawton. EETS o.s. 320. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [Based on copy L.]

  • The Siege of Jerusalem in Prose. Ed. Auvo Kurvinen. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 34. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 1969.

  • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. See Cleanness.

  • Sir Perceval of Galles. In Sir Perceval of Galles and Ywain and Gawain. Ed. Mary Flowers Braswell. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

  • Spearing, A. C. Readings in Medieval Poetry. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

  • Stillwell, Gardiner. “Wynnere and Wastoure and the Hundred Years’ War.” English Literary History 8 (1941), 241-47.

  • —. “The Political Meaning of Chaucer’s Tale of Melibee.” Speculum 19 (1944), 433-44.

  • Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1975.

  • Sundwall, McKay. “The Destruction of Troy, Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde, and Lydgate’s Troy Book.” Review of English Studies, n.s. 26 (1975), 313-17.

  • Sutton, John William. “Mordred’s End: A Reevaluation of Mordred’s Death Scene in the Alliterative Morte Arthure.” Chaucer Review 37 (2003), 280-85.

  • Taylor, John. The “Universal Chronicle” of Ranulf Higden. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

  • Tilley, Morris Palmer. A Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1950.

  • Tipton, Charles. “The English at Nicopolis.” Speculum 37 (1962), 528-40.

  • Titus and Vespasian, or, the Destruction of Jerusalem in Rhymed Couplets. Ed. John Alexander Herbert. Roxburghe Club 146. London: The Roxburghe Club, 1905.

  • The Towneley Plays: Re-edited from the Unique MS. Ed. George England. EETS e.s. 71. London: Oxford University Press, 1897; rpt. 1952.

  • Turville-Petre, Thorlac. The Alliterative Revival. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 1977.

  • Usk, Adam. The Chronicle of Adam Usk, 1377-1421. Ed. and trans. C. Given-Wilson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

  • Van Court, Elisa Narin. “The Siege of Jerusalem and Augustinian Historians: Writing about Jews in Fourteenth-Century England.” Chaucer Review 29 (1995), 227-48.

  • La Vengeance de Nostre-Seigneur: The Old and Middle French Prose Versions. Ed. Alvin E. Ford. 2 vols. Studies and Texts 63, 115. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1984-1993. [The first volume discusses and edits families A and B of the French tradition; the second volume completes the study by discussing and editing families C to I.]

  • La Venjance Nostre Seigneur: The Oldest Version of the Twelfth-century Poem. Ed. Loyal A. T. Gryting. Contributions in Modern Philology 19. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952.

  • Vindicta salvatoris. In Evangelia apocrypha. Ed. Constantine Tischendorf. Leipzig: H. Mendelssohn, 1876. [This edition includes the Latin text based on London, British Library MS Harley 495, pp. 471-86.]

  • The Wakefield Pageants in the Towneley Cycle. Ed. A. C. Cawley. Old and Middle English Texts 1. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1958.

  • Waldron, Ronald A. “Oral-Formulaic Technique and Middle English Alliterative Poetry” Speculum 32 (1957), 792-804.

  • The Wars of Alexander: An Alliterative Romance Translated Chiefly from the Historia Alexandri Magni de preliis; Re-edited from Ms. Ashmole 44, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Ms. D.4.12, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Ed. Walter W. Skeat. EETS e.s. 47. London: N. Trübner, 1886.

  • —. Ed. Hoyt N. Duggan and Thorlac Turville-Petre. EETS s.s. 10. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

  • Whiting, Bartlett Jere, with the collaboration of Helen Wescott Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly before 1500. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.

  • Wright, Stephen K. The Vengeance of Our Lord: Medieval Dramatizations of the Destruction of Jerusalem. Studies and Texts 89. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1989.

  • Wynnere and Wastoure. See The Parlement of the Thre Ages.

  • Yeager, R. F. “Pax Poetica: On the Pacifism of Chaucer and Gower.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 9 (1987), 97-121.

  • The York Plays: The Plays Performed by the Crafts or Mysteries of York on the Day of Corpus Christi in the 14th, 15th, and 16th Centuries. Ed. Lucy Toulmin Smith. New York: Russell & Russell, 1963.



1. The Apocalypse of John  and early Christianity pp. 1-9 2. Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (Texts), p. 9 3. Apocalypse as a Genre; “Apocalyptic, Apocalypticism;”  Ancient Millennarianism (Millennialism, Chiliasm), pp. 9-14 4. Astronomy, Astrology; Numerology in Apocalyptic Texts, pp.14-16 5. Studies on the Use and Influence of the Apocalypse of John in Western Cultural and Political History, pp. 16-17 6. Eschatological/Apocalyptic Views in Modern Time (Literature, Science Fiction, Art, Music, Cinema etc.); Eschatogical, End of the Age/End of the World Scenarios, pp. 17-18 7. Millennium Studies, p. 19. 8. Modern Millennialist and Adventist Movements (Social, Ethnic, Religious) and Thought, pp. 19-

1. The Apocalypse of John


Aune, David E.  “The Apocalypse of John and Ancient Revelatory Literature.” In D. E. Aune, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1987. Pp. 226-52. Aune, David E.  “The Apocalypse of John and Graeco-Roman Revelatory Magic.” New Testament Studies 33 (1987): 481-501. Aune, David E.  “The Influence of Roman Imperial Court Ceremonial on the Revelation of John.” Biblical Research 28 (1983): 5-26. Aune, David E.  “Intertextuality and the Genre of the Apocalypse.”  In SBL 1991 Seminar Papers. Ed. Eugene H. Lovering, Jr. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991. Pp. Aune, David.E.  “The Social Matrix of the Apocalypse of John.” Biblical Research 26 (1981): 16-32 ?? 35-41??. Barclay, William.  The Revelation of John. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960. Barr, David L.  “The Apocalypse as Oral Enactment.” Interpretation 40 (1986): 243-56. Barr, David, L.  “The Apocalypse as a Symbolic Transformation of the World.” Interpretation 38 (1984): 39-50. Barrett, C. K.  “Things Sacrificed to Idols.” New Testament Studies 11 (1964-65): 138-53. Bauckham, F. J.  “The Worship of Jesus in Apocalyptic Christianity.”  New Testament Studies 27 (1981): 322-41. Bauckham, R. “The Economic Criticism of Rome in the Book of Revelation 18.” In Images of Empire. Ed. Alexander Loveday. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991. Pp. 47-90. Bauckham, Richard. The Theology of the Book of Revelation. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Beasley-Murray, G. R.  The Book of Revelation.  New Century Bible.  London: Oliphants, 1974. Bell, Albert T.  “The Date of John’s Apocalypse: The Evidence of Some Roman Historians Reconsidered.” New Testament Studies 25 (1978-79): 93-102. Black, Matthew.  “The `Two Witnesses’ of Rev. 11:3f in Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic Tradition.” In Donum Gentilicum. Ed. E. Bammel, C. K. Barrett, and W. D. DAvies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. Pp. 226-38. Böcher, Otto.  Die Johannesapokalypse. Erträge der Forschung 41. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1975. Boismard, M. E.  “L’Apocalypse’ ou `les apocalypses’ de S. Jean.” Revue Biblique 56 (1949): 507-27. Boll, Franz.  Aus der Offenbarung Johannis: Hellenistische Studien zum Weltbild der Apokalypse. Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1967; reprint of Leipzig/Berlin 1914. Boring, Eugene M.  “The Apocalypse as Christian Prophecy: A Discussion of the Issues Raised by the Book of Revelation for the Study of Early Christian Prophecy.” In SBL Seminar Papers 1974. Ed. G. W. MacRae. Missoula: Society of Biblical Literature, 1974. Pp. ca. 47.. Botinh, M. Eugene. Revelation. Lousiville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1989. Bornkamm, Günther.  “Die Komposition der apokalyptischen Visionen in der Offenbarung Johannis.” Zeitschrift zur Neutestamentlichen Wissenschaft 36 (1937): 132-49; reprinted in Studien zu Antike und Urchristentum: Gesammelte Aufsätze. Vol. 2. BEvT 28. Munich, 1959. Pp. 204-22. Bousset, Wilhelm.  The AntiChrist Legend: A Chapeter in Christian and Jewish Folklore. London: Hutchinson, 1896. ET of Der Antichrist in der Überlieferung des Judentums, des Neuen Testament und er alten Kirche: Ein Beitrag zur Auslegung der Apokalypse (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1895). Bousset, Wilhelm.  Die Offenbarung Johannis. MeyerK (Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament). 6. Aufl.  Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1906. Bowman, J. W.  The Drama of the Book of Revelation. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1955. Bowman, J. W.  “The Revelation to John: Its Dramatic Structure and Message.” Interpretation 9 (1955): 436-53. Caird, G. B.  A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John the Divine.  Harper New Testament Commentary Series.  New York: Harper & Row, 1966. Caird, G. B.  The Revelation of St. John the Divine. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1987. Calkins, R.  The Social Message of the Book of Revelation. New York: The Woman’s Press, 1920. Callahan, Allen Dwight.  “The Language of the Apocalypse.” Harvard Theological Review 88/4 (1995): 453-70. Charles, R. H.  The Revelation of St. John.  2 vols. International Critical Commentary.  New York: Scribner’s, 1920. Chevalier, J. M.  A Postmodern Revelation: Signs of Astrology and the Apocalypse. Toronto-Buffalo, NY-London: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Collins, John J.  “Pseudonymity, Historical Reviews, and the Genre of the Revelation of John.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 39 (1977): 329-43. Collins, J.  “Symposium: Apocalyptic Symbolism and Social Reality.”  Biblical Research 26 (1981) 4-45. Court, J.  Myth and History in the Book of Revelation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1979. Pp. 1-19 on the history of scholarship. Coutsoumpos, Panayotis.  “The Social Implication of Idolatry in Revelation 2:14: Christ of Caesar?” Biblical Theology Bulletin 27/1 (1997): 23-27. Day, John.  God’s Conflict with the Dragon and the Sea. Cambirdge:Cambridge University Press, 1985. De Groote, M.  Oecuemni commentarius in apocalypsin. Tradition Graeca 8. Leuven: Peeters, 1998. Delling, G.  “Zum gottesdienstliches Stil der Johannesapokalypse.”  In Studien zum Neuen Testament und zum hellenistischen Judentum: Gesammelte Aufsatze 1950-1968. Ed. F. Hahn, T. Holtz und N. Walter, pp. 425-450.  Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970. Dougherty, James.  The Fivesquare City: the City in the Religious Imagination. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1980.[city as symbol of the sacred in Western civilization] Elliott, James Keith.  “The Distinctiveness of the Greek Manuscripts of the Book of Revelation.” Journal of Theological Studies 48/1 (1997): 116-124. [Rev contained in 303 NT MSS. Some contain only Rev, some other NT writings also. Oldest fragment appears to be P98 in Cairo [2d cent CE]. Four main texts types differ from rest of NT. 3 lists of MSS given]

Elliott, John H.  “Sorcery and Magic in the Revelation of John.” Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 261-76. Esler, Philip F.  “Political Oppression in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature: A Social-Scientific Approach.”  Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 181-99. Farrer, Austin.  A Rebirth of Images: The Making of St. John’s Apocalypse. London: Dacre Press, 1949; reprinted Albany, 1986. Feuillet, André.  L’Apocalypse; Etat de la question.  Studia Neotestamentica, Subsidia 3.  Paris: Descleé de Brouwer, 1963. ET: The Apocalypse. Staten Island, NY: Alba House, 1965. Feuillet, André. Johannine Studies. New York: Alba House, 1965. Fiorenza, E. S. See Schüssler Fiorenza, E. Ford, Josephine Massyngbaerde. Revelation. AB 38. New York: Doubleday, 1975. Ford, Josephine Massyngbaerde.  “The Priestly People of God in the Apocalypse.” Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 245-60. Forsyth, Neil.  The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987. Freundorfer, Joseph. Die Apokalypse des Apostels Johannes und die hellenistische Kosmologie und Astrologie. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1929. Friesen, Steven J.  “Revelation, Realia, and Religion: Archaeology in the Interpretation of the Apocalypse.” Harvard Theological Review 88/3 (1995): 291-314. Hemer,  Colin J.  The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. Sheffield: JSOT, 1986. Gager, John G.  Kingdom and Community: The Social World of Early Christianity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. [early Christianity as a millenarian movement] Giblin, Charles Homer.  The Book of Revelation. The Open Book of Prophecy. Collegeville: M. Glazier, c. 1991. Giblin, C. H.  “Recapitulation and the Literary Coherence of John’s Apocalypse.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 56/1 (1994): 81-95. Giblin, C. H.  “Structure and Thematic Correlations in the Theology of Revelation.” Biblica 55 (1974): 487-504. Giet, S.  L’Apocalypse et l’histoire. Paris, 1957. Gouldner, M. D.  “The Apocalypse as an Annual Cycle of Prophecies.” New Testament Studies 27 (1980-81): 342-67. Gunkel, Hermann. Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1895. Hanson, K. C.  “Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation.” Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 215-30. Hellholm, David. “The Problem of Apocalyptic Genre and the Apocalypse of John.” Semeia 36 (1986): 13-64. Hemer, Colin. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia in Their Local Setting. JSNTSup 11. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1986. Hill, David. “Prophecy and Prophets in the Revelation of St. John.” New Testament Studies 18 (1971-72): 401-18. Holman, Charles L.  Till Jesus Comes: Origins of Christian Apocalyptic Expectation. Peabody, M.A.: Hendrickson, 1996. Holtz, T. Die Christologie der Apokalypse des Johannnes. 2d ed. TU 85. Berlin: de Gruter, 1971. Hurtgen, John E.  Anti-Language in the Apocalypse of John. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1993. Jenks, Gregory C. The Origins and Development of the Antichrist MYth. Berlin/ New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991. Jeske, Richard L.  “Spirit and Community in the Apocalypse.” New Testament Studies 31 (1985): 452-66. Jeske, R. L.  Revelation for Today: Images of Hope.  Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983. Jeske, Richard L. and Barr, David L.  “The Study of the Apocalypse Today.” Religious Studies Review 14 (1988): 337-44. Jörns, K.-P. Das hymnische Evangelium. SNT 5. Gütersloh, 1971. Jones, B. W.  “More about the Apocalypse as Apocalyptic.” Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968): 325-27. Kallas, James.  “The Apocalypse–An Apocalyptic Book?” Journal of Biblical Literature 86 (1967): 69-80. Kamlah, W.  Apokalyptik und Geschichtstheologie. Die mittelalterliche Auslegung vor Joachim von Fiore. 1935. Klassen, W.  “Vengeance in the Apocalypse of John.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 28 (1966): 300-311. Kraft, Heinrich.  Die Offenbarung Johannes.  Handbuch zum Neuen          Testament, 16a.  Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1974. Kraybill, J. Nelson.  Imperial Cult and Commerce in John’s Apocalypse. JSNt Sup. series 132. Sheffield, ca. 1995, 1996. Krodel, Gerhard A.  Revelation. Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1989. Laconi, M.  “Le Lettere di Giovani alle Chiese dell’Asia.” Sacra Doctrina 26 (1981): 149-72. Ladd, George E.  The Revelation of John.  Grand Rapids, MI : Eerdmans, 1979. Lambrecht, J., ed. L’Apocalypse Johannique et l’ Apocalyptique dans le Nouveau Testament.  Gembloux, Belgium: Louvain University Press, 1980. Lambrecht, J.  “The Book of Revelation and Apocalyptic in the New Testament.” Colloquium Biblicum Lovaniense XXX (August 28-30, 1979).  Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 55 (1979) 391-97. Laeuchli, S.  “Eine Gottesdienststruktur in der Johannes-offenbarung.”  Theologische Zeitschrift 16 (1960) 359ff. Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert.  “Der apokalyptische Drache: Eine astral-mythologische Untersuchung über Apoc. Joh. 12.” Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 65 (1934): 193-230. Lietaert Peerbolte, L. J.  The Anticedents of Antichrist. A Traditio-Historical Study of the Earliest Christian Views on Eschatological Opponents. Journal for the Study of Judaism Suppl. 49. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Linton, Gregory.  “Reading the Apocalypse as an Apocalypse.” In SBL Seminar Papers 1991. Ed. Eugene H. Lovering, Jr. Atlatna: Scholars Press, 1991. Pp. 161-86. Lipinski, J.  “L’Apocalypse et le martyre de Jean Jerusalem.”  Novum Testamentum 11 (1969) 225ff. Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture. “The Apocalypse of John in Social-Scientific Perspective.” Vol. 28, No. 3. Fall, 1993. Lohmeyer, E.  Die Offenbarung des Johannes.  3. Aufl.  HNT, 16.  Tübingen: Mohr, 1970. McKay, W. M.  “Another Look at the Nicolaitans.” Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 111-15. Macro, A. D.  “The Cities of Asia Minor under the Roman Imperium.” in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Ed. H. Temporini. New York/Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1980.  Pp. 658-97. McGinn, Bernard.  Antichrist. Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination with Evil. San Francisco: HarperSanFRancisco, 1994. M Malina, Bruce J.  “The Book of Religion and Religion: How Did the Book of Revelation Persuade.” Scriptura 51 (1994): 27-50. Malina, Bruce J.  On the Genre and Message of Revelation. Star Visions and Sky Journeys. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. McGinn, Bernard.  “Introduction: John’s Apocalypse and the Apocalyptic Mentality.” In The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ed. Richard K. Emmerson and Bernard McGinn. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univeristy Press, 1992. Pp. 3-19. McGinn, B.  “Revelation.” In The Literary Guide to the Bible. Ed. R. Alter and F. Kermode. Cambridge MA, 1987. Pp. 523-41. Malina, Bruce J.  “`Apocalyptic’ and Territoriality.” In Early Christianity in Context. Monuments and Documents. Ed. F. Manns and E. Alliata. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collectio Maior 38. Jerusalem” Franciscan Printing Press, 1993.  Pp. 369-80 Malina, Bruce J.  “The Book of Revelation and Religion: How Did the Book of Revelation Persuade?” Scriptura 51 (1994): 27-50. Malina, Bruce J.  Star Visions and Sky Journeys: A Reader’s Guide to the Book of Revelation. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. Metzger, Bruce M.  Breaking the Code. Understanding the Book of Revelation. Louisville: Westminster-Knox, 1993. Minear, Paul.  I Saw a New Earth: An Introduction to the Visions of the Apocalypse.  Foreword by M. Bourke. Washington, DC: Corpus Books, 1968. Minear, Paul. Ontology and Ecclesiology in the Apocalypse.” New Testament Studies 12 (1955-56): 89-105. Minear, Paul.  “The Wounded Beast.” Journal of Biblical Literature 72 (1953): 93-101. Moore, Michael S.  “Jesus Christ: `Superstar’ (Revelation xxii 16b).” Novum Testamentum 24 (1982): 82-91. Mowrey, Lucretia.  “”Revelation 4-5 and Early Christian Liturgical Usage.” Journal of Biblical Literature 71 (1952): 75-84. Müller, U.B.  Messias und Menschensohn in jüdischen Apokalypsen und in der Offenbarung Johannes. SNT 6. Gütersloh, 1972. Munck, J.  Petrus und Paulus in der Offenbarung Johannes.  Copenhagen: Rosenkelde & Bagger, 1950. Mussies, G.  The Morphology of Koine Greek as Used in the Apocalypse of John. NovTSup 27. Leiden: Brill, 1971. Mwombeki, Fidon R.  “The Book of Revelation in Africa.” Word and World 15 (1995): 145-50. Neuss, W.  Die Apokalypse des heilgen Johannes in der altspanischen und altchristlichen Bibelillustrationen. 1931. Newman, B.  “The Fallacy of the Domitian Hypothesis: Critique of the Irenaeus Source as a Witness for the Contemporary-historical  Approach to the Interpretation of the Apocalypse.”  New Testament Studies 10 (1963-64) 133-39. Nikolainen, A. T.  “Über die theologische Eigenart der Offenbarung des Johannes. Theologische Literaturzeitung 93 (1968): 162-70. Oakman, Douglas E.  “The Ancient Economy and St. John’s Apocalypse.” Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 200-214. O’Leary, Stephen D.  Arguing the Apocalypse: A Theory of Millenial Rhetoric. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Pilch, John J.  “Lying and Decit in the Letters to the Seven Churches. Perspectives from Cultural Anthropology.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 22/3 (1992): 126-35. Pilch, John J.  “Visions in Revelation and Alternate Consciousness” A Perspective from Cultural Anthropology.” Listening. Journal of Religion and Culture 28/3 (1993): 231-44. Pilch, John J.  What are they saying about the Book of Revelation?  New York: Paulist, 1978. Piper, O. A.  “The Apocalypse of John and the Liturgy of the Ancient Church.” Church History 20 (1951) 255-66. Piper, O. A., R. Feldhuse, and W. Werbeck.  “Johannesapokalypse.” Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. 3d ed. 3 (1959): 822-36. Prévost, Jean-Pierre.  How to Read the Apocalypse. New York: Crossroad, 1993. Price, S.R.F.  Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984. Prigent, Pierre.  “L’Apocalypse et Liturgie.”  Cahiers théologiques 52 (1964) 7-81. Prigent, Pierre.  L’Apocalypse de Saint Jean. 2d ed. 1981. Prigent, Pierre.  “L’hérésie Asiatique et l’église confessante de l’Apocalypse à Ignace.” Vigiliae Christianae 31 (1977): 1-22. Quispel, Gilles.  The Secret Book of Revelation: The Last Book of the Bible. New YOrk: McGraw-Hill, 1979. Ramsay, William M.  The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia and Their Place in the Plan of the Apocalypse. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1904; reprinted, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979. Richard, Pablo.  Apocalypse. A People’s Commentary on the Book of Revelation. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 199? Rissi, M.  The Future of the World: An Exegetical Study of Rev 19:11-22:15. London: SCM Press, 1966. Rissi, M.  “The Kerygma of the Revelation of John.” Interpretation 22 (1968): 3-17. Rissi, M.  “The Rider on the White Horse: A Study of Revelation 6:1-8.” Interpretation 18 (1964): 403-18. Roloff, Jürgen.  Revelation. A Continental Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993. ET of Die Offenbarung des Johannes. 2. ed. Zürich: Theologischer Verlag, 1984, 1987. Rowland, Christoper.  The Open Heaven. A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Christianity. New York: Crossroad, 1982.  Ch. 14. “Revelation.” Pp. 403-41. Ruiz, Jean-Pierre.  “Betwixt and Between on the Lord’s Day: Liturgy and the Apocalypse.” SBL 1992 Seminar Papers. Ed. Eugene H. Lovering, Jr. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992. Pp. 654-72. Russell, J. B.  The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977. Russell, J. B.  Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984. Russell, J. B.  Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World. Itaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986. Russell, J. B.  Satan: The Early Christian Tradition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981. Sanders, J. N.  “St. John on Patmos.” New Testament Studies 9 (1962-63): 75-85. Satake, Akira. Die Gemeindeordnung in der Johannesapokalypse. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchner, 1966. Scherrer, S. J.  “Revelation 13 as an Historical Source for the Imperial Cult under Domitian.”  Harvard Theological Review 74 (1981) ca. 406. Scherrer, Steven J.  “Signs and Wonders in the Imperial Cult.” Journal of Biblical Literature 103 (1984): 599-610. Schmid, J. Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Apokalypse Textes. 3 vols. Munich, 1955-56. Schroeder, Joy A.  “Revelation 12: Female Figures and Figures of Evil.” Word and World 15 (1995): 175-81. Schüssler
Fiorenza, Elisabeth. The Apocalypse. Herald Biblical Booklets. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1976. —-. “Apocalyptic and Gnosis in Revelation and Paul.” Reprinted in The Book of Revelation, pp. 114-32. —-. “Apokalypsis and Propheteia: The Book of Revelation in the Context of Early Christian Prophecy.” In L’Apocalypse Johannique et l’ Apocalyptique dans le Nouveau Testament. Ed. J. Lambrecht. Gembloux, Belgium: Louvain University Press, 1980. Pp. 105-28. Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. Pp. 159-80 on the history of scholarship. —-. “The Eschatology and Composition of the Apocalypse.”  Catholic Biblical Quarterly 30 (1968) 537ff. —-.  “Followers of the Lamb: Visionary Rhetoric and Social-Political Situation.” In Discipleship in the New Testament. Ed. Fernando F. Segovia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. Pp. 144-65. Also published as Ch. 7. in The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. —-.Invitation to the Book of RevelationA Commentary on the Apocalypse with the complete text from the Jerusalem Bible.  Garden City: Image Books, 1981. —-. Priester für Gott; Studien zum Herrschafts- und  Priestermotiv in der Apokalypse.  Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen,  n.f. Band. 7.  Münster: Aschendorff, 1972. —-. “The Quest for the Johannine School: The Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel.”  New Testament Studies 23 (1977) 402-27. Reprinted in The Book of Revelation, pp. 85-113. —-. Revelation. Vision of a Just World. Proclamation Commentaries. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1991. Revision of Invitation to the Book of Revelation.  Garden City: Image Books, 1981. Schütz, R.  Die Offenbarung des Johannes und Kaiser Domitian.  FRLANT, n.f. 32 (50).  Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1933. Scobie, Charles H. H.  “Local References in the Letters to the Seven Chruches.” New Testament Studies 39 (1993): 606-24. Segal, A.  Two Powers in Heaven. SJLA 25. Leiden: Brill, 1977. Smith, M.  “On the History of APOKALYPTO and APOKALYPSIS.”  In Hellholm, ed 1983. Pp. 9-20. Smith, Robert H.  “Why John Wrote the Apocalypse (Rev 1:9). Currents in Theology and Mission 22 (1995): 356-61. Stonehouse, N. B.  The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1929. Swete, H.  The Apocalypse of St. John. 3d ed. London, 1909. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1951. Swete, J. P. M.  Revelation. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979. Thompson, Leonard L.  The Book of Revelation: Apocalypse and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Thompson, Leonard L.  “Cult and Eschatology in the Apocalypse of John.” Journal of Religion 49 (1969): 330-50. Thompson, Leonard L.  “Mooring the Revelation in the Mediterranean.” SBL 1992 Seminar Papers.  Ed. Eugene H. Lovering, Jr. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992. Pp. 635-53.     Thompson, Leonard L.  “A Sociological Analysis of Tribulation in the Apocalypse of John.” In Early Christian Apocalypticism. Ed. A. Yarbro Collins. Semeia 36. Decatur, GA: Scholars Press, 1986. Pp. 147-74. Trites, A.  “Martus and Martyrdom in the Apocalypse.” Novum Testamentum 15 (1973): 72-80. Vanni, Ugo.  L’Apocalisse. Ermeneutica, esegesi, teologia. Bologna: EDB, 1988. Vanni, Ugo.  “The Apocalypse and the Gospel of Luke.” In Luke and Acts.  Ed. Gerald O’Collins and Gilberto Marconi. New York: Paulist Press, 1993. Pp. 9-25. Vanni, Ugo.  “Liturgical Dialogue as a Literary Form in the Book of Revelation.” NTS 37 (1991): 348-72. Vanni, Ugo.  La struttura letteraria dell’Apocalisse. Brescia: Morcelliana, 1980. Wainwright, Arthur W.  Mysterious Apocalypse: Interpreting the Book of Revelation. Nashville: Abingdon, 1993. (History of Interpretations of the Apocalypse). Whealon, John F.  “New Patches on an Old Garment: The Book of Revelation.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 11 (1981): 54-59. Wilson, J. Christian.  “The Problem of the Domitianic Date of Revelation.” New Testament Studies 39 (1993): 587-605. [Favors date of June 68-January 69 or 64-65 CE] Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “Apocalyptic Themes in Biblical Literature.  Interpretation 53/2 (1999): 117-130. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  The Apocalypse.  New Testament Message, 22.  Michael Glazier, 1979. Yarbro Collins, Adela. The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation. HDR 9. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1976. Yarbro- Collins, Adela.  Crisis and Catharis: The Power of the Apocalypse. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “The Early Christian Apocalypses.” Semeia 14 (1979): 61-121. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “The History-of-Religions Approach to Apocalypticism and the `Angle of the Waters’ (Rev 16:4-7.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 39 (1977): 367-81. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “Insiders and Outsiders in the Book of Revelation and Its Social Context.” In “To See Ourselves as Others See Us.” Christians, Jews, “Others,” in Late Antiquity. Ed. J. Neusner and E.S. Frerichs. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1985.  Pp. 187-218. Yarbro

-Collins, Adela.  “Introduction: Early Christian Apocalypses.” Semeia 36 (1986): 1-11. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “The Political Perspective of the Revelation to John.”  Journal of Biblical Literature 96 (1977) 241-256. Yarbro-Collins, Adela. “Revelation.” in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. R. E. Brown, J. A. Fitzmyer, and R. R. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs: Prenctice-Hall. Yarbro-Collins, Adela. “The Revelation of John: An Apocalyptic Response to a Social Crisis.”  Currents in Theology and Mission 8 (1981) 4-12. Yarbro-Collins, Adela. “Revelation, Book of.” ABD 5 1992): 694-708. Yarbro-Collins, Adela.  “Women’s History and the Book of Revelation.” In SBL 1987 Seminar Papers. Ed. Kent H. Richards. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.  Pp. 80-91. Yarbro-Collins, Adela, ed.  Early Christian Apocalypticism: Genre and Social Setting. Semeia 36. Decatgur, GA: Schoalrs Press, 1986.




2. Jewish and Old Testament Apocalyptic Literature (Texts and Studies)


Charles, R. H., ed.  The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Charlesworth, James, ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983.

Esler, Philip. F.  “Political Oppression in Jewish Apocalyptic Literature: A Social-Scientific Approach.” Listening: JOurnal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993):



3. “Apocalypse” as a Genre; “Apocalyptic; “Apocalypticism;” Israelite

  Apocalyptic Writings;  Ancient Millennarianism (Millennialism, Chiliasm)


Allison, Dale C.  The End of the Ages Has Come. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.

Allison, Dale C.  Jesus of Nazareth. Millenarian Propphet. Minneapolis: Fortess, 1998.

Barker, Margaret.  “Slippery Words III. Apocalyptic.” Expository Times 89/1 (1978): 324-29.

Barrett, C. K. “Apocalyptic.” The New Testament Background: Selected Documents. Rev. ed. San Francisco: HarperSan Francisco, 1989. Pp. 316-49. Baumgarten, Jörg.  Paulus und die Apokalyptik. Die Auslegung apokalyptischer Überlieferungen  in den echten Paulusbriefe. WMANT 44. Neukirchen-Vlun: Neukirchner, 1975. Baur, F. C.  Das Christentum und die christliche Kirche der drei ersten Jahrhunderte.  2. neu durchgearbeitete Ausgabe.  Tübingen: L. Fr. Fues, 1860. Beardslee, W. A.  “New Testament Apocalyptic in Recent Interpretation.” Interpretation 25/4 (1971): 419-35. Becker, Jürgen.  “Erwägungen zur apokalyptischen Tradition in der paulinischen Theologie.” Evangelische Theologie 30/11 (1970): 593-609. Contests E. Käsemann’s theory that apocalyptic is the mother of Christian theology. Beyerle, Stepfan.  “Die Wiederentdeckung der Apokalyptik in den Schriften Altisraels und des Frühchristentums. Verkündigung und Forschung 43/2 (1998): 34-59. Bible Today, The (Journal) 23 (1985) and 24 (1986) Bloom, Harold.  “Apocalypse Then.” New York Review of Books 30/21-22 (1-19-84): 25-26, 31-33. Braaten, C.E.  “The Significance of Apocalypticism for Systematic Theology.” Interpretation 25/4 (1971): 480-99. Buber, Martin.  “Prophecy, Apocalyptic, and the Historical Hour.” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 11-12 (1957): 9-21. Collins, John J. Apocalypse. The Morphology of a Genre. Semeia 14. Missoula, MT.: Scholars Press, 1979. Collins, John J.  “Apocalyptic Eschatology as the Transcendence of Death.”  Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36/1 (1974): 21-43. Collins, John J.  The Apocalyptic ImaginationAn Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity. New York: Crossroad, 1984. Collins, John J.  “The Apocalyptic Function: Setting and Function in the Watchers.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 44/1 (1982): 91-111. Collins, John J.  The Apocalyptic Vision of the Book of Daniel. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1977. Collins, John J.  “Cosmos and Salvation: Jewish Wisdom and Apocalyptic in the Hellenistic Age.” History of Religions 17/2 (1977): 121-42. Collins, John J.  Daniel, With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. The Forms of the O.T. Literature, 20. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Collins, John J.  “Early Jewish Apocalypticism.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 282-88. Collins, J.  “Symposium: Apocalyptic Symbolism and Social Reality.”  Biblical Research 26 (1981) 4-45. Crips, Peter G.  “Western and Chinese Eschatologies: Challenging Postmodernist Theory.” Mosaic (Winnipeg) 26 (1993): 1-20. Essays on Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Meeting of the New Testament Society of South Africa, 1978. Neotestamentica 12. Bloomfontein: University of Orange Free State, 1978. Funk, Robert W., ed.  Apocalypticism. Journal for Theology and the Church, vol. 6. New York: Herder and Herder, 1969. Goppelt, Leonhard.  “Apokalyptik und Typologie bei Paulus.” Theologische Literaturzeitung 89/5 (1965): 321-44. Grabbe, Lester L.  “The Social Setting of Early Jewish Apocalypticism.” Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 4 (1989): 27-47. Grayson A. Kirk.  “Akkadian `Apocalyptic’ Literature.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 282. Gruenwald, Ithamar.  Apocalyptic and Merkavan Mysticism. AGAJU 14. Leiden: Brill, 1980. Gruenwald, Ithamar.  “Jewish Apocalypticism to the Rabbinic Period.” Encyclopedia of Religion 1 (1987): 336-42. Gunkel, Hermann. Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1895. Hanson, Paul D.  “Apocalypses and Apocalypticism.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 279-92. Hanson, Paul D.  “Apocalypse, Genre.” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Supplement Vol. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976. Pp. 27-28. Hanson, Paul D.  “Apocalypticism.” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Supplement Vol. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976. Pp. 28-34. Hanson, Paul D.  The Dawn of Apocalyptic. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975. Hanson, Paul D.  “Jewish Apocalyptic against Its Near Eastern Environment.” Revue Biblique 78 (1963): 31-58. Hanson, Paul D.  Old Testament Apocalyptic. Nashville: Abingdon, 1987. Hanson Paul D.  “Old Testament Apocalyptic Reexamined.” Interpretation 25/4 (1971): 454-79. Hanson, Paul D., ed.  Visionaries and their Apocalypses. IRT 2. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983. Hanson, Paul D., Grayson, A. Kirk, Collins, John J., Yarbro- Collins, Adela.  “Apocalypses and Apocalypticism.” Anchor Dictionary of the Bible 1 (1992): 279-92 Hellholm, David, ed.  Apocalypticism  in the Mediterranean World and the Near East. Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck), 1983. Himmelfarb, Martha.  “Apocalyptic Ascent and the Heavenly Temple.” In SBL 1987 Seminar Papers. Ed. Kent H. Richards. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.  Pp. 210-17. Himmelfarb, M. Tours of Hell: An Apocalypic Form in Jewish and Christian LIterature. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983. Himmelfarb, M.  Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983. Isenberg, Sheldon R.  “Millenarism in Greco-Roman Palestine.” Religion 4 (1974): 26-46. Interpretation (journal) 25/4 (1971) on theme of apocalyptic. Articles by W. Beardslee, A. Wilder, P. Hanson, C. Braaten. Julius Africanus.  Chronographiai (221 C.E.) [first chronology from a Christian perspective; 5000 years from Creation to Babylonian exile and another 500 years to birth of Jesus Christ so that the millennium would begin in 500 CE.] Käsemann, Ernst.  “On New Testament Apocalyptic.” In New Testament Questions of Today. London: SCM, 1959.  Pp. 108-138. Koch, Klaus.  The Rediscovery of Apocalyptic. SBT, 2d. series. 22. 1970. Kvanvig, Helge S.  “The Relevance of the Biblical Visions of the End Time: Hermenutical Guidelines to the Apocalyptic Literature.” Horizons of Biblical Theology 11 (1989): 35-58. Kvanvig, Helge S.  Roots of Apocalyptic: The Mesopotamian Background of the Enoch Figure and of the Son of Man. WMANT 61. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchner Verlag, 1988. Lactantius, Divinae Institutiones [ six ages of 1,000 years each constitute human history] Ladd, George Eldon.  “The Place of Apocalyptic in Biblical Religion.” Evangelical Quarterly 30 (1958): 75-85. Landes, Richard. “Lest the Mellenium Be Fufilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Petttern of Western Chronology 100-800 CE.” In < i>The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages. Ed. Werner Verbeke, Daniel Verhelst, and Andries Welkenhuysen. Mediaevalia Lovaniensia I/15. Louvain: Louvain Univerity Press, 1988. Pp. 137-211. Lampe. Peter.  “Die Apokalyptiker–ihre Situation und ihr Handlung.” In Eschatologie und Friedenshandeln. Exegetische Beiträge zur Frage christliches Friedensverantwortung. Ed. Ulrich Luz et. al.  Pp. 59-114. Lebram, J.  “Apokalyptik/Apokalypsen II. Altes Testament.” Theologische Realenzyklopädie (TRE) 3 (1978): 192-202. Malina, Bruce J.  “`Apocalyptic’ and Territoriality.” In Early Christianity in Context. Monuments and Documents. Ed. F. Manns and E. Alliata. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Collectio Maior 38. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1993. Pp. 369-80. McGinn, Bernard.  Apocalypticism in the Western Tradition. McGinn, B.  Apocalyptic Spirituality. Classics of Western Spirituality. New YOrk: Paulist Press, 1979. McGinn, Bernard.  “Early Apocalypticism: The Ongoing Debate.” In The Apocalypse in English Renaissance Thought and Literature. Ed. C. A. Patrides and Joseph Wittreich. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984. Pp. 2-39. McGinn, Bernard.  Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. Martin, Gerhard Marcel. Weltuntergang. Gefahr und Sin apokalyptischer Visionen. Suttgart: Kreuz Verlag, 1984. Meeks, Wayne A.  “Social Functions of Apocalyptic Language in Pauline Christianity.” In Hellholm 1983.  Pp. 687-705. Moore, Hamilton.  “The Problem of Apocalyptic as Evidence in Recent Discussion.” Irish Biblical Studies 8 (1986): 76-91. Nickelsburg, George W. E.  Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981. Perrin, Norman.  “Apocalyptic Christianity. ” In The New Testament–An Introduction. New York. 1974.  Pp. 65-87. Philadelphia Seminar on Christian Origins 1969/70. Vol. 7. Oepke, A.  “Kalyptô, kalymma, anakalyptô, katakalyptô, apokalyptô, apokalypsis.” Theologicial Dictionary of the New Testament 3 (1965): 557-92. Osten-Sacken, P. von der.  Die Apokalyptik in ihrem Verhältnis zu Prophetie und Weisheit. Theologische Existenz heute 157. Munich: Kaiser, 1969. Reddisch, M. G.  Apocalyptic Literature. A Reader. Nashville: Abingdon, 1990. Rist, M. “Apocalypticism.” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 1962.  Pp. 157-61. Rössler, Dietrich.  Gesetz und Geschichte.Untersuchungen zur Theologie der jüdishcen Apokalyptik und der pharisäischen Orthodoxie. WMANT 3. Neukirchen: Neukirchner, 1960. Rollins, Wayne.  “The New Testament and Apocalyptic. ” New Testament Studies 17 (1971): 454-76. Contests Käsemann. Rowland, Christoper.  The Open Heaven. A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Christianity. New York: Crossroad, 1982. Russell, D. S.  The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic 200 BC-AD 100. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1964. Saldarini, Anthon J.  “Apocalypses and `Apocalyptic’ in Rabbinic Literature and Mysticism.” Semeia 14 (1979): 187-205. Saldarini, Anthony J.  “The Uses of Apocalyptic in the Mishna and Tosephta.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 39/3 (1977): 396-409. Schmidt, J. M.  “Forschung zur jüdischen Apokalyptik.” Verkündigung und Forschung 14 (1969): 44-69. Schmidt, J. M.  Die jüdische Apokalyptik. Die Geschichte ihrer Erforschung von den Anfängen bis zu den Testfunden von Qumran. Neukirchen/Vluyn: Neukirchner, 1969. Schmidthals, Walter.  The Apocalyptic Movement: Introduction and Interpretation. Nashville: Abingdon, 1974. Segal, Alan F.  “Heavenly Ascent in Hellensistic Judaism, Early Christianity and their Environment.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 2.23.2 1980. Pp. 1334-1394. Semeia 14 (1979) Entire issue of journal Semeia 36 (1986) Entire issue of journal Slater, Thomas B.  “On the Social Setting of the Revelation to John.” New Testament Studies 44 (1998): 232-256. [concurs with Thompson and Elliott on Domitian’s non-persection of Christianity in Asia Minor] Sleeper, C. Freeman. The Victorious Christ. A Study of the Book of Revelation. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1996. Smith, Morton.  “On the History of Apokalyptô and Apokalypsis.” In Hellholm, David, ed.  Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East. Tübingen: Mohr (Siebeck), 1983. Pp. 9-20. Stone, Michael. “Apocalyptic Literature.” In Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Ed. Michael E. Stone. CRINT 2.2 Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.  Pp. 383-441. Strobel, August. Kerygma und Apokalyptik. Ein religionsgeschichtlicher und theologischer Beitrag zur Christusfrage. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967. Theissen, Gerd.  “JesusProphet einer millenaristischen Bewegung? Sozialgeschichtliche Überlegungen zu einer sozialanthropologischen Deutung der Jesusbewegung. Evangelische Theologie 59/6 (1999): 402-415. Theissen, G.  The Social Setting of Pauline Christianity.  Edited and translated with an introduction by J. H. Schütz.  Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982. Vawter, Bruce.  “Apocalyptic–Its Relation to Prophecy.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 22 (1960): 33-46. Vielhauer, Philipp.  “Apocalypses and Related Subjects.” In New Testament Apocrypha. Ed. E. Hennecke and W. Schneemelcher. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1965.  Pp. 581-607. Wilder, Amos.  “The Rhetoric of Ancient and Modern Apocalyptic.” Interpretation 25/4 (1971): 436-53. Worsley, Peter.  The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of `Cargo’ Cults in Melanesia. London. 19957. Yarbro Collins, Adela; Collins, John J.; and Hanson, Paul D. “Apocalypses and Apocalypticism.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 280-92.  Yarbro Collins, Adela.  “Early Christin Apocalyptic Literature.”  Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 2.25.6 (1988): 4665-4711. Yarbro Collins, Adela.  “Early Christian [Apocalypticism].” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 288-92. Yarbro Collins, Adela.  “The Book of Revelation.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 5 (1992): 694-708. Yarbro Collins, Adela, ed.  Early Christian Apocalypticism. Semeia 36. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1986.

4. Astronomy, Astrology, Cosmology; Numerology in Apocalyptic Texts


Allen, Richard Hinckley.  Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. New York: Dover, 1963 (1899). “Astrology.”  Encyclopedia Judaica. Vol. 3. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971.  Cols. 788-95. “Astronomy.”  Encyclopedia Judaica. Vol. 3. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971.  Cols. 795-807. Barton, T.  Ancient Astronomy. Science of Antiquity. New York: Routledge, 1994. [excellent historical and social survey] Beskow, Per et al.  “Astrologie.”  Theologische Realenzyklopädie 4 (1979): 277-315. Black, Jeremy and Gree, Anthony. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. Illus. Tessa Richards. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992. Boll, Franz. Sphraera: Neue gricheische Texte und Untersuchungen zur Gesichte der Sternbilder. Hildesheim: Goerg Olms, 1967; reprint of 1903. Boll, Franz. Sternglaube und Sterndeutung: Die Geschichte und das Wesen der Astrologie. 2d ed. Leipzig/Berlin: Teubner, 1991. Boll, Franz.  Storia del Astrologia. Bari: Laterze, 1977. Budge, E. A. Wallis.  Amulets and Superstitions. New York: Dover, 1978 (1930). (Zodiac, astrology, stones of planets, numbers and mystic properties) Campion, Nicholas.  The Practical Astrologer. Abrams, 1987. Carmignac. Jean. “Les Horoscopes de Qumrân.” Revue de Qumran 5 (1965): 199-217. Charlesworth, James H.  “Jewish Astrology in the Talmud, Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Early Palestinian Synagogues.” Harvard Theological Review 70 (1977): 183-200. Charlesworth, James H.  “Jewish Interest in Astrology during the Hellensitic and Roman Period.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. 2.20.2. 1987. Pp. 926-950. Cramer, Frederic H.  Astrology in Roman Law and Politics. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 37. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1954. Cumont, Franz.  Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans. New YOrk: Dover, 1960 (1912). Cumont, Franz.  “Zodiacus.” Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines. Ed. C, Darembert and Saglio, E. Paris: Hachette, 1991. Pp. 1046-62. De Mailly Nesle, Solange. Die Astronomie: Von der Sterndeutung zum Horskop. Trans. Antoinette Gittinger. Munich: Calwey, 1987. (A Picture book translated from the French, L’ Astrologie. Paris: Editions Fernand Nathan, 1981.) De Martino, Ernesto. La fine del mondo: cont ributo all’anaisi delle apocalissi culturali. Ed. Clara Gallina. Turin: G. Enaudi Editore, 1977. Del Corno, D.  “Isogni e la loro interpretazione nell’età dell’imperio.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. 2.16.2. 1978. Pp. 1605-1618. Dornseiff, Franz.  Das Alphabet in Mystik und Magie, STOICHEIA, Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Weltbildes und der griechen Wissenschaft. Vol. 7. 2d ed. Filbey, John and Peter.  The Astrologer’s Companion. Newcastle Publ., 1986. Firmicus Maternus. Ancient Astrology, Theory and Practice (Matheseos Libri VIII). Trans. Jean Rys Bram. Ridge Park, NJ: Noyes Press, 1975. Gettings, Fred.  Dictionary of Astrology. Methuen, 1985. Gundel, Hans Georg.  “Zodiakos.” Der Kleine Pauly 5 (1979): 1541-48. Gundel, Wilhelm.  “Astrologie.” Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum  1 (1950): 817-31. Gundel, Wilhelm.  “Astronomie.” Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum  1 (1950): 831-36. Gundel, Wilhelm.  Dekane und Dekansternbilder. Ein Beitrag zur Geshichte der Sternbilder der Kulturvölker, mit einer Untersuchung über die ägyptischen Sternbilder und Gottheiten der Dekane von S. Schott. Studien der Bibliothek Warburg, XIX. Gluckstadt and Hamburg: J. J. Augustin, 1936. Gundel, Wilhelm.  “Dekane.” Pauly-Wissowa. Supplement Vol. 7. Cols. 116-24. Gundel, Wilhelm.  Sternglaube, Sternreligion und Sternorakel. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer, 1933. Hanson, John S.  “Dreams and Visions in the Graceo-Roman World and Early Christianity.” Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. 2.23.2. 1980. Pp. 1395-1427. Hetherington, N., ed.  Encyclopedia of Cosmology. ca. 2000 Hübner, Wolfgang.  Zodiacus Christianus. Jüdisch-Christliche Adoptionen des Tierkreises von der Antike bis zu Gegenwart. Beiträge zur klassichen Philologie 144. Königstein (Czechoslovakia): Hain, 1983. Johnston, Sarah Iles.  “Riders in the Sky: Cavalier Gods and Theurgic Salvation in the Second Century A.D.” Classical Philogy 87 (1992): 303-21. Le Boeffle, André. Astronomie, astrologie: Lexique latin. Paris: Picard, 1987. Le Boeffle, André. Les noms latins d’astres et de constellations. Paris: Belles Lettres, 1977. Nechepso-Petosiris. The Interpretation of Dreams and Portents. Ed. and transl by Naphtali Lewis. Srasota: Hakkert, 1976. MacMullen, Ramsey.  “Social History in Astrology.” Ancient Society 2 (1971): 105-16. Manilius. Astronomica. Trans. G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library. Cambrindge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977. Malina, Bruce J.  Star Visions ane Sky Journeys: A Reader’s Guide to the Book of Revelation. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, in press. Maunder, Edward Walter. The Astronomy of the Bible. An elementary commentary on the astronomical references of Holy Scripture. London, 1908; 4th ed. 1923/1935. Menninger, Karl. Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. Trans. Paul Broneer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1969. Neugebauer, Otto. “A Greek World Map.” In Astronomy and History Selected Essays. New YOrk:

Springer, 1983. Pp. 205-09. A reprint of A. Beer, Ed. Vistas in Astronomy. Vol. 1. London: Pergamon Press, 1955. Pp 47-51. Nock, Arthur Darby. “Astrology and Cultural History.” In Essays on Religion and the Ancient World. Vol. 1. Ed. Zeph Stewart. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.  Pp. 493-502. Norton, Arthur and Inglis, J. Gall.  Norton’s Star Atlas and Telescopic Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Sky Publishing, 1966. Pingree, David E.  “Astrology.” Encyclopaedia Britannica 1. Pp. 219-23. Rochberg-Halton, Francesca. “Astrology in the Ancient Near East.” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1 (1992): 504-07. Rochberg-Halton, Francesca. “Babylonian Horoscopes and their Sources.” Orientalia 58 (1989): 102-23. Saler, Benson.  “Supernatural as a Western Concept.” Ethos 5 (1977): 31-53. Schulman Sandra. Geschichte der Astrologie von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Eltville am Rhein: Rheingauer Verlagsgesellschaft, 1978. (Excellent picture book translated from English, London: Hamlyn Publ. Group, 1976). Scott, Alan. Origen and the Life of the Stars. A History of an Idea. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. Ulansey, David.  The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New Yor, 1989. Cf. Vermaseren, M. J., ed.  Corpus Inscriptionem et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae. The Hague, 1956.






5. Studies on the Use and Influence of the Apocalypse of John in Western Cultural and Political History.


Bethea, David M.  The Shape of the Apocalypse in Modern Russian Fiction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. Broderick, Mick. “Apocalyptic Desire.” Peace Review 8/2 (1996): 267-71. (Current films and TV). Chamberlin, E. R.  Antichrist and the Millennium. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975. Christe, Yves, ed.  L’Apocalypse de Jean: Traditions exègètiques et iconographiques. IIIe au XIIe siècles. Geneva, 1979. Clemen, C.  “Die Stellung der Offenbarung Johannes im ältesten  Urchristentum.” Zeitschrift zur Neutestamentlichen Wissenschaft 26 (1927) 173-86. Eco, Umberto.  The Name of the Rose. New York: Warner, 1984 (original Italian, 1980). Eco, Umberto. “Waiting for the millennium.” FMR 1/2 (1984): 63-92. Emmerson, R. K. and McGinn, B., eds.  The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992. Fredrikson, Paula.  “Apocalypse and Redemption in Early Christianity.” Vigiliae Christianae 45 (1991): 151-83. James, M. R.  The Apocalypse in Art. 1931. Kretschmar, Georg.  Die Offenbarung des Johannes. Die Geschichte ihrer Auslegung im 1. Jahrhundert. Calwer Theolgosiche Monographien 9. Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1985. McGinn, Bernard.  “Symbols of the Apocalypse in Medieval Culture.” In The Bible and Its Traditions. Ed. Michael Patrick O’Connor and David Noel Frieddman. Michigan Quarterly Review 22/3 (1983): 265-83. McGinn, Bernard, ed.  Apocalyptic Spirituality. Treatises and Letters of Lactantius, Adso of Montier-en-Der, Joachim of Fiore, The Franciscan Spirituals, Savanarola. New York, Paulist, 1979. Patrides, C.A. and Wittreich, Joseph A. eds.  The Apocalypse in English Renaissance Thought and Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984. Placanica, Augusto. Segni dei tempi: il modello apocalittico mella tradizione occidental. Venezia: Marsilio Editoria, 1990. Rubinsky, Yuri and Wiseman, Ian.  A History of the End of the World. New York: Quill, 1982. Stonehouse, N. B.  The Apocalypse in the Ancient Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1929. Stringfellow, William. An Ethic for Christians and Others Aliens in a Strange Land. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1973.


6. Eschatology and Apocalyptic Views and Themes in Art, Literature, Music etc. in Modern Time (Literature, Fiction, Art, Music, Cinema,  Science etc.); Eschatogical, End of the Age/End of the World  Scenarios


Altizer, Thomas J. J.  History as Apocalypse. Albany: State University of New York, 1985. Altizer, Thomas J. J.  Oriental Mysticism and Biblical Eschatology. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961 (ancient and modern apocalyptic). Baldwin, Robert F.  The End of the World, A Catholic View. Huntington, In: Our Sunday Visitor, 1984. Barkun, Michael.  Crucible of the Millennium. Barkun, Michael.  Disaster and the Millennium. Barkun, Michael.  “Divided Apocalypse: Thinking About the End in Contemporary America.  Soundings 66/3 (1983): 251-280. Bethea, David M.  The Shape of the Apocalypse in Modern Russian Fiction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. Brown, Norman O.  Apocalypse or Metamorphosis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. “The Apocalypse of Islam” (Sura 18), pp 69-87. Brown, Norman O.  Love’s Body. New York: Random House (Vintage), 1966. Bull, Malcolm, ed. Apocalypse Theory and the Ends of the World. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1995. [collection of essays] Cardinal, Ernesto.  Apocalypse and Other Poems. New York: New Directions, 1977. Case, Shirley Jackson.  The Millennial Hope. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1918. Cohn, Norman.  The Pursuit of the Millennium. New York: Harper & Row, 1961. Cooper, David L.  When God’s Armies Meet the Almighty in the Land of Israel. Los Angeles: Biblical Research Society, 1940. Daniels, Ted, ed. “The Millennial Prophecy Report” (Philadelphia newsletter monitoring promotion of millennial religious views). Festinger, Louis et al.  When Prophecy Fails. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. Goodman, Mitchell, ed.  The Movement Toward a New America. The Beginnings of a Long Revolution. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1970 (Collection of materials and essays). Gould, Stephen Jay.  Questioning the Millennium. A Rationalist,s Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown. New York: Harmony Boolks/ Crown, 1997. [calendrics, astronomy, and history; millennarian expectations and groups through history; “Dousing Diminuative Dennis,s Debate (DDDD=2000).] Grant, James.  The End of Things. London: Darton, 1866. Gumpert, Lynn.  End of the World. Contemporary Visions of the Apocalypse. Hayes, Harold, ed.  Smiling Through the Apocalypse. Esquire’s History of the Sixties. New York: Dell, 1971 (Collection of Essays). Hayes, Zachary. What are They Saying About the End of the World? New York: Paulist Press, 1983. Heller, Joseph.  Closing Time. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1994 [a novel about the end of the world] Kermode, Frank.  The Sense of an Ending. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966. Pp. 3-31. Körtner, Ulrich H. J. The End of the World: A Theological Interpretation. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1995. Paper. $30.00. Kreuziger, Frederick A.  Apocalypse and Science Fiction: A Dialectic of religious and secular soteriologies. Chico: Scholars Press, 1982. McGinn, Bernard. Antichrist. Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination with Evil. McGinn, Bernard, ed.  Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism. McGinn, Bernard, ed.  Visions of the End. Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press, Martin, Gerhard Marcel.  Weltuntergang. Gefahr und Sinn apocalyptischer Visionen. Stuttgart: Kreuz Verlag, 1984. May, John R.  Toward a New Earth: Apocalypse in the American Novel. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press,1972. Messick, David M. and Mackie, Daine M.  The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages. Leuven (Louvain): University Press, 1988. Peters, Ted.  Futures–Human and Divine. Atlanta: John Knox, 1973. O’Conner, Flannery.  “Revelation.” (A short story) O’Leary, Stephen.  Arguing the Apocalypse. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Robinson, Douglas. American Apocalypses: The Image of the End of the World in American Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Rubinsky, Yuri and Wiseman, Ian.  A History of the End of the World. New York: Quill, 1982. Scholem, G.  Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah. Princeton, 1973. Spengler, Oswald.  The Decline of the West. Allen & Unwin, 1934. Stringfellow, William.  An Ethic for Christians and Other Aliens in a Strange Land. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1973. (Implications of the Apocalypse of John for today) Strug, Cordell. “Apocalypse. Now What? Apocalyptic Themes in Modern Movies.” Word and World 15 (1995): 159-65. Talmon, Y.  “Millenarism.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1968. P. 349. Threshold of the Millennium: A Worldview Journal. (230 pages with artwork and brief tales) Vargas Llosa, Mario.  The War of/at the End of the World. New York: Farrer Strauss Giroux, 1984. Verbeke, Werner, Daniel Verhelst, and Andries Welkenhuysen, eds.  The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages. Leuven (Louvain): University Press, 1988. Wagner, W. Warren.  Terminal Visions: The Literature of the Last Things. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1982.


Cinema/Films: “Apocalypse Now” (Francis Ford Coppola) “Catch Twenty-Two.” (film and novel by Jospeh Heller) “The Dear Hunter” (Michael Cimini) “The Seventh Seal” (Ingmar Bergman) “The Seventh Sign”






7.  Millennium Studies


Campion, Nicholas.  The Great Year: Astronomy, Millennarianism and History in the Western Tradition. New York: Penguin, 1994. Dionysius Exiguus [Dennis the Dwarf], 6th cent. CE [chronology; Jesus, birth reckoned at December 25, 753 A.U.C. but then calander started again on January 1, 754 A.U.C., the feast of his circumcision on 8th day of life and coinciding with New Year,s day in Roman and Latin Christian calendars. This date, beginning January 1, then named year one, “Anno Domini. No knowledge of zero! Thus decades end with year 10, centuries end with 00, millennia, with 000 and new millennium starts with 1001, 2001, etc.] Foçillon, Henri.  The Year 1000. F. Ungar, 1969. Gross, Michael.  The Millennium Myth: Love and Death at the End of Time. Quest Books, 1995. Thompson, Damian.  The End of Time. Faith and Fear in the Shadow of the Millennium. Hanover & London: University Press of New England, 1996. Ussher, Archbishop James. Annales veteris testamenti a prima mundi origine deducti [The Annals of the Old Testament, Deduced from the First Origin of the World], 1650. [moment of creation was 4004 BC, at noon on October 23;  Jesus born 4000 years later; 6000 years from Creation to Second Coming, which should have occurred on Oct. 23, 1996] Ritter, Adolf Martin.  “Kirche und Theologie in der Erwartung des Jahres 1000. Evangelische Theologie 59/6 (1999): 416-425. Weber, Eugen.  Apocalypses. Prophecies, Cults, and Millennial Beliefs Through the Ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.


8.  Modern Millennialist and Adventist Movements (Social, Ethnic, Religious) and Thought


Aukerman, Dale.  Reckoning with Apocalypse. Terminal Politics and Christian Hope. New York: Crossroad, 1993. Barkun, Michael.  “Divided Apocalypse: Thinking About the End in Contemporary America.” Soundings 66/3 (1983): 257-80. Burridge, Kenelm.  New Heaven, New Earth. A Study of Millenarian Activities. New York: Schocekn, 1969. Glieck, Elizabeth.  “The Marker We’ve Been Waiting For.” Time (April 7, 1997): 28-36. [On Heaven’s Gate and Marshall Applewhite; report on suicides] LaHaye, Tim.  The Beginning of the End. Wheaton, Il.:Tyndale House, 1972. LaHaye, Tim and Jenkins, Jerry B.  Are We Living in the End Times? 1999 Lindsey, Hal.  The Late Great Planet Earth. New York: Bantam, 1973 (best seller since 1970). Lindsey, Hal.  The Last and Future World. Lindsey ,Hal.  The Terminal Generation. Lofland, John.  Doomsday Cult. Enlarged ed. New York: Irvington Publishers, 1977 (1966). Moorhead, James H.  “Between Progress and Apocalypse: A Reassessment of Millenialism in American Religous Thought.” Journal of American History 71/3 (1984): 534-42. Peters, Ted. Futures–Human and Divine. Atlanta: John Knox, 1978. Ch. 2. “Millennialist and Apocalyptic Perspectives.”  Pp. 28-49. Schwarz, Gary.  Sect Ideologies and Social Status. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1970. (Seventh-day Adventist Belief, pp. 79-136, 211-29.) Strozier, Charles B.  Apocalypse: On the Psychology of Fundamentalism in America. Boston: Beacon, 1994. Tabor, James D.  “Apocalypse at Waco: Could the Tragedy Have Been Averted? FBI Spurns Advice of Bible Scholars.” Bible Review 9 (1993): 24-33. Tabor, James D. and Gallagher, J.  Why Waco? Berkeley: University of California, 1995 [first-hand, critical  description of Waco 1993 disaster]. See http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/6679.html Thrupp, Sylvia L., ed.  Millennial Dreams in Action. Studies in Revolutionary Religious Movements. New York: Schocken, 1970. (17 essays from social-scientific and cross-cultural perspectives) Weber, Eugen.  Apocalypses. Prophecies, Cults, and Millennial Beliefs Through the Ages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Wilson, Bryan R.  Magic and the Millennium. A Sociological Study of Religious Movements of Protest among Tribal and Third-World Peoples. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Woodward, Kenneth L.  “The Way the World Ends. Newsweek 134/18 (11/1 1999): 69-74

Rev. Dr. John H. Elliott

Department of Theology and Religious Studies

University of San Francisco

2430 Fulton St.

San Francisco, CA 94117-1080

Tel.: (415)422-6119 (office)

Home: 819 Calmar Avenue, Oakland, CA 94610-1730